Air India Flight 101

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Air India Flight 101
Air-India Boeing 707-400 Manteufel.jpg
An Air India Boeing 707 similar to the one involved
Accident
DateJanuary 24, 1966 (1966-01-24)
SummaryControlled flight into terrain
SiteMont Blanc massif, France
Aircraft
Aircraft typeBoeing 707–437
Aircraft nameKanchenjunga
OperatorAir India
RegistrationVT-DMN
Flight originSahar International Airport, Bombay, India
1st stopoverDelhi International Airport, New Delhi, India
2nd stopoverBeirut International Airport, Beirut, Lebanon
Last stopoverGeneva International Airport, Geneva, Switzerland
DestinationHeathrow Airport, London, United Kingdom
Passengers106
Crew11
Fatalities117
Survivors0

Air India Flight 101 was a scheduled Air India passenger flight from Bombay to London that accidentally flew into Mont Blanc in France on the morning of 24 January 1966. The accident was caused by a misunderstood verbal instruction from the radar controller to the pilot in lieu of VOR data, one of the receivers being out of service. The crash was almost at the exact spot where Air India Flight 245, a Lockheed 749 Constellation on a charter flight, had crashed in 1950 with the loss of all 48 on board that aircraft.[1]

Accident[edit]

Air India Flight 101 was a scheduled flight from Bombay to London; and on the day of the accident was operated as a Boeing 707, registration VT-DMN and named Kanchenjunga.[2] After leaving Bombay, it had made two scheduled stops, at Delhi and Beirut, and was en route to another stop at Geneva.[2] At Flight Level 190, the crew was instructed to descend for Geneva International Airport after the aircraft had passed Mont Blanc.[2] The pilot, thinking that he had passed Mont Blanc, started to descend and flew into the Mont Blanc massif in France near the Rocher de la Tournette, at an elevation of 4,750 metres (15,584 ft).[2][1] All 106 passengers and 11 crew were killed.[1][3]

Passengers[edit]

Among the 106 passengers who were killed was Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha, the chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission[1]

Aircraft[edit]

The Boeing 707–437 VT-DMN had first flown on 5 April 1961 and was delivered new to Air India on 25 May 1961.[4] It had flown a total of 16,188 hours.[4]

Investigation[edit]

At the time, aircrew fixed the position of their aircraft as being above Mont Blanc by taking a cross-bearing from one VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) as they flew along a track from another VOR. However, the accident aircraft departed Beirut with one of its VOR receivers unserviceable.[2][1]

The investigation concluded:[2]

a) The pilot-in-command, who knew on leaving Beirut that one of the VORs was unserviceable, miscalculated his position in relation to Mont Blanc and reported his own estimate of this position to the controller; the radar controller noted the error, determined the position of the aircraft correctly and passed a communication to the aircraft which, he believed, would enable it to correct its position.

b) For want of a sufficiently precise phraseology, the correction was mis-understood by the pilot who, under the mistaken impression that he had passed the ridge leading to the summit and was still at a flight level which afforded sufficient safety clearance over the top of Mont Blanc, continued his descent.

CIA assassination theory[edit]

The journalist Gregory Douglas claims in his book Conversations with the Crow that the former CIA officer Robert T Crowley told him in conversations held between 1992 and 1996 that the US Government got the CIA to assassinate the Indian nuclear physicist Homi Bhabha by planting a bomb in the cargo hold of flight AI 101. The book claims that 13 days earlier, the CIA had also murdered the Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri in Tashkent, one day after he signed the Ceasefire Agreement with Pakistan, called the Tashkent Pact. Douglas quotes Crowley as having said, “We had trouble, you know, with India back in the 60’s when they got uppity and started work on an atomic bomb. The thing is, they were getting into bed with the Russians." On Bhabha, he said, "that one was dangerous, believe me. He had an unfortunate accident. He was flying to Vienna to stir up more trouble, when his Boeing 707 had a bomb go off in the cargo hold. In October 1965, Bhabha had announced on All India Radio that they could build an atomic bomb within 18 months if given the go-ahead by the Government of India.[5][6]

Recent discoveries[edit]

Wreckage of the crashed Boeing still remains at the crash site. In 2008, a climber found some Indian newspapers dated 23 January 1966. An engine from Air India Flight 245, which had crashed at virtually the same spot in 1950, was also discovered.

On 21 August 2012, a 9 kilograms (20 lb) jute bag of diplomatic mail, stamped "On Indian Government Service, Diplomatic Mail, Ministry of External Affairs", was recovered by a mountain rescue worker and turned over to local police in Chamonix.[7][8] An official with the Indian Embassy in Paris took custody of the mailbag, which was found to be a "Type C" diplomatic pouch meant for newspapers, periodicals, and personal letters. Indian diplomatic pouches "Type A" (classified information) and "Type B" (official communications) are still in use today; "Type C" mailbags were made obsolete with the advent of the Internet.[9] The mailbag was found to contain, among other items, still-white and legible copies of The Hindu and The Statesman from mid-January 1966, Air India calendars, and a personal letter to the Indian consul-general in New York, C.G.K. Menon.[10] The bag was flown back to New Delhi on a regular Air India flight, in the charge of C.R. Barooah, the flight purser. His father, R.C. Barooah, was the flight engineer on Air India Flight 101.[11]

In September 2013 a French alpinist found a metal box containing the Air India logo at the site of the plane crash on Mont Blanc containing rubies, sapphires, and emeralds worth more than $300,000, which he handed in to the police to be returned to the rightful owners.[12] In her book Crash au mont Blanc, which tells the story of the two Air India crashes on Mont-Blanc (1950 and 1966), Françoise Rey writes about a box of emeralds sent to M. Issacharov, London, described by Lloyd's.[13]

On 28 July 2017 human body parts, specifically the upper thigh of a woman and a hand were discovered beside an aircraft engine belonging to a Boeing 707 aircraft by Daniel Roche, who has spent years combing the Bossons Glacier on Mont Blanc for aircraft remains.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "The Air-India Disaster". Flight International: 174. 3 February 1966.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
  3. ^ Mendis, Sean (26 July 2004). "Air India : The story of the aircraft". Airwhiners.net. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Pither 1998, p. 291
  5. ^ Neera Majumdar (24 January 2018). "Sabotage or accident? The theories about how India lost nuclear energy pioneer Homi Bhabha".
  6. ^ Srinivas Laxman (30 July 2017). "Operative spoke of CIA hand in 1966 crash: Report".
  7. ^ "Diplomatic post bag from 1966 Indian plane crash found on Mont Blanc". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  8. ^ "Agence-France-Presse". Google.com. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  9. ^ "Indian diplomatic bag found after 46 years". Firstpost.com. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  10. ^ "'Diplomatic bag' reaches New Delhi". Deccanherald.com. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  11. ^ "AI purser brings back diplomatic bag lost in crash that killed father". Indianexpress.com. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  12. ^ Climber finds treasure trove off Mont Blanc. (n.d.). Yahoo News Malaysia. Retrieved 26 September 2013, from Yahoo News
  13. ^ CRASH AU MONT-BLANC, Les fantômes du Malabar Princess et du Kangchenjunga, Françoise Rey – Edition Le Petit Montagnard
  14. ^ "Frozen human remains found near aircraft on Mont Blanc". Mail Online. Retrieved 29 July 2017.

Bibliography[edit]

Crash au Mont-Blanc, les fantômes du Malabar Princess et du Kangchenjunga. Françoise Rey. Glénant 1991, Le Petit Montagnard, 2013. France

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 45°52′40″N 06°52′00″E / 45.87778°N 6.86667°E / 45.87778; 6.86667