Air Defense Artillery Branch (United States)

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Air Defense Artillery branch
USAADA-PLAQUE.svg
Branch plaque
Active 1968-present
Country United States
Branch U.S. Army
Type Branch
Role Air and Missile Defense
Nickname(s) Emperor of Battle
Motto(s) "First to Fire"
Colors Red and Gold
March ADA March
Mascot(s) Oozlefinch
Anniversaries 17 November 1775- The Continental Congress elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery"[1]
Insignia
Branch insignia USAADA-BRANCH.svg

The Air Defense Artillery branch of the US Army specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles). In the US Army, these groups are composed of mainly air defense systems such as the Patriot Missile System, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and the Avenger Air Defense system which fires the FIM-92 Stinger missile. The Air Defense Artillery branch descended from Anti-Aircraft Artillery (part of the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps until 1950, then part of the Artillery Branch) into a separate branch on 20 June 1968. On 1 December 1968, the ADA branch was authorized to wear modified Artillery insignia, crossed field guns with missile.

Mission[edit]

According to the Army's Field Manual 44-100, the mission of Air Defense Artillery is "to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack, and surveillance."[2]

History[edit]

On 10 October 1917 an Antiaircraft Service in the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was created at Arnouville-Les-Gonesse where an antiaircraft school was established. The antiaircraft units were organized as serially numbered battalions during the war, as follows:

  • 1st Antiaircraft Battalion through the 10th Antiaircraft Battalion (redesignated as numbered antiaircraft sectors in November 1918, all demobilized by January 1919)[3]
  • 1st AA Machine Gun Battalion through the 6th AA Machine Gun Battalion. These units were organized by Col. James A. Shipton[4] and were demobilized January–May 1919.[5]
The National Defense Act of 1920 formally assigned the air defense mission to the Coast Artillery Corps, and 4 battalions were organized in 1921. In 1924, under a major reorganization of the Coast Artillery, the battalions were reorganized as regiments. There were also 42 Organized Reserve antiaircraft regiments in 8 brigades; however, many of the Reserve units only had a small number of personnel assigned, and many were demobilized without activation during World War II.[6][7][8][9]

In 1938 there were only six Regular Army and thirteen National Guard regiments, but by 1941 this had been expanded to 37 total regiments. In November 1942, 781 battalions were authorized. However, this number was pared down to 331 battalions by the end of the war. By late 1944 the regiments had been broken up into battalions and 144 "Antiaircraft Artillery Groups" had been activated; some of these existed only briefly.[11]

The serially numbered battalions in late World War II included the following types:

  • Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
  • Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion
  • Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion
  • Antiaircraft Artillery Searchlight Battalion
  • Barrage Balloon Battalion

and in the 1950s:

  • Antiaircraft Artillery Missile Battalion.

On 9 March 1942 Antiaircraft Command was established in Washington D.C. and in 1944 the AAA school was moved to Fort Bliss.

In 2010 the United States Army Air Defense Artillery School was moved from Fort Bliss to Fort Sill.


Air Defense Artillery Units[edit]

The following lists all units that make up the Army's Air Defense Artillery Branch.[12]

Army Air and Missile Defense Commands[edit]

Brigade SSI Subordinate to Garrison
10th Army Air and Missile Defense Command 10aamdc.png United States Army Europe Kaiserslautern, Germany
32nd Army Air and Missile Defense Command 32aamdc.svg United States Army Forces Command Fort Bliss, Texas
94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command 94thAAMDC.png United States Army Pacific Fort Shafter, Hawaii
263rd Army Air and Missile Defense Command 263ADABdeSSI.svg South Carolina Army National Guard Anderson, South Carolina

Air Defense Artillery Brigades[edit]

A soldier assigned to the 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade's 1st Battalion, 43rd Air Defense Artillery Regiment conducting maintenance on a Patriot missile launcher in 2006
Brigade SSI Subordinate to Garrison
11th ADA Brigade 11ADABdeSSI.svg 32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command Fort Bliss, Texas
30th ADA Brigade ADA School SSI.svg Army Air Defense Artillery School Fort Sill, Oklahoma
31st ADA Brigade 31ADABdeSSI.svg 32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command Fort Sill, Oklahoma
35th ADA Brigade 35ADABdeSSI.svg Eighth United States Army / 94th Army Air & Missile Defense Command[13] Osan Air Base, South Korea
69th ADA Brigade 69ADABdeSSI.svg 32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command Fort Hood, Texas
100th Missile Defense Brigade 100MissileDefBdeSSI.jpg Army Space and Missile Defense Command Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado
108th ADA Brigade 108 ADA BDE SSI.svg 32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command Fort Bragg, North Carolina
164th ADA Brigade 164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.svg Florida Army National Guard Orlando, Florida
174th ADA Brigade Insignia USA Army Brigade 174 ADA Bde SSI.svg Ohio Army National Guard Columbus, Ohio
678th ADA Brigade US Army 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.png 263rd Army Air and Missile Defense Command Eastover, South Carolina

Army Battalions[edit]

Unit SSI Subordinate to Garrison Equipment
1-1 ADA 94thAAMDC.png 94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command Kadena Air Base, Japan MIM-104 Patriot
2-1 ADA 35ADABdeSSI.svg 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Camp Carroll, South Korea MIM-104 Patriot
3-2 ADA 31ADABdeSSI.svg 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Sill, Oklahoma MIM-104 Patriot
4-3 ADA 31ADABdeSSI.svg 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Sill, Oklahoma MIM-104 Patriot
3-4 ADA 108-ADA-Bde-SSI.png 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bragg, North Carolina MIM-104 Patriot
4-5 ADA 69ADABdeSSI.svg 69th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Hood, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
5-5 ADA 31ADABdeSSI.svg 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Lewis, Washington AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM
2-6 ADA 31ADABdeSSI.svg 30th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Sill, Oklahoma AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM
3-6 ADA 31ADABdeSSI.svg 30th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Sill, Oklahoma MIM-104 Patriot, THAAD
1-7 ADA 108-ADA-Bde-SSI.png 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bragg, North Carolina MIM-104 Patriot
5-7 ADA 10aamdc.png 10th Army Air and Missile Defense Command Kaiserslautern, Germany MIM-104 Patriot
1-43 ADA 11ADABdeSSI.svg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
2-43 ADA 11ADABdeSSI.svg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
3-43 ADA 11ADABdeSSI.svg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
1-44 ADA 69ADABdeSSI.svg 69th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Hood, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
2-44 ADA 108-ADA-Bde-SSI.png 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Campbell, Kentucky AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM
5-52 ADA 11ADABdeSSI.svg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
6-52 ADA 35ADABdeSSI.svg 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Suwon Air Base, South Korea MIM-104 Patriot, AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
1-56 ADA 31ADABdeSSI.svg 30th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Sill, Oklahoma Officer training
1-62 ADA 69ADABdeSSI.svg 69th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Hood, Texas MIM-104 Patriot

Army Batteries[edit]

Unit SSI Subordinate to Garrison Equipment
A Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment 11th BDE SSI.jpg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas THAAD
B Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment 11th BDE SSI.jpg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas THAAD
D Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment 35ADABdeSSI.svg 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Osan Air Base, South Korea THAAD
E Battery, 3rd Air Defense Artillery Regiment 11th BDE SSI.jpg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas THAAD
A Battery, 4th Air Defense Artillery Regiment 11th BDE SSI.jpg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas THAAD
A Battery, 5th Air Defense Artillery Regiment 11th BDE SSI.jpg 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Fort Bliss, Texas THAAD
I Battery, 1st Squadron 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment CSIB.svg 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment Fort Irwin, California FIM-92 Stinger

National Guard Battalions[edit]

Unit SSI Subordinate to Garrison Part of Equipment
49th GMD Battalion 100MissileDefBdeSSI.jpg 100th Missile Defense Brigade Fort Greely, Alaska Alaska Army National Guard Ground-Based Interceptor
1-174 ADA Insignia USA Army Brigade 174 ADA Bde SSI.svg 174th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Cincinnati, Ohio Ohio Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
2-174 ADA Insignia USA Army Brigade 174 ADA Bde SSI.svg 174th Air Defense Artillery Brigade McConnelsville, Ohio Ohio Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
1–188 ADA NDARNG-shoulder sleeve insignia.gif Separate Battalion Grand Forks, North Dakota North Dakota Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
1–204 ADA 66th Troop Command SSI - Mississippi ARNG.gif Separate Battalion Newton, Mississippi Mississippi Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
2-263 ADA US Army 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.png 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Brigade Anderson, South Carolina South Carolina Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
1–265 ADA 164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.svg 164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Brigade Palm Coast, Florida Florida Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
3–265 ADA 164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.svg 164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade Brigade Sarasota, Florida Florida Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger

Shipton award[edit]

The Shipton Award is named for Brigadier General James A. Shipton, who is acknowledged as the Air Defense Artillery Branch's founding father.[14] Shipton felt that the mission of antiaircraft defense was not to down enemy aircraft, but instead to protect maneuver forces on the ground: "The purpose of anti-aviation defense is to protect our own forces and establishments from hostile attack and observation from the air by keeping enemy aeroplanes [sic] at a distance." The Shipton Award recognizes an Air Defense Artillery professional for outstanding performance individual thought, innovation and contributions that results in significant contributions or enhances Air Defense Artillery's warfighting capabilities, morale, readiness and maintenance.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ TIOH Air Defense Artillery branch page
  2. ^ FM 44-100
  3. ^ Rinaldi, pp. 166-168
  4. ^ Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y.
  5. ^ Rinaldi, p. 123
  6. ^ Berhow, pp. 437-442
  7. ^ Coast Artillery Regiments 1-196 at CDSG
  8. ^ National Guard Coast Artillery Regiments at CDSG
  9. ^ Organized Reserve and Army of the United States Coast Artillery Regiments at CDSG
  10. ^ Bob MacDonald. "We Aim to Hit". California State Military Museum. California State Military Department. Retrieved 28 January 2012. 
  11. ^ Stanton, pp. 434-481
  12. ^ "Air Defense Artillery" (PDF). Fort Sill. US Army Fires Center of Excellence. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  13. ^ "94th Army Air & Missile Defense Command". Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  14. ^ Stiller, Jesse H. (2010). "ADA Branch: A Proud Heritage" (PDF). Air Defense Artillery Online. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2014. 
  • Antiaircraft Artillery Battalions of the U.S. Army (Volumes 1,2) 1991 by James A. Sawicki ISBN 0-9602404-7-0
  • History of the 1st AA Battalion, Coast Artillery Corps in World War I
  • Berhow, Mark A., Ed. (2004). American Seacoast Defenses, A Reference Guide, Second Edition. CDSG Press. ISBN 0-9748167-0-1. 
  • Lieutenant Colonel Roy S. Barnard (The History of ARADCOM Volume I, The Gun Era:1950-1955)
  • LTC Barnard and Berle K. Hufford, ARADCOM Annual Reports from 1966-1973.
  • Morgan, Mark L.; Berhow, Mark A. (2010). Rings of Supersonic Steel: Air Defenses of the United States Army 1950-1979, 3rd Edition. Hole in the Head Press. ISBN 978-09761494-0-8. 
  • Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Osato, Militia Missilemen: The Army National Guard in Air Defense - 1951 - 1967 (1968)
  • Rinaldi, Richard A. (2004). The U. S. Army in World War I: Orders of Battle. General Data LLC. ISBN 0-9720296-4-8. 
  • Osato and Mrs. Sherryl Straup, ARADCOM's Florida Defenses in the Aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis: 1963-1968 (1968)
  • Stanton, Shelby L. (1991). World War II Order of Battle. Galahad Books. ISBN 0-88365-775-9. 

External links[edit]