Air Defense Identification Zone (East China Sea)
The East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone (abbreviated ADIZ) is an Air Defense Identification Zone covering most of the East China Sea where the People's Republic of China announced that it was introducing new air traffic restrictions in November 2013. The area consists of the airspace from about, and including, the Japanese controlled Senkaku Islands (which are known as the Diaoyu Islands in mainland China and are claimed by mainland China as well as Taiwan) north to South Korean-claimed Socotra Rock (known as Suyan Jiao in China). About half of the area overlaps with a Japanese ADIZ, while also overlapping to a small extent with the South Korean and Taiwanese ADIZ. When introduced the Chinese initiative was controversial as requirements were imposed that other countries with air defense identification zones do not impose and it included contested maritime areas. Critics said the move escalated the Senkaku Islands dispute between China and Japan.
- 1 History
- 2 Administration and monitoring operations
- 3 International reaction
- 4 Patrol operations
- 5 See also
- 6 References
The first ADIZ was established by the United States in 1950 when it created a joint North American ADIZ with Canada, citing the legal right of a nation to establish reasonable conditions of entry into its territory. The U.S. does not apply its ADIZ procedures to foreign aircraft not intending to enter U.S. airspace and does not recognize the right of a coastal nation to apply its ADIZ procedures to foreign aircraft not intending to enter their national airspace.
South Korea's ADIZ was established in 1951 during the Korean War by the United States Air Force. It currently does not cover Socotra Rock, known to Koreans as Ieodo. Korean Defence Minister Kim Kwan-jin said that South Korea would consider extending its ADIZ in light of the extent of the Chinese ADIZ but an announcement of a change was postponed after a meeting with the United States ambassador.
Japan's ADIZ was established in 1969, which covers most of its Exclusive Economic Zone. Japan makes no demands on aircraft flying through, unless they are landing in Japan. The ADIZ was revised in the same year that the U.S.-Japan Okinawa Reversion Treaty provided for the return of the Ryukyu Islands and the Daitō Islands to Japan in 1972. Japan's ADIZ was created by the United States Armed Forces during the post-WWII Allied occupation, with the western border at 123° degrees east. This resulted in only the eastern half of Yonaguni Island being part of Japan's ADIZ and the western half being part of Taiwan's ADIZ. On 25 June 2010, Japan extended its ADIZ around Yonaguni 22 km westwards. This led to an overlapping with sections of Taiwan's ADIZ. However, Taiwanese foreign affairs officials said that it does not make any difference, as an understanding has been reached between the two parties on how to handle it. According to China Network Television on 24 November 2013, China and Russia do not recognize Japan's ADIZ.
The People's Republic of China announced the establishment of what it called its East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone on 23 November 2013 defining an ADIZ as a zone that allowed a coastal state to "identify, monitor, control and react to aircraft entering this zone with potential air threats." Despite several international protests, China's move received broad domestic support.
According to a 2011 study of the justifications for establishing an ADIZ, at that time there had not yet been a "recorded instance of protest" against the initial establishment of an ADIZ.
The Chinese Air Force Command Academy began planning for an ADIZ after the Hainan Island incident and in May 2013 had suggested an ADIZ that covered China's exclusive economic zone, but this was expanded during review by the PLA to the current area.
On 25 July 2015, Lao Airlines flight QV916 was turned back by the Chinese. The Chinese MoD has said that the aircraft was prevented from entering Chinese territory due to an inadequate flight plan, and that the incident had nothing to do with the ADIZ.
Administration and monitoring operations
- Identification of flight plan. Any aircraft in the zone must report its flight plan to China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Civil Aviation Administration.
- Radio identification. Aircraft in the zone must maintain two-way radio communication and respond in a timely and accurate manner to inquiries
- Responder identification. Any aircraft with an Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System transponder must keep it on during the aircraft's time in the zone
- Sign identification. Any aircraft in the zone must display insignia indicating its nationality and registration clearly, in accordance with international treaties
- Aircraft in the zone should follow instructions. The Chinese military will adopt "emergency defensive measures" in response to aircraft that refuse to follow the instructions.
China announced that the rules were in effect from 10 am on 23 November 2013 Beijing time.
On 26 November the state-controlled People's Daily said that while "freedom of flight" would be respected for "normal" flights, the principle would not apply to "provocative flyover and surveillance activities." On 29 November a Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman replied to the statement, "You referred many times to ADIZs established by other countries, but there is a difference. For example, an aircraft which is passing through the US ADIZ without entering the sovereign US airspace does not have to notify US authorities," by stating that "different countries have set different rules."
The state-run Xinhua News commented that the United States was among the first to set up an air defense zone in 1950, and later more than 20 countries, including Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Vietnam have followed suit, which "Washington has taken for granted" and that "as soon as China started to do it, Washington immediately voiced concerns", adding that "they can do it while China can not, which could be described with a Chinese saying, 'the magistrates are free to burn down houses while the common people are forbidden even to light lamps.'" The PRC state-run Global Times referenced the U.S. "deliberately ignor[ing] the existence of the new ADIZ" to say that while some in China had expressed the fear that "the US seems to have gained the upper hand with its action," one should understand that the American defiance is just part of "the psychological battles waged by Washington and Tokyo."
In response to Japan's China ADIZ accusation of "one-sided action" and its demand of China to scrap its new ADIZ China's Defence Ministry questioned Japan's justification, double standards and credibility by stating that Japan, having its own ADIZ established 44 years ago in 1969 and unilaterally extended it twice and "one-sidedly allowed the zone to cover the Senkaku Islands", has "no right" to ask China to withdraw its ADIZ, adding that China would like to ask Japan to "revoke its own ADIZ first, China will then consider this request in 44 years.”
China also accused the European Union of double standards in response to the comments of its top diplomat.
A Chinese Ministry of National Defense spokesman said there were "misunderstandings or even distortions" about the operation of the ADIZ and insisted that it was not a no-fly zone and "will not affect the freedom of overflight, based on international laws, of other countries' aircraft" adding that its purpose was "to set aside enough time for early warning to defend the country's airspace, with defense acting as the key point. The zone does not aim at any specific country or target".
According to an article in the Global Times, a Chinese government publication, "carpings" by countries hostile to China such as Japan are baseless, and nothing more than deliberate "demonization" of China. Then in December 2013, a spokesman for the Chinese foreign ministry explicitly tied the ADIZ to the Senkakus, calling Japan's claims to the islands "illegal and invalid".
The weeks prior to the ADIZ announcement, Japanese media complained that as part of their mandatory Marxism training, Chinese journalists had been ordered to not make any concessionary comments regarding China's territorial claims.
Promptly after the announcement, Japan Air Self-Defense Force sent two F-15 fighter jets to intercept two Chinese aircraft entering the air zone nearby the Senkaku Islands, which is included in the newly announced Chinese ADIZ.
On 25 November, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said the measures one-sidedly imposed rules set by the Chinese military on all flights in the zone, and violate the freedom to fly above open sea, a general principle under the international law, "the measures by the Chinese side have no validity whatsoever on Japan, and we demand China revoke any measures that could infringe upon the freedom of flight in international airspace. It can invite an unexpected occurrence and it is a very dangerous thing as well." He denounced China's declaration as a dangerous attempt to change the status quo in the East China Sea through coercion, vowed to protect Japan's air and sea space, and demanded that Beijing “revoke any measures that could infringe upon the freedom of flight in international airspace.”
Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida stated that Japan would coordinate closely with the United States, the ROK, and others on demanding a revocation of the ADIZ measures, while describing China as "engaging in profoundly dangerous acts that unilaterally change the status quo.” Japanese Defence Minister Itsunori Onodera said that "it's important for both sides to take a calm approach and deal with the situation according to international norms." He also denied Beijing's claim that it scrambled fighter jets in response to Self-Defense Forces aircraft that had entered China's new air defense identification zone, saying "there have been no abnormal situations, such as (Chinese) aircraft suddenly approaching (SDF planes in the ADIZ), as announced by China yesterday.” A Japanese official described the Chinese report is a "sheer fabricated story”.
A Chinese spokeswoman said that Japan had put "the security of its citizens at stake [by] asking Japanese airlines not to report flight information to Chinese authorities as required." Tokyo claimed that Beijing was, in fact, the party threatening passenger safety and brought the matter to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a U.N. agency to promote the safe and orderly development of international civil aviation throughout the world. Australia, Britain and the United States supported Japan's proposal, but China reacted sharply against the proposal.
South Korea summoned a Chinese diplomat on 25 November to protest the creation of the zone, which includes Korean-claimed Socotra Rock where Korea has built structures. Sources said that Seoul was informed in advance of Chinese plans, however, as Chinese officials stated that with respect to South Korea, "the two sides will solve the issue through friendly consultations and negotiations". South Korea's Ministry of Transport said its airlines would not recognize the Chinese ADIZ. The Koreans said they had launched a joint air and sea military exercise on 3 December to show their "intention to protect our jurisdiction over Ieodo’s waters.” South Korea then extended their own ADIZ over the disputed waters. The Chinese response to the South Korea move was muted, noting only that an ADIZ is not "territorial airspace" and "has nothing to do with maritime and air jurisdiction".
Republic of China (Taiwan)
Although the ADIZ announced by Beijing overlaps by a relatively small 23 000 square kilometers with the identification zone of the Republic of China (Taiwan), official reaction from Taipei was initially muted, leading to protests from the opposition Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) and some academics that Ma Ying-jeou's government was failing to assert Taiwan's sovereignty. On 29 November caucus leaders of both the DPP and ruling KMT party signed a joint statement calling on President Ma's administration to lodge a “stern protest” with Beijing. On 1 December, the 70th anniversary of the Cairo Declaration, Ma reasserted Taiwan's claim to the Diaoyutai islands and called on affected governments to peacefully negotiate and pursue the "East China Sea Peace Initiative" he had proposed the previous year.
The U.S. said it would ignore the Chinese ADIZ and disregard Chinese orders, although the Obama administration differed from Japan and South Korea in deciding to advise American commercial airlines to comply with China's demands out of fear of an unintended confrontation. A Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman complimented the U.S. decision on airlines saying "The submission of flight plans to the competent Chinese authorities by airlines of relevant countries including the US shows their constructive attitude and cooperative will..." The Wall Street Journal on 1 December reported that "the U.S. carriers are filing flight plans with both Japan and China. At the same time, affected routes are being modified to avoid disputed airspace as much as practicable."
A U.S. State Department statement called China's establishment of the zone a "unilateral action [that] constitutes an attempt to change the status quo in the East China Sea," adding that "Freedom of overflight and other internationally lawful uses of sea and airspace are essential to prosperity, stability, and security in the Pacific. We don't support efforts by any State to apply its ADIZ procedures to foreign aircraft not intending to enter its national airspace. The United States does not apply its ADIZ procedures to foreign aircraft not intending to enter U.S. national airspace. We urge China not to implement its threat to take action against aircraft that do not identify themselves or obey orders from Beijing."
United States defense secretary Chuck Hagel declared that the Chinese announcement “will not in any way change how the United States conducts military operations in the region.” He also reiterated the official stance that the US would support Japan in the event of a war with China over the Senkaku islands. 
The United States sent two B-52 bombers from Guam to fly through the zone on 26 November. Although a Pentagon spokesperson claimed that "the planes had not been observed or contacted by Chinese aircraft", the Chinese government claimed to have monitored the U.S. flight, saying that while it took no other action in this case, it "has the capability to exercise effective control over the relevant airspace." The Chinese Defense Ministry also said that with respect to enforcing the zone, its military would take "corresponding action in accordance with the situation and the level of threat".
On 29 November 2013, the U.S. Department of State issued a statement titled "China's Declared ADIZ - Guidance for U.S. Air Carriers" that the U.S. government generally expects that U.S. carriers operating internationally will operate consistent with NOTAMs (Notices to Airmen) issued by foreign countries but also stressed that this does not mean U.S. government acceptance of China's ADIZ requirements.
The timing and the manner of China's announcement are unhelpful in light of current regional tensions, and will not contribute to regional stability. Australia has made clear its opposition to any coercive or unilateral actions to change the status quo in the East China Sea.
Chinese Foreign Ministry said China cannot accept "the Australian side's irresponsible remarks" and urged Australia "to correct its mistake immediately to prevent damaging Sino-Australia relations." In response, Bishop said that she has, "already expressed our concerns publicly and privately" and that she expected the issue to be "a topic of discussion in my upcoming visit to Beijing."
The Philippines accused China of trying to transform the area into its "domestic airspace." Filipino aviation official John Andrews warned that China might attempt to establish another ADIZ in the South China Sea, where the two nations have competing claims.
Some Asian airlines and authorities said they would inform China before their airliners entered the contested zone, but would not alter their flight paths or schedules.
Robert E. Kelly, a scholar of East Asian international relations at Pusan National University, suggests that the Communist Party was hoping to boost its own internal legitimacy by appearing to challenge Japan, “the CCP may not want a conflict with Japan, but it’s been telling Chinese youth for more than 20 years that Japan is greatly responsible for the 100 years of humiliation. Now the CCP have to be tough on Japan even if they don’t want to be, because their citizens demand it.”
Indian analyst Brahma Chellaney said the Chinese move represented what PRC Rear Adm. Zhang Zhaozhong (mistaken to be "Maj. Gen." in Chellaney's article) called a "cabbage strategy," which involved asserting a claim, launching furtive incursions into the claimed area, and erecting multiple "cabbage-style" layers of security around the contested area to deny rivals access. In Chellaney's view the incursions in turn follow a "salami slicing" strategy whereby each "slice" is thin enough to preclude a dramatic reaction that could become a casus belli on its own, thus casting the burden of starting a war on the encroached upon party.
Not all regular patrol operations are reported by public media. However, PLAAF and PLANAF have thus far conducted regular patrol operations since the establishment of ADIZ. They've monitored, collected evidence of, identified, and radio-warned foreign military aircraft, according to spokesman Col. Shen Jinke. On 31 January 2014, the first day of Lunar New Year, Chinese media reported that the Chinese Naval Air Force of the East Sea Fleet scrambled two Su-30MKK jet fighters with missiles under wings to inspect, monitor, and expel foreign military aircraft entering the ADIZ. On February 1, the Japanese Defense Minister Onodera said "While we are aware of the press report, we have no announcement to make as we did not find anything extraordinary to speak of" at a press conference. The Chinese PLA Maj. Gen. Luo Yuan later confirmed that the intruding military aircraft belong(s) to JASDF. He also condemned Japan's provocation during the most important Chinese holidays.
- Air Defense Identification Zone
- AirSea Battle
- Flight information region
- List of territorial disputes
- East China Sea EEZ disputes
- Rick Gladstone and Matthew L. Wald (27 November 2013), China’s Move Puts Airspace in Spotlight The New York Times.
- James Fallows (27 November 2013), (More on This Strange Chinese ADIZ: 'Sovereign Is as Sovereign Does' The Atlantic.
- "Two Japanese airlines to disregard China air zone rules". British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Jane Perlez (27 November 2013), China Explains Handling of B-52 Flight as Tensions Escalate The New York Times.
- "The Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations". Department of the Navy Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Department of Homeland Security and U.S. Coast Guard. July 2007. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
- "Entering, Exiting and Flying in United States Airspace" Archived 10 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Federal Aviation Administration 14 June 2013.
- China’s aerial ambitions deepen territorial tensions The Korea Herald 26 November 2013.
- Jeong Yong-Soo and Sarah Kim, Korean Navy conducts drill close to Ieodo Korea JoongAng Daily 4 December 2013.
- Jagota, Naval. "Cause and Effect of the ADIZ over East China Sea". IDSA.in. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- "防衛省、防空識別圏を拡大 与那国上空のみ西方２６キロ" [Ministry of Defense extends the air defense identification zone, 26km west above Yonaguni Island]. The Ryukyu Shimpo. 25 June 2010. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Japan extends ADIZ into Taiwan space". taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. 26 June 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "Background: Air Defense Identification Zones". China Network Television. 24 November 2013.
- "Statement by the Government of the People's Republic of China on Establishing the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone". news.xinhuanet.com/. Xinhua. 23 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- Defense Spokesman Yang Yujun’s Response to Questions on the Establishment of The East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone Archived 7 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China 23 November 2013.
- "Chinese public offers broad support to ADIZ". scmp.com/. South China Morning Post. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Abeyratne, Ruwantissa. "In search of theoretical justification for air defence identification zones" (PDF). International Foundation For Aviation And Development. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Hayashi, Nozomu; Kurashige, Nanae (12 January 2014). "China overturned draft air defense zone, expanded it toward Japan". asahi.com. THE ASAHI SHIMBUN. Archived from the original on 16 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Panda, Ankit (30 July 2015). "A First: China Turns Back Commercial Flight For Violating East China Sea ADIZ Rules". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- Yujun, Yang (30 July 2015). "Defense Ministry Spokesperson Yang Yujun's regular press conference on July 30, 2015". mod.gov.cn. PRC MOD. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "Announcement of the Aircraft Identification Rules for the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone of the P.R.C." Beijing, China: Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China. 23 November 2013. Archived from the original on 28 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Air defense ID zone to deter those with designs on China's territory People's Daily 26 November 2013.
- Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Qin Gang's Regular Press Conference Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China 29 November 2013.
- "Commentary: 防空识别区 (fang kong shi bie qu)". chinadaily.com.cn/. ChinaDaily. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "Commentary: U.S, Japan wrong to blame China for air zone". news.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- B-52’s defiance no reason for nervousness Global Times 28 November 2013.
- "Abe urges China to withdraw air zone plan". Japan Times. 25 November 2013.
- "Japan warns of 'unpredictable events' over China's new ADIZ over Senkakus". Japan Times. 25 November 2013.
- "Commentary: U.S, Japan's logic on air zone ridiculous".
- "China's ADIZ is justified".
- "The A to Z on China's Air Defense Identification Zone". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Background: Air Defense Identification Zones". Xinhua. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "China tells Japan it would 'consider cancelling air zone in 44 years'".
- "U.S. airlines give China flight plans for new defense zone". news.yahoo.com/. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Defense Ministry spokesman on China's air defense identification zone". news.xinhuanet.com/. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "ADIZ Will Reduce East China Sea Tension". CHINA US Focus. 27 November 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "China bitterly attacks Japanese prime minister over air zone remarks". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. 15 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Zhang Zhilong Marxist training for reporters Global Times 2 September 2013.
- All Chinese journalists ordered to censor supportive stances toward Japan Kyodo News 20 October 2013.
- 中国機の東シナ海における飛行について (PDF) (in Japanese). Japan Ministry of Defense. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Japan's PM demands China revoke claim to air zone over disputed islands, The Guardian.
- China's Air Defense Identification Zone: Impact on Regional Security.
- U.S. to Continue Flights in Defense Zone Claimed by China.
- East China Sea tensions prompt caution from U.S. airlines.
- No Chinese jets scrambled: Japan.
- Japan must see air zone is about safety: experts Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine China Daily 30 November 2013.
- Nicolaysen, Lars (1 December 2013). "Japan calls for action of China air zone". theaustralian.com.au. AAP. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Japan seeks ICAO's involvement in tackling China's air defense zone". Archived from the original on 15 July 2014.
- China Hit with Complaints Over Maritime Air Defense Zone Voice of America 25 November 2013.
- China informed Seoul of air defense zone The Korea Herald 25 November 2013.
- "Seoul considers southward expansion of air defense zone". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- SANG-HUN, CHOE (8 December 2013). "South Korea Announces Expansion of Its Air Defense Zone". www.nytimes.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Tiezzi, Shannon (10 December 2013). "China Is Surprisingly OK with South Korea's New ADIZ". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- Taiwan's military on top of regional developments: MND Channel NewsAsia:Focus Taiwan 27 November 2013.
- Air Force officials pinpoint ADIZ overlap with China 'Channel NewsAsia:Focus Taiwan 27 November 2013.
- Shih Hsiu-chuan (28 November 2013), ADIZ response a sign of surrender: academic Taipei Times.
- Air defense zone in line with cross-Strait interests: Spokeswoman Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Xinhua 27 November 2013.
- Taiwan lawmakers denounce China air defense zone Associated Press 29 November 2013.
- "Taiwan wades into East China Sea air defence zone debate". Japan Times. 2 December 2013.
- Peter Baker and Jane Perlez (29 November 2013), U.S. Advises Commercial Jets to Honor China’s Rules New York Times.
- Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hong Lei's Regular Press Conference Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China 2 December 2013.
- Japan, U.S. at Odds Over China's Air Zone.
- Statement on the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone U.S. State Department 23 November 2013.
- Chan, John (26 November 2013). "Heightened tensions over China's air defence zone". www.wsws.org. ICFI. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (26 November 2013). "US Tests New China Air Defense Zone With B-52s; PRC Move Drives Korea, Japan Together". breakingdefense.com. Breaking Media, Inc. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Felsenthal, Mark (27 November 2013). "U.S. affirms support for Japan in islands dispute with China". Reuters.
- "Defense Ministry Speaker Col. Geng Yansheng Answers Reporters' Questions Regarding US Military Aircraft Entering China's East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone" (in Chinese). Defense Ministry of People's Republic of China. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- China says U.S. bombers flew over its defence zone Associated Press 27 November 2013.
- China monitors U.S. bombers in defense zone Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Xinhua News Agency 27 November 2013.
- "Air zone said not to affect routine flights". chinadaily.com.cn. China Daily. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "China's Declared ADIZ - Guidance for U.S. Air Carriers". state.gov/. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- LEDERMAN, JOSH (4 December 2013). "US-China: Talks but no consensus on air zone row". Associated Press. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "US defies China's fly zone with B-52 flight". Agence France-Presse. 27 November 2013.
- Bishop, Julie. "China's announcement of an air-defence identification zone over the East China Sea". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Scott Murdoch (27 November 2013),China fires back at Julie Bishop over 'irresponsible remarks' The Australian.
- Philippines says China’s air defense zone a threat Associated Press.
- "Philippines Says China's Air Defense Zone a Threat". abcnews.go.com. Associated Press. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- Chow Chung-yan (27 November 2013), Air defence zone in East China Sea to remain 'forever', say Beijing advisers South China Morning Post.
- 東海防空識別區 法籲各方克制 Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine‹See Tfd›(in Chinese)
- China scrambles jets to new defence zone, eyes U.S., Japan flights Reuters 29 November 2013.
- Blanchard, Ben; Kelly, Tim (25 November 2013). "Asian airlines to give flight plans to China after airspace zone created". reuters.com. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Does China ADIZ take focus off ‘real enemy’?
- Irredentist China Ups The Ante Forbes 2 December 2013.
- "Taiwan "Defense Minister" Confirms: Mainland's Jet Fighters Did Intercept US's and Japan's Military Aircraft in ADIZ (East China Sea)" (in Chinese). takungpao. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- "PLAAF and PLANAF Have Conducted Regular Patrol Operations in ADIZ" (in Chinese). China's Ministry of Defense. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "East Sea Fleet Scrambled Fighters and Expelled Foreign Military Aircraft Entering Chinese Airspace" (in Chinese). Beijing: PLA Daily (republished by Sina). 31 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "East Sea Fleet's Air Force Scrambled Two Missile-Carrying Sukhoi-30 Fighters and Expelled Foreign Military Aircraft" (in Chinese). Beijing: Tengxun. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Extra Press Conference by the Defense Minister Onodera". Tokyo: Ministry of Defense, Japan. 1 February 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Maj. Gen. Luo Yuan Confirms that PLA Intercept Japanese Military Aircraft on the First Day of Lunar New Year" (in Chinese). USA: Dwnews. 1 February 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Maj. Gen. Luo Yuan Confirms that PLA Su-30 Fighters Intercepted Japanese Military Aircraft on the First Day of Lunar New Year" (in Chinese). Beijing: Hong Kong Oriental Daily, republished by Sina. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.