Maillart was born in Montpellier (Hérault). He studied at the Paris Conservatory from 1833, learning composition from Aimé-Ambroise-Simon Leborne and Fromental Halévy, and violin from Guérin, and winning the Prix de Rome in 1841. He traveled to Italy for three years, before returning to France and composing six operas, all first performed in Paris.
Of his operas, Les dragons de Villars (1856) and Lara (1864) are the best known. Les dragons de Villars premiered at the Théâtre Lyrique; it was also popular in Germany (under the title Das Glöckchen des Eremiten) and received a performance in New York City. Lara was based on a poem of the same name by Lord Byron.
- Lionel Foscara (cantata) (1841)
- Gastilbelza (l'homme à la carbine) (1847)
- Le moulin des Tilleuls (1849)
- Les dragons de Villars (1856)
- Les pêcheurs de Catane (1860)
- Lara (1864)
- Nicolas Slonimsky, ed. (1958). "Maillart, Louis". Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (5th ed.). p. 1010.
- "Maillart". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 11 (4th ed.). 1890. p. 114.
- "Obituary: M. Aime Maillart, Composer". The New York Times. June 8, 1871. p. 5.