Air Ontario Flight 1363
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2014)|
A Fokker F-28-1000 Fellowship of a different airline, similar to the one involved in the accident.
|Date||10 March 1989|
|Site||Dryden, Ontario, Canada
|Aircraft type||Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship|
|Flight origin||Thunder Bay Int'l Airport|
|Stopover||Dryden Regional Airport|
|Destination||Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson Int'l Airport|
Air Ontario Flight 1363 was a scheduled Air Ontario passenger flight which crashed near Dryden, Ontario, on 10 March 1989 shortly after takeoff from Dryden Regional Airport. The aircraft was a Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship. It crashed after only 15 seconds because it was not able to attain sufficient altitude to clear the trees beyond the end of the runway, due to ice and snow on the wings. The aircraft struck trees and disintegrated on impact, causing the deaths of 21 of the 65 passengers and 3 of the 4 crew members on board, including both pilots.
A similar accident happend 3 years after in 1992 USAir Flight 405 Crashed into Flushing Bay On takeoff at LaGuardia Airport after ice had accumulated on the wings, during the taxi 27 passengers and crew were killed.
Aircraft and crew
The aircraft, a Fokker F28-1000, had been manufactured in 1972 and had been in service since 1973. The aircraft had been used by Air Ontario since November 1987. It was one of two F28-1000s operated by the airline.
The flight was under the command of veteran pilot Captain George John Morwood (52). He was an experienced airman who had been flying for approximately 34 years. He had roughly 24,100 flying hours. His first officer was Keith Mills (35). Mills was also a highly experienced pilot, having accrued more than 10,000 hours of flying time. Both pilots were new to the F28-1000, having fewer than 150 hours between them on the aircraft type.
The investigation revealed that an unserviceable auxiliary power unit (APU), and no available external power unit at Dryden Regional Airport, led to questionable decision-making which was a critical factor leading to the crash of Flight 1363. If the engines had been turned off, they could not be restarted again due to the unservicability of the APU and lack of external power. Therefore, the port engine was left running during the stopover in Dryden. Snow was falling gently that afternoon and a layer of 0.6 to 1.3 centimetres of snow had accumulated on the wings. The wings needed to be de-iced before takeoff, but the Fokker F-28 aircraft is never supposed to be de-iced while the engines are running because of a risk of toxic fumes entering the cabin of the aircraft. The pilot therefore did not request to have the wings de-iced; at the time, airline instructions were unclear on this point but the subsequent report was very critical of this decision.
Fuel needed to be loaded and was done with the engine running while passengers were on board (known as a hot refuel). Off-loading and reloading passengers would have taken considerable time and the longer the aircraft stayed on the ground the greater was the need for the wings to be sprayed with de-icing fluid. In order to prevent further delay and a greater possibility of a build up on the wings, the pilot, Captain Morwood, decided to have the aircraft fuelled while the engine was running and with passengers on board. This procedure was not then, and is not now, prohibited by Transport Canada. Airline instructions were also inconsistent.
The accident investigation was subsumed into a judicial inquiry under the Honourable Virgil P. Moshansky. His report showed that competitive pressures caused by commercial deregulation cut into safety standards and that many of the industry's sloppy practices and questionable procedures placed the pilot in a very difficult situation. The report also stated that the aircraft should not have been scheduled to refuel at an airport which did not have proper equipment and that neither training nor manuals had sufficiently warned the pilot of the dangers of ice on the wings. Moshansky blamed Transport Canada for letting Air Ontario expand into the operation of bigger, more complicated aircraft without detecting the deficiencies of their existing aircraft.
As a result of the crash of Air Ontario Flight 1363, and the resulting investigation, many significant changes were made to the Canadian Aviation Regulations. These included not only new procedures regarding re-fuelling and de-icing but also many new regulations intended to improve the general safety of all future flights in Canada.
The incident is featured in the Mayday episode "Cold Case".
- USAir Flight 405, a nearly identical crash of a Fokker F28 under similar weather conditions three years later in 1992
- Maclean's: Pointing the finger (Vol. 105 Issue 14 ed.). Rogers Publishing Limited. p. 15.
- Tolleson. The Curse of Complacency (Vol. 18 Issue 11 ed.). Aircraft Maintenance Technology. p. 74-76.
- "ASN Aircraft accident Fokker F-28 Fellowship 1000 C-FONF Dryden Municipal Airport, ON (YHD)". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Disclaimer – Electronic Collection. Epe.lac-bac.gc.ca.
- 95.1. Crm-devel.org.
- "Accident Descriptions". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- Hughes. Aviation Week & Space Technology (School ed.). MAS Ultra. p. 136.
- Commission of Inquiry Into the Air Ontario Crash At Dryden, Ontario: Final Report
- Commission of Inquiry Into the Air Ontario Crash At Dryden, Ontario: Final Report (French)
- "Canada jet crash leaves 1 dead and 22 missing", Houston Chronicle, 11March 11, A16
- CBC Breaking News Bulletin, 10 March 1989