Airbus A319

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"A319" redirects here. For the British road, see A319 road.
A319
Lufthansa.a319-100.d-aili.arp.jpg
A Lufthansa Airbus A319
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National origin Multi-national
Manufacturer Airbus
First flight 25 August 1995
Introduction 1996 with Swissair
Status In service
Primary users EasyJet
American Airlines
Delta Air Lines
United Airlines
Produced 1994–present
Number built 1,455 as of 31 July 2016[1]
Unit cost
US$89.6 million[2]
Developed from Airbus A320
Variants Airbus A318
Developed into Airbus A320neo family

The Airbus A319 is a member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.[Note 1] The A319 carries up to 160 passengers and has a maximum range of 3,700 nmi (6,900 km; 4,300 mi).[3] Final assembly of the aircraft takes place in Hamburg, Germany.

The A319 is a shortened-fuselage variant of the Airbus A320 and entered service in April 1996 with Swissair, around two years after the stretched Airbus A321 and eight years after the original A320. The aircraft shares a common type rating with all other Airbus A320 family variants, allowing existing A320 family pilots to fly the aircraft without the need for further training.

As of 31 July 2016, a total of 1,455 Airbus A319 aircraft have been delivered, of which 1,439 are in service. In addition, another 17 airliners are on firm order. As of 31 July 2016, EasyJet was the largest operator of the Airbus A319, operating 144 aircraft.[1]

In December 2010, Airbus announced a new generation of the A320 family, the A320neo (new engine option).[4] The similarly shortened fuselage A319neo variant offers new, more efficient engines, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets, named Sharklets by Airbus. The aircraft will deliver fuel savings of up to 15%. The A319neo is the least popular variant of the Airbus A320neo family, with total orders for only 58 aircraft placed as of 31 July 2016, compared with 3,436 for the A320neo and 1,190 for the A321neo.[1]

Development[edit]

Background[edit]

The first member of the A320 family was the A320 which was launched in March 1984 and first flew on 22 February 1987.[5] The family was extended to include the stretched A321 (first delivered 1994), the shortened A319 (1996), and the further shortened A318 (2003). The A320 family pioneered the use of digital fly-by-wire flight control systems, as well as side stick controls, in commercial aircraft. The A319 was developed at the request of Steven Udvar-Hazy, the former president and CEO of ILFC according to The New York Times.[6]

A US Airways A319 in America West heritage livery. The A319's wingspan is longer than the aircraft's overall length.

Origins and design[edit]

The A319 design is a shortened fuselage, minimum change derivative of the A320 with its origins in the 130- to 140-seat SA1, part of the Single-Aisle studies.[7] The SA1 was shelved as the consortium concentrated on its bigger siblings. After healthy sales of the A320/A321, Airbus re-focused on what was then known as the A320M-7, meaning A320 minus seven fuselage frames.[8] It would provide direct competition for the 737–300/-700.[7] The shrink was achieved through the removal of four fuselage frames fore and three aft the wing, cutting the overall length by 3.73 metres (12 ft 3 in).[3][9][10] Consequently, the number of overwing exits was reduced from four to two. The bulk-cargo door was replaced by an aft container door, which can take in reduced height LD3-45 containers.[10] Minor software changes were made to accommodate the different handling characteristics; otherwise the aircraft is largely unchanged. Power is provided by the CFM56-5A or V2500-A5, derated to 98 kN (22,000 lbf), with option for 105 kN (24,000 lbf) thrust.[11]

With virtually the same fuel capacity as the A320-200, and fewer passengers, the range with 124 passengers in a two-class configuration extends to 6,650 km (3,590 nmi), or 6,850 km (3,700 nmi) with the "Sharklets".[3]

Production and testing[edit]

Airbus began offering the new model from 22 May 1992, and the A319's first customer was ILFC, who signed for six aircraft.[12] Anticipating further orders by Swissair and Alitalia, Airbus launched the $275 million (€250 million) programme on 10 June 1993.[10][12][13] On 23 March 1995, the first A319 underwent final assembly at Airbus' German plant in Hamburg, where the A321s are also assembled. It was rolled out on 24 August 1995, with the maiden flight the following day.[14] The certification programme would take 350 airborne hours involving two aircraft; certification for the CFM56-5B6/2-equipped variant was granted in April 1996, and the qualification for the V2524-A5 started the following month.[15]

An EasyJet A319

Delivery of the first A319, to Swissair, took place on 25 April 1996, entering service by month's end.[15] In January 1997, an A319 broke a record during a delivery flight by flying 3,588 nautical miles (6,645 km) on the great circle route to Winnipeg, Manitoba from Hamburg, in 9 hours 5 minutes.[15] The A319 has proved popular with low-cost airlines such as EasyJet, who has orders for 172, with 172 delivered.[1]

A total of 1,455 of the A319ceo model have been delivered, with 17 remaining on order as of 31 July 2016.[1] The direct Boeing competitor is the Boeing 737-700.

Variants[edit]

A319CJ [edit]

The A319CJ (rebranded ACJ319) is the corporate jet version of the A319. It incorporates removable extra fuel tanks (up to 6 Additional Center Tanks) which are installed in the cargo compartment, and an increased service ceiling of 12,500 m (41,000 ft).[16] Range with eight passengers' payload and auxiliary fuel tanks (ACTs) is up to 6,000 nautical miles (11,100 km).[17][18] Upon resale, the aircraft can be reconfigured as a standard A319 by removing its extra tanks and corporate cabin outfit, thus maximising its resale value. It was formerly also known as the ACJ, or Airbus Corporate Jet, while starting with 2014 it has the marketing designation ACJ319.

ACJ319 operated by the Austrian operator MJET

The aircraft seats up to 39 passengers, but may be outfitted by the customers into any configuration. Tyrolean Jet Service Mfg. GmbH & CO KG, MJET and Reliance Industries are among its users. The A319CJ competes with other ultralarge-cabin corporate jets such as the Boeing 737–700-based Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) and Embraer Lineage 1000, as well as with large-cabin and ultralong-range Gulfstream G650, Gulfstream G550 and Bombardier's Global 6000. It is powered by the same engine types as the A320. The A319CJ was used by the Escadron de Transport, d'Entraînement et de Calibration which is in charge of transportation for France's officials and also by the Flugbereitschaft of the German Air Force for transportation of Germany's officials. An ACJ serves as a presidential or official aircraft of Armenia,[19] Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy,[20] Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Venezuela.

A319neo[edit]

Main article: Airbus A320neo family

The A319neo will be part of the Airbus A320neo family of airliners developed since December 2010 by Airbus,[21] with the suffix "neo" meaning "new engine option". It is the last step of the A320 Enhanced (A320E) modernisation programme, which was started in 2006. The A319neo replaces the original A319, which is now referred to as A319ceo, for "current engine option".

In addition to the new engines, the modernisation programme also included such improvements as: aerodynamic refinements, large curved winglets (sharklets), weight savings, a new aircraft cabin with larger hand luggage spaces, and an improved air purification system.[22][23] Customers will have a choice of either the CFM International LEAP-1A or the Pratt & Whitney PW1100G engines.

These improvements in combination are predicted to result in 15% lower fuel consumption per aircraft, 8% lower operating costs, reduced noise production, and a reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by at least 10% compared to the A320 series, as well as an increase in range of approximately 500 nautical miles (900 km).[24]

The A319neo is the least popular variant of the Airbus A320neo family, with total orders for only 58 aircraft placed as of 31 July 2016, compared with 3,436 for the A320neo and 1,190 for the A321neo.[1]

Design[edit]

The Airbus A319 is a narrow-body (single-aisle) aircraft with a retractable tricycle landing gear and is powered by two wing pylon-mounted turbofan engines. It is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit having a single vertical stabilizer and rudder. Two suppliers provide turbofan engines for the A319: CFM with its CFM56 and International Aero Engines with the V2500 engine.

Operators[edit]

As of 31 July 2016, 1,439 Airbus A319 aircraft were in service with 104 operators,[1] with EasyJet and American Airlines operating the largest A319 fleets of 144 and 125 aircraft respectively.[1] The A319 is the most popular variant of the Airbus A320 family to operated by Governments and as executive and private jets, with 67 aircraft in operation in these capacities as of July 2016.[1]

Orders and deliveries[edit]

Orders Deliveries
Type Total Backlog Total 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996
A319 1,472 17 1,455 2 24 34 38 38 47 51 88 98 105 137 142 87 72 85 89 112 88 53 47 18

Data through end of July 2016. Updated 4 August 2016.[1]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

For the Airbus A319, 11 aviation accidents and incidents have occurred,[25] including two hull-loss accidents,[26] though there have been no fatal accidents recorded involving the aircraft type as of June 2016.[27]

Specifications[edit]

Airbus A319
A319-100 / A319LR / A319CJ
Cockpit crew Two
Seating capacity 160 (EASA),[28] 150 (FAA)[29]
156[3] (1-class, maximum)
134 (1-class, typical)
124 (2-class, typical)
Seat Pitch 28 in (71 cm) & 30 in (76 cm) (1-class, maximum)
32 in (81 cm) (1-class, typical)
36 in (91 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class, typical)
Cargo capacity 27.70 m3 (978 cu ft)
4× LD3-45
Length 33.84 m (111 ft 0 in)
Wheelbase 11.04 m (36 ft 3 in)
Track 7.59 m (24 ft 11 in)
Wingspan 34.10 m (111 ft 11 in) (35.8 m (117 ft 5 in) with Sharklets)
Wing area 122.6 m2 (1,320 sq ft)
Wing sweepback 25 degrees
Tail height 11.76 m (38 ft 7 in)
Cabin width 3.70 m (12 ft 2 in)
Fuselage width 3.95 m (13 ft 0 in)
Fuselage height 4.14 m (13 ft 7 in)
Operating empty weight (OEW) 40,800 kg (89,900 lb)
Maximum zero-fuel weight (MZFW) 58,500 kg (129,000 lb)
Maximum landing weight (MLW) 62.5 t (138,000 lb)
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) 75.5 t (166,000 lb)
Cruising speed Mach 0.78 (828 km/h/511 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)
Maximum speed Mach 0.82 (871 km/h/537 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)
Maximum range, fully loaded 3,600 nmi (6,700 km; 4,100 mi),[30]
3,700 nmi (6,900 km; 4,300 mi)[30] with Sharklets
LR: 5,600 nmi (10,400 km; 6,400 mi)[30]
CJ: 6,000 nmi (11,000 km; 6,900 mi)
Takeoff distance at MTOW
(sea level, ISA)
2,164 m (7,100 ft)
Maximum fuel capacity 24,210 L (5,330 imp gal; 6,400 US gal) standard
30,190 L (6,640 imp gal; 7,980 US gal) optional
Service ceiling 12,000 m (39,000 ft)
CJ: 12,500 m (41,000 ft)
Engines (×2) CFM International CFM56-5 series
or IAE V2500 series
Fan diameter 68.3 in (1.73 m) (CFM56-5)
63.5 in (1.61 m) (V2500)
Thrust (×2) 98–120 kN (22,000–27,000 lbf)

Source: Airbus,[3][16][31] Airliners.net.[32]

Engines[edit]

Aircraft Model Certification Date Engines[33]
A319-111 10 April 1996 CFM56-5B5 or 5B5/P
A319-112 10 April 1996 CFM56-5B6 or 5B6/P or 5B6/2P
A319-113 31 May 1996 CFM56-5A4 or 5A4/F
A319-114 31 May 1996 CFM56-5A5 or 5A5/F
A319-115 30 July 1999 CFM56-5B7 or 5B7/P
A319-131 18 December 1996 IAE Model V2522-A5
A319-132 18 December 1996 IAE Model V2524-A5
A319-133 30 July 1999 IAE Model V2527M-A5

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies named, Airbus Industrie, and is now fully owned by Airbus Group, originally named EADS. Airbus' name has been Airbus SAS since 2001.
References
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Airbus Orders & Deliveries". Airbus. 31 July 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016. 
  2. ^ "New Airbus aircraft list prices for 2015". Airbus (Press release). 13 January 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Specifications Airbus A319". Airbus. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  4. ^ "Airbus offers new fuel saving engine options for A320 Family". Airbus. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  5. ^ Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 50
  6. ^ Wayne, Leslie (10 May 2007). "The Real Owner of All Those Planes". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 53
  8. ^ Eden 2008, p. 26
  9. ^ "Specifications Airbus A320". Airbus. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c Moxon, Henley (30 August 1995). "Meeting demands". Flight International. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  11. ^ Henley, Peter. "A319 flight test". Flight International. Retrieved 26 February 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 54
  13. ^ Gunston 2009, p. 216
  14. ^ Eden 2008, p. 27
  15. ^ a b c Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 55
  16. ^ a b "Aircraft Families – Airbus Executive and Private Aviation – ACJ Family". Stagev4.airbus.com. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  17. ^ ACJ Specifications, airbus.com
  18. ^ "ACJ Analysis" Business & Commercial Aviation Magazine – July 2002, Page 44
  19. ^ "– Government of Armenia A319CJ". Airliners.net. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  20. ^ "Il portale dell'Aeronautica Militare – Airbus A319CJ". Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  21. ^ "Airbus A320 (A320ceo and A320neo) Aircraft family". Airbus.com. 3 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  22. ^ "Pictures: Airbus aims to thwart Boeing's narrowbody plans with upgraded 'A320 Enhanced'". Flight International. 20 June 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  23. ^ "Avianca takes delivery of Sharklet equipped A320". Airbus.com. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  24. ^ "A320neo family information, Maximum benefit and minimum change". Airbus.com. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  25. ^ Airbus A319 occurrences. Aviation Safety, 23 July 2016.
  26. ^ Airbus A319 hull-loss occurrences. Aviation Safety, 23 July 2016.
  27. ^ Airbus A319 statistics. Aviation Safety, 23 July 2016.
  28. ^ "Type Certificate Data Sheet" (PDF). EASA. 31 May 2016. 
  29. ^ "Type Certificate Data Sheet" (PDF). FAA. May 6, 2016. 
  30. ^ a b c With 124 passengers and baggage
  31. ^ "Airbus Aircraft Characteristics". Airbus. June 2011. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  32. ^ "The Airbus A319". Airliners.net. Retrieved 26 February 2011. 
  33. ^ "EASA TYPE-CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321 Single Aisle" (PDF). EASA. 21 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 

External links[edit]