An air multiplier, sometimes called bladeless fan, is a fan which blows air from a ring with no external blades. Its vanes are hidden in its base and direct the collected airflow through a hollow tube or toroid, blowing a thin high-velocity smooth airflow from holes or a continuous slot across the surface of the tube or toroid. The first concept was created by Toshiba in 1981.
The air is drawn in by a compressor in the base and then directed up into a ring. It comes out of a slit around the ring and passes over a shape like that of an aircraft wing ( Coandă effect ). Industrial designer James Dyson named his fan the air multiplier.
In the air multiplier fan, there are no visible moving or fast-spinning blades; instead, blades are hidden inside the base. James Dyson first created air-multiplier technology in 2009. This Dyson air-multiplier fan generates airflow up to 55mph. The fan contains a brushless electric motor and this motor rotates nine asymmetrical aligned blades that attach with a rotor. Usually, the upper frame of this fan is ring-shaped. The frame is not flat; rather it is manufactured such that the edge can create a curve of a 16-degree angle slope.
The air flows through the channel in the pedestal of the fan when the motor is turned on. After that, the air flows through the hollow tube. Then the air is shot out through 16-mm slits. This air flows smoothly, rather than turbulently as with a traditional fan (fan with blades). The curvature of the inner wall of the fan creates an area of negative pressure like an airplane wing to draw more air into the flow, hence "multiplying" it. This property of the air is called inducement. Further, the air surrounding the edges of the fan also begins to flow with the direction of the breeze or is "entrained" to it. Dyson says that the air-multiplier technology increases the output of the air flowing through the tube by at least 15 times compared to the airflow taken in at the base of the fan.
In 2015, Panasonic announced the Bladeless Air Generator "Q", a bladeless fan that is spherical in shape with openings for intake and output dispersed around it. The fan takes in air through large openings on one end and blows it out the other.
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