Air quality guideline
Air quality guideline is an annual mean concentration guideline for particulate matter from the World Health Organization, most recently updated in 2005 and published in 2006. The 2005 guidelines offer guidance about four air pollutants: particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The WHO first released the air quality guidelines in 1987, then originally updated them in 1997. The reports provide guidelines intending to reduce the health effects of air pollution. The guideline stipulates that PM2.5 not exceed 10 μg/m³ annual mean, or 25 μg/m³ 24-hour mean; and that PM10 not exceed 20 μg/m³ annual mean, or 50 μg/m³ 24-hour mean. For ozone (O3), the guidelines suggest values no higher than 100 μg/m3 for an 8-hour mean. For nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the guidelines set 40 μg/m3 for the annual mean or 200 μg/m3 for a 1-hour mean. For sulfur dioxide (SO2), the guidelines stipulate concentrations not exceeding 20 μg/m3 24-hour mean or 500 μg/m3 10-minute mean.
In terms of health effects, the guideline states that PM2.5 concentration of 10 is the lowest level at which total, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality have been shown to increase with more than 95% confidence in response to long-term exposure to PM2.5.
Along with cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths, the chances of which an individual increases their risk of being diagnosed with these is highly coordinated to fine particulate matter and sulfur dioxide-related pollution. A 2002 study found that "Each 10 μg/m³ m3 elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6% and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively." 
- Team, World Health Organization Occupational and Environmental Health (2006). "WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide : global update 2005 : summary of risk assessment" (in Arabic). Cite journal requires
- World Health Organization, Occupational and Environmental Health (2005). "WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide: Global update 2005: Summary of Risk Assessment". WHO Press.
- Pope, C. Arden; Burnett, Richard T.; Thun, Michael J. (March 6, 2002). "Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution". Retrieved 4 May 2017. Cite journal requires
- WHO - WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - Page 11
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