Air travel

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A Eurocopter AS350B helicopter in flight

Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as helicopters, hot air balloons, blimps, gliders, hang gliding, parachuting, airplanes, jets, or anything else that can sustain flight.[1] Use of air travel has greatly increased in recent decades - worldwide it doubled between the mid-1980s and the year 2000.[2]

Domestic and international flights[edit]

Air travel can be separated into two general classifications: national/domestic and international flights. Flights from one point to another within the same country are called domestic flights. Flights from a point in one country to a point within a different country are known as international flights. Travelers can use domestic or international flights in either private or public travel.

Air travel[edit]

Travel class on an airplane is usually split into a two, three or four class model service. US Domestic flights usually have two classes: Economy Class and a Domestic First Class partitioned into cabins. International flights may have up to four classes: Economy Class; Premium Economy; Business Class or Club Class; and First Class.

Most air travel starts and ends at a commercial airport. The typical procedure is check-in; border control; airport security baggage and passenger check before entering the gate; boarding; flying; and pick-up of luggage and - limited to international flights - another border control at the host country's border.

Environmental effects[edit]

Modern aircraft consume less fuel per person and mile travelled than cars when fully booked.[3] This argument in favor of air travel is counterweighted by two facts:

  1. The distances travelled are often significantly larger and will not replace car travel but instead add to it, and
  2. Not every flight is booked out.

Instead, the scheduled flights are predominant, resulting in a far worse fuel efficiency.[4][5][6] According to the ATAG, flights produced 781 million tonnes (769 million long tons) of the greenhouse gas CO2 in 2015 globally, as compared to an estimated total of 36 billion tonnes (35 billion long tons) anthropogenic CO2.[7]

Health effects[edit]

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the third-most common vascular disease, next to stroke and heart attack. It is estimated that DVT affects one in 5,000 travellers on long flights.[8][9] Risk increases with exposure to more flights within a short time frame and with increasing duration of flights.[9]

During flight, the aircraft cabin pressure is usually maintained at the equivalent of 6,000–8,000 ft (1,829–2,438 m) above sea level. Most healthy travelers will not notice any effects. However, for travelers with cardiopulmonary diseases (especially those who normally require supplemental oxygen), cerebrovascular disease, anemia, or sickle cell disease, conditions in an aircraft can exacerbate underlying medical conditions. Aircraft cabin air is typically dry, usually 10%–20% humidity, which can cause dryness of the mucous membranes of the eyes and airways.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aviation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Accessed June 2011.
  2. ^ http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/EWP159.pdf
  3. ^ Alastair Bland (September 26, 2012). "How Bad Is Air Travel for the Environment?". smithsonian.com. A large passenger jet may consume five gallons of fuel per mile traveled. Is it possible, then, that planes are more efficient than cars? 
  4. ^ Megan McArdle (Aug 12, 2013). "Air Travel Is Worse Than a Hummer With Wings". Almost eight times as many passenger miles are traveled by car as by plane, but passenger car travel only accounts for 3 to 4 times as much greenhouse gas emission. 
  5. ^ Duncan Clark (2010). "The surprisingly complex truth about planes and climate change". Guardian. if we focus just on the impact over the next five years, then planes currently account for more global warming than all the cars on the world's roads – a stark reversal of the usual comparison. Per passenger mile, things are even more marked: flying turns out to be on average 50 times worse than driving in terms of a five-year warming impact. 
  6. ^ "Specific Climate Impact of Passenger and Freight Transport" (PDF). Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (15): 5700–5706. 2010. doi:10.1021/es9039693. 
  7. ^ http://www.atag.org/facts-and-figures.html
  8. ^ Marchitelli, Rosa (30 May 2016). "Air Canada passenger suffers 'horrible pain' after being stuck in cramped seat". CBC. Retrieved 30 May 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Kuipers, S; Cannegieter, SC; Middeldorp, S; Robyn, L; Büller, HR; Rosendaal, FR. "The absolute risk of venous thrombosis after air travel: a cohort study of 8,755 employees of international organisations". PLoS Med. 4: e290. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040290. PMC 1989755Freely accessible. PMID 17896862. 
  10. ^ http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-6-conveyance-and-transportation-issues/air-travel

External links[edit]