Airbus A320 family
|Lufthansa A320-211 on 7 February 2011|
|Role||Narrow-body jet airliner|
|First flight||22 February 1987|
|Introduction||18 April 1988 with Air France|
|Primary users||American Airlines[b]
|Number built||7,481 as of 28 February 2017[update]|
|Developed into||Airbus A320neo family|
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. The family includes the A318, A319, A320 and A321, as well as the ACJ business jet. The A320s are also named A320ceo (current engine option) after the introduction of the A320neo. Final assembly of the family takes place in Toulouse, France, and Hamburg, Germany. A plant in Tianjin, China, has also been producing aircraft for Chinese airlines since 2009, while a final assembly facility in Mobile, Alabama, United States, delivered its first A321 in April 2016. The aircraft family can accommodate up to 220 passengers and has a range of 3,100 to 12,000 km (1,700 to 6,500 nmi), depending on model.
The first member of the A320 family—the A320—was launched in March 1984, first flew on 22 February 1987, and was first delivered in March 1988. The family was extended to include the A321 (first delivered 1994), the A319 (1996), and the A318 (2003). The A320 family pioneered the use of digital fly-by-wire flight control systems, as well as side-stick controls, in commercial aircraft. There has been a continuous improvement process since introduction.
As of 28 February 2017, a total of 7,481 Airbus A320-family aircraft have been delivered, of which 7,157 are in service. In addition, another 5,580 airliners are on firm order. It ranked as the world's fastest-selling jet airliner family according to records from 2005 to 2007, and as the best-selling single-generation aircraft programme. The A320 family has proved popular with airlines including low-cost carriers such as EasyJet, which purchased A319s and A320s to replace its 737 fleet. As of 28 February 2017, American Airlines was the largest operator of the Airbus A320 family aircraft, operating 384 aircraft.[c] The aircraft family competes directly with the 737 and has competed with the 717, 757, and the MD-80/MD-90.
In December 2010, Airbus announced a new generation of the A320 family, the A320neo (new engine option). The A320neo offers new, more efficient engines, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets, named Sharklets by Airbus. The aircraft will deliver fuel savings of up to 15%. As of February 2017, a total of 5,063 A320neo family aircraft had been ordered by more than 70 airlines, making it the fastest ever selling commercial aircraft. The first A320neo was delivered to Lufthansa on 20 January 2016 and it entered service on 25 January 2016.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Orders and deliveries
- 7 Accidents and incidents
- 8 Specifications
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
When Airbus designed the Airbus A300 during the late 1960s and early 1970s, it envisaged a broad family of airliners with which to compete against Boeing and Douglas, two established US aerospace manufacturers. From the moment of formation, Airbus had begun studies into derivatives of the Airbus A300B in support of this long-term goal. Prior to the service introduction of the first Airbus airliners, engineers within Airbus had identified nine possible variations of the A300 known as A300B1 to B9. A 10th variation, conceived in 1973, later the first to be constructed, was designated the A300B10. It was a smaller aircraft which would be developed into the long-range Airbus A310. Airbus then focused its efforts on the single-aisle market, which was dominated by the 737 and McDonnell Douglas DC-9.
Plans from a number of European aircraft manufacturers called for a successor to the relatively successful BAC One-Eleven, and to replace the 737–200 and DC-9. Germany's MBB (Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm), British Aircraft Corporation, Sweden's Saab and Spain's CASA worked on the EUROPLANE, a 180- to 200-seat aircraft. It was abandoned after intruding on A310 specifications. VFW-Fokker, Dornier and Hawker Siddeley worked on a number of 150-seat designs.
Alongside BAe (which at the time was not part of Airbus) were MBB, Fokker-VFW and Aérospatiale. The design within the JET study that was carried forward was the JET2 (163 passengers), which then became the Airbus S.A1/2/3 series (Single Aisle), before settling on the A320 name for its launch in 1984. Previously, Hawker Siddeley had produced a design called the HS.134 "Airbus" in 1965, an evolution of the HS.121 (formerly DH.121) Trident, which shared much of the general arrangement of the later JET3 study design. The name "Airbus" at the time referred to a BEA requirement, rather than to the later international programme.
A new programme was initiated subsequently, called Joint European Transport (JET). This was set up in June 1977, and was based at the then British Aerospace (formerly Vickers) site in Weybridge, Surrey, UK. Although the members were all of Airbus' partners, they regarded the project as a separate collaboration from Airbus. This project was considered the forerunner of Airbus A320, encompassing the 130- to 188-seat market, powered by two CFM56s. It would have a cruise speed of Mach 0.84 (faster than Boeing 737). The programme was later transferred to Airbus, leading up to the creation of the Single-Aisle (SA) studies in 1980, led by former leader of JET programme, Derek Brown. The group looked at three different variants, covering the 125- to 180-seat market, called SA1, SA2 and SA3. Although unaware at the time, the consortium was producing the blueprints for the A319, A320 and A321, respectively. The single-aisle programme created divisions within Airbus about whether to design a shorter-range twinjet than a longer-range quadjet wanted by the West Germans, particularly Lufthansa. However, works proceeded, and the German carrier would eventually order the twinjet.
In February 1981, the project was re-designated A320, with efforts focused on the former SA2. During the year, Airbus worked with Delta Air Lines on a 150-seat aircraft envisioned and required by the airline. The A320 would carry 150 passengers 1,860 nautical miles (3,440 km) using fuel from wing fuel tanks only. The Dash 200 had more fuel through the activation of centre fuel tank, increasing fuel capacity from 15,590 litres (3,429 imp gal) to 23,430 L (5,154 imp gal), enabling flights with a distance of 2,850 nmi (5,280 km). The aircraft would measure 36.04 m (118 ft 3 in) and 39.24 m (128 ft 9 in), respectively. Airbus then had to decide on a cross-section for the A320. It considered a fuselage diameter of "the Boeing 707 and 727, or do something better". It eventually settled on a wider diameter, with the internal width at 3.7 m (12 ft 2 in), compared to 3.45 m (11 ft 4 in) of the Boeing aircraft. Although heavier, this specification allowed the aircraft to compete more effectively with the 737. The A320 wing went through several stages of design, finally settling on 33.91 m (111 ft 3 in). It is long and thin, offering better aerodynamic efficiency because of the higher aspect ratio than the competition, namely the 737 and MD-80.
After the oil price rises of the 1970s, Airbus needed to minimise the trip fuel costs of the A320. To that end, it adopted composite primary structures, centre-of-gravity control using fuel, glass cockpit (EFIS) and a two-crew flight deck. The end result was that the A320 consumed 50% less fuel than the 727. According to a study cited by the Stockholm Environmental Institute, the A320 burns 11,608 kilograms (25,591 lb) of jet fuel flying between Los Angeles and New York City, which is about 77.4 kilograms (170.6 lb) per passenger in an A320 with 150 seats.
Fly-by-wire flight control system
The A320 is the world’s first airliner with digital fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system: input commands through the side-stick are interpreted by flight control computers and transmitted to flight control surfaces within the flight envelope protection; in the 1980s the computer-controlled dynamic system of the Dassault Mirage 2000 fighter cross-fertilised the Airbus team which tested FBW on an A300.
The A320 retained the dark cockpit where an indicator is off when its system is running to draw attention on dysfunctions from the A310, the first widebody designed to be operated without a flight engineer and influenced by Bernard Ziegler, first Airbus CEO Henri Ziegler's son. All following Airbuses have similar human/machine interface and systems control philosophy to facilitate cross-type qualification with minimal training; for Roger Béteille, former Airbus president, this choice was one of the most difficult he had ever made.
During the A320 development programme, Airbus considered propfan technology, backed by Lufthansa. At the time unproven, it was essentially a fan placed outside the engine nacelle, offering speed of a turbofan at turboprops economics; eventually, Airbus stuck with turbofans.
Power on the A320 would be supplied by two CFM56-5-A1s rated at 25,000 lbf (112.5 kN). It was the only available engine at launch until the IAE V2500, offered by International Aero Engines, a group composed of Rolls-Royce, Pratt & Whitney, Japanese Aero Engine Corporation, Fiat and MTU Aero Engines (MTU). The first V2500 variant, the V2500-A1, has a thrust output of 25,000 pounds-force (110 kN), hence the name. It is 4% more efficient than the CFM56, with cruise thrust specific fuel consumption at 0.574 lb/lbf/h (16.3 g/kN/s) for the -A5, compared to 0.596 lb/lbf/h (16.9 g/kN/s) for the CFM56-5A1.
Production and introduction
The UK, France and West Germany wanted the responsibility of final assembly and the associated duties, known as "work-share arguments". The Germans requested an increased work-share of 40%, while the British wanted the major responsibilities to be swapped around to give partners production and research and development experience. In the end, British work-share was increased from that of the two previous Airbuses.
France was willing to commit to a launch aid, or subsidies, while the Germans were more cautious. The UK government was unwilling to provide funding for the tooling requested by British Aerospace (BAe) and estimated at ₤250 million, it was postponed for three years. On 1 March 1984 the government and the manufacturer agreed that ₤50 million would be paid whether the A320 would fly or not, while the rest would be paid as a levy on each aircraft sold.
The programme was launched on 2 March 1984. At this time, Airbus had 96 orders.:48 Air France was its first customer with a "letter of intent" for 25 A320s and an option for 25 more at the 1981 Paris air show. In October 1983, British Caledonian placed seven firm order, bringing total orders to more than 80. Cyprus Airways became the first to place order for V2500-powered A320s in November 1984, followed by Pan Am with 16 firm orders and 34 options in January 1985, then Inex Adria.:49 One of the most significant order was when Northwest Airlines placed an order for 100 A320s in October 1986, later confirmed at the 1990 Farnborough Airshow, powered by CFM56 engines.:49–50
In presence of then French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac and the Prince and Princess of Wales, the first A320 was rolled out of the final assembly line on 14 February 1987 and made its maiden flight on 22 February in 3 hours and 23 minutes from Toulouse. The flight test programme took 1,200 hours on 530 flights, European Joint Aviation Authorities certification was delivered on 26 February 1988.:50 The first A320 was delivered to Air France on 28 March 1988.
On 26 June 1988, Air France Flight 296 crashed into trees at the end of runway at Mulhouse-Habsheim Airport, three out of 130 passengers were killed. In February 1990 another A320, Indian Airlines Flight 605, crash landed short of the airport runway in Bangalore, the ensuing fire contributed to the casualty count of ninety-two, out of 146 on board. The press and media later questioned the fly-by-wire flight control system but subsequent investigations by commission of inquiry found "no malfunction of the aircraft or its equipment which could have contributed towards a reduction in safety or an increase in the crew's workload during the final flight phase ... the response of the engines was normal and in compliance with certification requirement".
The Toulouse Blagnac final assembly line builds A320s, whereas the Hamburg Finkenwerder final assembly line builds A318s, A319s, and A321s. The Airbus factory in Tianjin, China assembles A319s, A320s, and A319s; A320s and A321s are also assembled at the Airbus Americas factory in Mobile, Alabama. Airbus produced 42 A320 per month in 2015, and expects to increase to 50 per month in 2017.
As Airbus targets a 60 monthly global production rate by mid-2019, the Tianjin line delivered 51 in 2016 and it could assemble six per month from four as it starts producing A320neos in 2017; 147 Airbus were delivered in 2016 in China, 20% of its production, mostly A320-family, a 47% market share as the country should become the world’s largest market ahead of the USA before 2027.
Stretching the A320: A321
The first derivative of the A320 was the Airbus A321, also known as the Stretched A320, A320-500 and A325. Its launch came on 24 November 1988 after commitments for 183 aircraft from 10 customers were secured. The aircraft would be a minimum-changed derivative, apart from a number of minor modifications to the wing, and the fuselage stretch itself. The wing would incorporate double-slotted flaps and minor trailing edge modifications, increasing the wing area from 124 m2 (1,330 sq ft) to 128 m2 (1,380 sq ft). The fuselage was lengthened by four plugs (two ahead and two behind the wings), giving the A321 an overall length of 6.94 metres (22 ft 9 in) longer than the A320. The length increase required the overwing exits of the A320 to be enlarged and repositioned in front of and behind the wings. The centre fuselage and undercarriage were reinforced to accommodate the increase in maximum takeoff weight of 9,600 kg (21,200 lb), taking it to 83,000 kg (183,000 lb).
Final assembly for the A321 would be, as a first for any Airbus, carried out in Germany (then West Germany). This came after a dispute between the French, who claimed the move would incur $150 million (€135 million) in unnecessary expenditure associated with the new plant, and the Germans, arguing it would be more productive for Airbus in the long run. The second production line was located at Hamburg, which would also subsequently produce the smaller Airbus A319 and A318. For the first time, Airbus entered the bond market, through which it raised $480 million (€475 million) to finance development costs. An additional $180 million (€175 million) was borrowed from European Investment Bank and private investors.
The maiden flight of the Airbus A321 came on 11 March 1993, when the prototype, registration F-WWIA, flew with IAE V2500 engines; the second prototype, equipped with CFM56-5B turbofans, flew in May. Lufthansa and Alitalia were the first to order the stretched Airbuses, with 20 and 40 aircraft requested, respectively. The first of Lufthansa's V2500-A5-powered A321s arrived on 27 January 1994, while Alitalia received its first CFM56-5B-powered aircraft on 22 March.
Shrinking the A320: A319
The A319 is the next derivative of the baseline A320. The design is a "shrink" with its origins in the 130- to 140-seat SA1, part of the Single-Aisle studies. The SA1 was shelved as the consortium concentrated on its bigger siblings. After healthy sales of the A320/A321, Airbus re-focused on what was then known as the A320M-7, meaning A320 minus seven fuselage frames. It would provide direct competition for the 737–300/-700. The shrink was achieved through the removal of four fuselage frames fore and three aft of the wing, cutting the overall length by 3.73 metres (12 ft 3 in). Consequently, the number of overwing exits was reduced from four to two. The bulk-cargo door was replaced by an aft container door, which can take in reduced height LD3-45 containers. Minor software changes were made to accommodate the different handling characteristics; otherwise the aircraft is largely unchanged. Power is provided by the CFM56-5A or V2500-A5, derated to 98 kN (22,000 lbf), with option for 105 kN (24,000 lbf) thrust.
Airbus began offering the new model from 22 May 1992, with the actual launch of the $275 million (€250 million) programme occurring on 10 June 1993; the A319's first customer was ILFC, who signed for six aircraft. On 23 March 1995, the first A319 underwent final assembly at Airbus' German plant in Hamburg, where the A321s are also assembled. It was rolled out on 24 August 1995, with the maiden flight the following day. The certification programme would take 350 airborne hours involving two aircraft; certification for the CFM56-5B6/2-equipped variant was granted in April 1996, after which qualification for the V2524-A5 started the following month.
Delivery of the first A319, to Swissair, took place on 25 April 1996, entering service by month's end. In January 1997, an A319 broke a record during a delivery flight by flying 3,588 nautical miles (6,645 km) the great circle route to Winnipeg, Manitoba from Hamburg, in 9 hours 5 minutes. The A319 has proved popular with low-cost airlines such as EasyJet, who has orders for 172, with 172 delivered.
Second shrink: A318
The A318 was born out of mid-1990 studies between Aviation Industries of China (AVIC), Singapore Technologies Aerospace, Alenia and Airbus on a 95- to 125-seat aircraft project. The programme was called the AE31X, and covered the 95-seat AE316 and 115- to 125-seat AE317. The former would have had an overall length of 31.3 m (102 ft 8 in), while the AE317 was longer by 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in), at 34.5 m (113 ft 2 in). The engines were to be supplied from two Rolls-Royce BR715s, CFM56-9s, or the Pratt & Whitney PW6000s; with the MTOW of 53.3 t (118,000 lb) for the smaller version and 58 t (128,000 lb) for the AE317, the thrust requirement were 77.9–84.6 kN (17,500–19,000 lbf) and 84.6–91.2 kN (19,000–20,500 lbf), respectively. Range was settled at 5,200 km (2,800 nmi) and 5,800 km (3,100 nmi) for the high gross weights of both variants. Both share a wingspan of 31.0 m (101 ft 8 in) and a flight deck similar to that of the A320 family. Costing $2 billion (€1.85 billion) to develop, aircraft production to take place in China.
Simultaneously, Airbus was developing Airbus A318. In early 1998, Airbus revealed its considerations of designing a 100-seat aircraft based on the A320. The AE31X project was terminated by September 1998, after which Airbus officially announced an aircraft of its own, the A318, at that year's Farnborough Airshow. The aircraft is the smallest product of Airbus's product range, and was developed coincidentally at the same time as the largest commercial aircraft in history, the Airbus A380. First called A319M5 in as early as March 1995, it was shorter by 0.79-metre (2 ft 7 in) ahead of the wing and 1.6 metres (5 ft 3 in) behind. These cuts reduced passenger capacity from 124 on the A319 to 107 passengers in a two-class layout. Range was 5,700 kilometres (3,100 nmi), or 5,950 kilometres (3,210 nmi) with upcoming Sharklets.
The 107-seater was launched on 26 April 1999 with the options and orders count at 109 aircraft. After three years of design, the maiden flight took place at Hamburg on 15 January 2002. Tests on the lead engine, the Pratt & Whitney PW6000, revealed worse-than-expected fuel consumption. Consequently, Pratt & Whitney abandoned the five-stage high pressure compressor (HPC) for the MTU-designed six-stage HPC. The 129 order book for the A318 shrunk to 80 largely because of switches to other A320 family members. After 17 months of flight certification, during which 850 hours and 350 flights were accumulated, JAA certification was obtained for the CFM56-powered variant on 23 May 2003. On 22 July 2003, first delivery for launch customer Frontier Airlines occurred, entering service before the end of the month.
A320 Enhanced family
A320 Enhanced family (or A320E family) is the working title for a series of improvements to the A320 family. The improvements include engine improvements, aerodynamic refinements – such as adding large curved winglets (Sharklets), weight savings, and a new cabin design.
In 2006, Airbus tested three styles of winglet intended to counteract the wing's induced drag and wingtip vortices more effectively than the previous wingtip fence. The first design type to be tested was developed by Airbus and was based on work done by the AWIATOR programme. The second type of winglet incorporated a more blended design and was designed by Winglet Technology, a company based in Wichita, Kansas. Two aircraft were used in the flight test evaluation campaign – the prototype A320, which had been retained by Airbus for testing, and a new build aircraft which was fitted with both types of winglets before it was delivered to JetBlue.
Despite the anticipated efficiency gains and development work, Airbus announced that the new winglets will not be offered to customers, claiming that the weight of the modifications required would negate any aerodynamic benefits. Instead, on 17 December 2008, Airbus announced it was to begin flight testing an existing blended winglet design developed by Aviation Partners Inc. as part of an A320 modernisation programme using the A320 prototype.
On 15 November 2009, Airbus announced future additions of Sharklets to A320s beginning in 2012 with Air New Zealand. These Airbus winglets, which are 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) tall and weigh 200 kilograms (440 lb), would reduce fuel burn by 4% and offer increases in payload of 500 kg (1,100 lb), or range by 110 nmi (204 km) at the original payload. This corresponds to an annual CO2 reduction of around 700 t (690 long tons) per aircraft, saving operators US$220,000 per aircraft per year. The Sharklets are to be manufactured and distributed by Korean Air Aerospace Division.
In 2007, Airbus introduced a new enhanced comfort cabin for the A320. Airbus says it offers better luggage storage and a quieter cabin, packaged with a more modern look and feel. Additionally, improved cabin efficiency from a new galley concept, reduced weight, improved ergonomics and food hygiene, and recycling requirements. LED ambiance lighting is optionally available. Anytime LEDs are used for the Passenger Service Unit (PSU) and passengers can get information with touchscreen displays. Older A320 series aircraft can be updated.
New Engine Option: A320neo
Airbus developed a new version of the A320, called A320neo, for new engine option, based on more efficient engines, at least partly in response to the threat posed by Bombardier Aerospace's development of the CSeries airliner, with which Bombardier hoped to compete directly with Boeing and Airbus for the first time. The choice for new engines include the CFM International LEAP-1A and the Pratt & Whitney PW1100G. Though the new engines will burn 16% less fuel, the actual fuel gain on an A320 installation will be slightly less, since 1–2% is typically lost upon installation on an existing aircraft. This means an additional range of 950 km (510 nmi), or 2 t (4,400 lb) of extra payload. The A320neo will also include some modifications to the wing, mainly the installation of blended winglets called "Sharklets".
Airbus' CEO said to be "comfortable" with the projections of 20% lower maintenance cost for the Pratt & Whitney's PW1000G family, compared with engines powering the A320. In 2011, Airbus targeted early 2016 for the first delivery and planned to deliver 4,000 A320neo over 15 years. Virgin America became the launch customer with a firm order of 30 A320neo aircraft as a part of a 60 aircraft order on 17 January 2011. In January 2011 IndiGo reached a tentative agreement with Airbus to order 150 A320neo aircraft along with 30 more A320s.
At the 2011 Paris Air Show, Airbus announced that 667 firm orders were placed. A major order came from Indian low-cost carrier IndiGo for 150 aircraft, and Malaysian low-cost carrier AirAsia for 200 A320neo, the largest commercial aviation order at the time. In total the A320neo commitments made at the Paris Air Show were worth US$60.9 billion. American Airlines placed an order for 130 A320neo airliners on 20 July 2011. By the end of 2011, Airbus had received 1,196 firm orders for the A320neo family making it the fastest selling commercial aircraft in history. On 15 March 2013, it was reported that Turkish Airlines had placed a firm order for 82 A320 aircraft with 35 options; the firm order has 25 A321, four A320neo, and 53 A321neo airliners.
The Airbus A320 family are narrow-body (single-aisle) aircraft with a retractable tricycle landing gear and are powered by two wing pylon-mounted turbofan engines. The Airbus A320 family is the only narrow-body aircraft from Airbus.
The Airbus A320 family are low-wing cantilever monoplanes with a conventional empennage with a single vertical stabilizer and rudder. Its wing sweep is 25 degrees. Compared to other airliners of the same class, the A320 features a wider single-aisle cabin of 3.95 metres (156 in) outside diameter, compared to 148 inches (3.8 m) of the Boeing 737 or 757, and larger overhead bins. Its cargo hold can accommodate Unit Load Devices containers.
The A320 airframe includes composite materials and aluminium alloys to save weight and reduce the total number of parts to decrease the maintenance costs. Its tail assembly is made almost entirely of such composites by CASA, who also builds the elevators, main landing gear doors, and rear fuselage parts.
Flight deck and avionics
The A320 was the first civil airliner to include a full digital fly-by-wire flight control system. At the time of the aircraft's introduction, the behaviour of the fly-by-wire system equipped with full flight envelope protection was a new experience for many pilots.
Early A320 planes used the Intel 80186 and Motorola 68010. In 1988 the flight management computer contained six Intel 80286 CPUs, running in three logical pairs, with 2.5 megabytes of memory.
Its design also included a full glass cockpit rather than the hybrid versions found in previous airliners. The A320's flight deck is equipped with Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) with side-stick controllers. The A320 features an Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor (ECAM) which gives the flight crew information about all the systems of the aircraft.
From 2003, A320's feature liquid crystal display (LCD) units in the flight deck of its A318, A319, A320, and A321 flight decks instead of the original cathode ray tube (CRT) displays. These include the main displays and the backup artificial horizon, which was an analog display prior to this.
Three suppliers provide turbofan engines for the A320 series: CFM International with its CFM56, International Aero Engines, offering the V2500 and Pratt & Whitney whose PW6000 engines are only available for the A318 variant.
The Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) issued the type certificate for the A320 on 26 February 1988. After entering the market in March 1988 with Air France and Ansett, the former Australian domestic airline, Airbus then expanded the A320 family rapidly, launching the 185-seat A321 in 1989 and first delivered it in 1994; launching the 124-seat A319 in 1993 and delivering it in 1996; and launching the 107-seat A318 in 1999 with first deliveries in 2003.
The A320 family was developed to compete with the 737 Classics (-300/-400/-500) and the McDonnell Douglas MD-80/90 series, and has since faced challenges from the Boeing 737 Next Generation (-600/-700/-800/-900) and the 717 during its two decades in service. As of 2010, as well as the 737, the A320 family faces competition from Embraer's E-195 (to the A318), and the CSeries being developed by Bombardier to the A318/A319.
Airbus has delivered 7,481 A320 series aircraft since their certification/first delivery in early 1988, with another 5,580 on firm order (as of 28 February 2017). In comparison, Boeing has shipped 9,335 737s since late 1967, with 7,829 of those deliveries since March 1988, and has a further 4,452 on firm order (as of 31 December 2016).
Airbus was studying a future replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft". The follow-on aircraft to replace the A320 was named A3XX. Airbus North America President Barry Eccleston states that the earliest the aircraft could be available is 2017. In January 2010, John Leahy, Airbus's chief operating officer – customers, stated that any all new single-aisle aircraft is unlikely to be constructed before 2024/2025.
The baseline A320 has given rise to a family of aircraft which share a common design but with passenger capacity ranges from 100, on the A318, to 220, on the A321. They compete with the 737, 757, and 717. Because the four variants share the same flight deck, all have the same pilot type rating. Today all variants are available as corporate jets. An A319 variant known as A319LR is also developed. Military version like A319 MPA also exists. American Airlines is the world's largest airline operator of the A320 family of aircraft with 384 airframes in service as of 28 February 2017.
Technically, the name "A320" only refers to the original mid-sized aircraft, but it is often informally used to indicate any of the A318/A319/A320/A321 family. All variants are able to be ETOPS (Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards) certified for 180 minutes since 2004 (EASA) and 2006 (FAA). With launch of the new Airbus A320neo project, the previous members of the Airbus A320 family received the "current engine option" or "CEO" name.
The A320 series has two variants, the A320-100 and A320-200.
Only 21 A320-100s were produced. These aircraft, the first to be manufactured, were delivered to Air Inter - later acquired by Air France - and British Airways as a result of an order from British Caledonian Airways made prior to its acquisition.
The primary changes of the -200 over the -100 are wingtip fences and increased fuel capacity for increased range. Indian Airlines used its first 31 A320-200s with double-bogie main landing gear for airfields with poor runway condition which a single-bogie main gear could not manage.
Powered by two CFM International CFM56-5s or IAE V2500s with thrust ratings of 98–120 kN (22,000–27,000 lbf), its typical range with 150 passengers is 3,300 nmi / 6,100 km. A total of 4,401 of the A320ceo model have been delivered, with 303 remaining on order as of 27 February 2017. The closest Boeing competitor is the 737-800.
As the A320 began operations in 1988, the A321 was launched as its first derivative. The A321 fuselage is stretched by 6.93 metres (22 ft 9 in) with a 4.27 m (14 ft 0 in) front plug immediately forward of wing and a 2.67 m (8 ft 9 in) rear plug. The A321-100 maximum takeoff weight is increased by 9,600 kg (21,200 lb) to 83,000 kg (183,000 lb). To maintain performance, double-slotted flaps were included, in addition to increasing the wing area by 4 m2 (43 sq ft), to 128 m2 (1,380 sq ft). The maiden flight of the first of two prototypes came on 11 March 1993. The A321-100 entered service in January 1994 with Lufthansa.
As the A321-100 range was reduced compared to the A320, the heavier and longer range A321-200 development was launched in 1995. This is achieved through higher thrust engines (V2533-A5 or CFM56-5B3), minor structural strengthening, and an increase in fuel capacity with the installation of one or two optional 2,990 L (790 US gal) tanks in the rear underfloor hold. Its fuel capacity is increased to 30,030 L (7,930 US gal) and its maximum takeoff weight to 93,000 kg (205,000 lb). It first flew in December 1996 and entered service with Monarch Airlines in April 1997.
The A319 is a shortened, minimum-change version of the A320. Also known as the A320M-7, it is 3.73 metres (12 ft 3 in) shorter than the A320; four frames fore of the wing and three frames aft of the wing were removed. The reduced seating reduces the emergency exits to six. With virtually the same fuel capacity as the A320-200, and fewer passengers, the range with 124 passengers in a two-class configuration extends to 6,650 km (3,590 nmi), or 6,850 km (3,700 nmi) with the "Sharklets". Four propulsion options available on the A319 are the 23,040-pound-force (102.5 kN) V2522-A5 and 24,800-pound-force (110 kN) V2527M-A5 from IAE, or the 22,000-pound-force (98 kN) CFM56-5B/A and 27,000-pound-force (120 kN) CFM56-5B7. Although identical to those of the A320, these engines are derated because of the A319's lower MTOW.
The A319 was developed at the request of Steven Udvar-Hazy, the former president and CEO of ILFC according to The New York Times. The A319's launch customer, in fact, was ILFC, which had placed an order for six A319s by 1993. Anticipating further orders by Swissair and Alitalia, Airbus decided to launch the programme on 10 June 1993. Final assembly of the first A319 began on 23 March 1995 and it was first introduced with Swissair in April 1996. The direct Boeing competitor is the Boeing 737-700.
A total of 1,457 of the A319ceo model have been delivered, with 21 remaining on order as of 28 February 2017.
The A319CJ (rebranded ACJ319) is the corporate jet version of the A319. It incorporates removable extra fuel tanks (up to 6 Additional Center Tanks) which are installed in the cargo compartment, and an increased service ceiling of 12,500 m (41,000 ft). Range with eight passengers' payload and auxiliary fuel tanks (ACTs) is up to 6,000 nautical miles (11,100 km). Upon resale, the aircraft can be reconfigured as a standard A319 by removing its extra tanks and corporate cabin outfit, thus maximising its resale value. It was formerly also known as the ACJ, or Airbus Corporate Jet, while starting with 2014 it has the marketing designation ACJ319.
The aircraft seats up to 39 passengers, but may be outfitted by the customers into any configuration. Tyrolean Jet Service Mfg. GmbH & CO KG, MJET and Reliance Industries are among its users. The A319CJ competes with other ultralarge-cabin corporate jets such as the Boeing 737–700-based Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) and Embraer Lineage 1000, as well as with large-cabin and ultralong-range Gulfstream G650, Gulfstream G550 and Bombardier's Global 6000. It is powered by the same engine types as the A320. The A319CJ was used by the Escadron de Transport, d'Entraînement et de Calibration which is in charge of transportation for France's officials and also by the Flugbereitschaft of the German Air Force for transportation of Germany's officials. An ACJ serves as a presidential or official aircraft of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Venezuela.
The Airbus A318 is the smallest member of the Airbus A320 family. The A318 carries up to 132 passengers and has a maximum range of 3,100 nmi (5,700 km; 3,600 mi). The aircraft entered service in July 2003 with Frontier Airlines, and shares a common type rating with all other Airbus A320 family variants, allowing existing A320 family pilots to fly the aircraft without the need for further training. It is the largest commercial aircraft certified by the European Aviation Safety Agency for steep approach operations, allowing flights at airports such as London City Airport. Relative to other Airbus A320 family variants, the A318 has sold in only small numbers with total orders for only 80 aircraft placed as of 31 October 2015[update].
A programme to convert A320 and A321 aircraft into freighters was set up by Airbus Freighter Conversion GmbH. Airframes would be converted by EADS EFW in Dresden, Germany, and Zhukovsky, Russia. The launch customer AerCap signed a firm contract on 16 July 2008 to convert 30 of AerCap's passenger A320/A321s into A320/A321P2F (passenger to freighter). However, on 3 June 2011, Airbus announced all partners would end the passenger to freighter programme, citing high demand for used airframes for passenger service.
As of 28 February 2017, 7,157 Airbus A320-family aircraft (all variants, including the A320neo family) remained in commercial service with over 250 airline operators. This includes 69 A318, 1,439 A319ceo, 4,123 A320ceo, 82 A320neo and 1,444 A321ceo aircraft. Air France, Avianca, and British Airways are the only operators to operate all four variants of the A320.
Orders and deliveries
Accidents and incidents
For the entire A320 family, 118 aviation accidents and incidents have occurred (the last one being Afriqiyah Airways Flight 209 on 23 Dec 2016), including 35 hull loss accidents (the last one being EgyptAir Flight 804 on 19 May 2016), and a total of 1393 fatalities (the last one aboard EgyptAir Flight 804 on 19 May 2016).
It has seen fifty incidents where several flight displays were lost. Through 2015, the Airbus A320 family has experienced 0.12 fatal hull-loss accidents for every million takeoffs, and 0.26 total hull-loss accidents for every million takeoffs; one of the smallest fatality rates of any airliner.
|1-class max. seating||132 at 29–30 in (74–76 cm) pitch||156 at 28–30 in (71–76 cm) pitch||186 at 29 in (74 cm) pitch||236 at 28 in (71 cm) pitch|
|1-class, typical||117 at 32 in (81 cm) pitch||134 at 32 in (81 cm) pitch||164 at 32 in (81 cm) pitch||199 at 32 in (81 cm) pitch|
|2-class, typical||107 (8F @ 38 in, 99Y @ 32 in)||124 (8F @ 38 in, 116Y @ 32 in)||150 (12F @ 36 in, 138Y @ 32 in)||185 (16F @ 36 in, 169Y @ 32 in)|
|Cargo volume||21.20 m3 (749 cu ft)||27.70 m3 (978 cu ft)||37.40 m3 (1,321 cu ft)||51.70 m3 (1,826 cu ft)|
|Unit load devices||4× LD3-45||7× LD3-45||10× LD3-45|
|Length||31.44 m (103 ft 2 in)||33.84 m (111 ft 0 in)||37.57 m (123 ft 3 in)||44.51 m (146 ft 0 in)|
|Wheelbase||10.25 m (33 ft 8 in)||11.04 m (36 ft 3 in)||12.64 m (41 ft 6 in)||16.91 m (55 ft 6 in)|
|Track||7.59 m (24 ft 11 in)|
|Wingspan||34.10 m (111 ft 11 in)||35.8 m (117 ft 5 in) [d]|
|Wing area||122.4 m2 (1,318 sq ft)|
|Wing sweepback||25 degrees|
|Tail height||12.56 m (41 ft 2 in)||11.76 m (38 ft 7 in)|
|Cabin width||3.70 m (12 ft 2 in)|
|Fuselage width||3.95 m (13 ft 0 in)|
|Fuselage height||4.14 m (13 ft 7 in)|
|Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)||68 t (150,000 lb)||75.5 t (166,000 lb)||78 t (172,000 lb)||93.5 t (206,000 lb)|
|Maximum landing weight (MLW)||57.5 t (127,000 lb)||62.5 t (138,000 lb)||66 t (146,000 lb)||77.8 t (172,000 lb)|
|Maximum zero-fuel weight (MZFW)||54.5 t (120,000 lb)||58.5 t (129,000 lb)||62.5 t (138,000 lb)||73.8 t (163,000 lb)|
|Operating empty weight (OEW)||39.5 t (87,100 lb)||40.8 t (89,900 lb)||42.6 t (93,900 lb)||48.5 t (107,000 lb)|
|Cruising speed||Mach 0.78 (515 mph; 829 km/h)|
|Maximum speed||Mach 0.82 (541 mph; 871 km/h)|
|Range, typical payload[e]||3,100 nmi, 5,750 km||3,750 nmi, 6,950 km[d]||3,300 nmi, 6,100 km[d]||3,200 nmi, 5,950 km[d]|
|ACJ range||4,200 nmi, 7,800 km||6,000 nmi, 11,100 km||4,300 nmi, 7,800 km|
|Takeoff (MTOW, SL, ISA)||1,780 m (5,840 ft)||1,850 m (6,070 ft)||2,100 m (6,900 ft)|
|Landing (MLW, SL, ISA)||1,230 m (4,040 ft)||1,360 m (4,460 ft)||1,500 m (4,900 ft)|
|Fuel capacity||24,210 L (6,400 US gal)||24,210–30,190 L (6,400–7,980 US gal)||24,210–27,200 L (6,400–7,190 US gal)||24,050–30,030 L (6,350–7,930 US gal)|
|Service ceiling||39,100–41,000 ft (11,900–12,500 m)|
|Engines (×2)||CFM International CFM56-5B, 68.3 in (1.73 m) fan|
|PW6000A, 56.5 in (1.44 m) fan||IAE V2500A5, 63.5 in (1.61 m) fan|
|Thrust (×2)||96–106 kN (22,000–24,000 lbf)||98–120 kN (22,000–27,000 lbf)||133–147 kN (30,000–33,000 lbf)|
|Aircraft model||Certification date||Engines|
|A318-111||23 May 2003||CFM56-5B8/P|
|A318-112||23 May 2003||CFM56-5B9/P|
|A318-121||21 December 2005||PW6122A|
|A318-122||21 December 2005||PW6124A|
|A319-111||10 April 1996||CFM56-5B5 or 5B5/P|
|A319-112||10 April 1996||CFM56-5B6 or 5B6/P or 5B6/2P|
|A319-113||31 May 1996||CFM56-5A4 or 5A4/F|
|A319-114||31 May 1996||CFM56-5A5 or 5A5/F|
|A319-115||30 July 1999||CFM56-5B7 or 5B7/P|
|A319-131||18 December 1996||IAE Model V2522-A5|
|A319-132||18 December 1996||IAE Model V2524-A5|
|A319-133||30 July 1999||IAE Model V2527M-A5|
|A320-111||26 February 1988||CFM56-5A1 or 5A1/F|
|A320-211||8 November 1988||CFM56-5A1 or 5A1/F|
|A320-212||20 November 1990||CFM56-5A3|
|A320-214||10 March 1995||CFM56-5B4 or 5B4/P or 5B4/2P|
|A320-215||22 June 2006||CFM56-5B5|
|A320-216||14 June 2006||CFM56-5B6|
|A320-231||20 April 1989||IAE Model V2500-A1|
|A320-232||28 September 1993||IAE Model V2527-A5|
|A320-233||12 June 1996||IAE Model V2527E-A5|
|A321-111||27 May 1995||CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P|
|A321-112||15 February 1995||CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P|
|A321-131||17 December 1993||IAE Model V2530-A5|
|A321-211||20 March 1997||CFM56-5B3 or 5B3/P or 5B3/2P|
|A321-212||31 August 2001||CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P|
|A321-213||31 August 2001||CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P|
|A321-231||20 March 1997||IAE Model V2533-A5|
|A321-232||31 August 2001||IAE Model V2530-A5|
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Boeing 717
- Boeing 737 Classic
- Boeing 737 Next Generation
- Boeing 757
- Bombardier CSeries
- Comac C919
- Embraer 195
- Irkut MS-21
- McDonnell Douglas MD-90
- Tupolev Tu-204
- Related lists
- Final assembly in France (Toulouse,) Germany (Hamburg), China (Tianjin,) and the United States (Mobile, Alabama)
- At 31 January 2017, Airbus still list American Airlines and US Airways as separate operators. Following a merger of the airlines in October 2015, the American Airlines total used here is combined for both carriers
- At 28 February 2017, Airbus still list American Airlines and US Airways as separate operators. Following a merger of the airlines in October 2015, the American Airlines total used here is combined for both carriers
- with sharklets
- Passengers and bags
- David Learmount (3 September 1988). "A320 in service: an ordinary aeroplane". Flight International. Vol. 134 no. 4129. Reed Business Publishing. pp. 132, 133. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "US Airways' final flight closes curtain on another major airline". USA Today. 16 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "Airbus Orders and Deliveries" (xls). Airbus. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "2017 price adjustment for Airbus' modern, fuel-efficient aircraft". airbus.com. Airbus. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
- "Airbus A320 (A320ceo and A320neo) Aircraft family". Airbus.com. 3 March 2013. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Airbus. "Aircraft Families". Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "Mobile Amasses a Mountain of Manufacturers Archived 4 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.," Business Alabama, June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Airbus steals the Paris air show". Hellocompany.org. 19 June 2007. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Airbus offers new fuel saving engine options for A320 Family". Airbus. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Spotlight on... | Airbus, a leading aircraft manufacturer". airbus. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "First A320neo delivery opens new era in commercial aviation". airbus. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Lufthansa takes delivery of the world's first Airbus A320neo as launching customer".
- Wensveen, J.G. (1 January 2007). Air Transportation: A Management Perspective. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing, 2007. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-7546-7171-8.
- Gunston 2009
- Norris, Guy and Mark Wagner (2001). Airbus A340 and A330. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 0-7603-0889-6.
- "A320 family". Flight International. 1997. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 38
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 41
- "Hawker Siddeley Trident". Century of Flight. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
- Payne, Richard (2004). Stuck on the Drawing Board: Unbuilt British Commercial Aircraft Since 1945. London, UK: The History Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-3172-2.
- Aris 2002, p. 119
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 43
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 44
- Aris 2002, p. 120
- Eden 2008, p. 23
- Gillespie, S. (2007). CO2 emissions model for air travel public documentation (v1.1). TRX Travel Analytics, 13 December 2007.
- David Learmount (20 Feb 2017). "How A320 changed the world for commercial pilots". Flight International.
- "Airbus's fly-by-wire pioneer Bernard Ziegler wins Flightglobal Lifetime Achievement Award". Flight Daily News. 11 July 2012.
- Aris 2002, p. 122
- "V2500" (PDF). International Aero Engines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- "Engine Data File". Civil jet aircraft design. Elsevier. 2001.
- Aris 2002, p. 123
- Aris 2002, p. 124
- Aris 2002, p. 126
- "A320 launch and first delivery of A300-600" (Press release). Airbus. 2 March 1984.
- Guy Norris and Mark Wagner (1999). Airbus. MBI Publishing Company.
- "Air France: launch customer of the A320" (Press release). Airbus. 10 June 1981.
- "More than 80 orders for the planned A320" (Press release). Airbus. 1 October 1983.
- "A320 roll-out and first flight" (Press release). Airbus. 22 February 1987.
- "A320 first delivery" (Press release). Airbus. 28 March 1988.
- "AF296Q Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation.
- Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 19 February 2011.
- Reed 1992, p. 84
- "Final assembly lines". Airbus.
- Joe Anselmo (2 March 2015). "Analysts Flag Potential Airliner Glut". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "Tianjin becomes eastern cousin of Toulouse". FlightGlobal. 23 February 2017.
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 50
- Laming, Tim and Robert Hewson (2000). Airbus A320. Zenith Imprint. p. 23. ISBN 0-7603-0902-7.
- Reed 1992, p. 84
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 51
- Julian Moxon (17 March 1993). "A321: Taking on the 757". Flight International.
- "A320 Dimensions & key data". Airbus.
- "A321 Dimensions & key data". Airbus.
- Eden 2008, p. 25
- Sebdon, Gilbert (7 February 1990). "A321 victory for West Germany". Flight International. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 53
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 52
- Eden 2008, p. 26
- Moxon, Henley (30 August 1995). "Meeting demands". Flight International. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "A319 Dimensions & key data". Airbus.
- Henley, Peter. "A319 flight test". Flight International. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 54
- Gunston 2009, p. 216
- Eden 2008, p. 27
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 55
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 87
- Paul Lewis (5 November 1997). "Time out in asia". Flight International. Reed Business Information. 152 (4599): 38,39. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 88
- Gunston 2009, p. 222
- "A318 Dimensions & key data". Airbus.
- "Flights that made Airbus' history". Airbus. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (10–16 June 2003). "The Minibus Arrives". Flight International. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Gunston 2009, p. 223
- "Airbus aims to thwart Boeing's narrowbody plans with upgraded 'A320 Enhanced'". Flight International. 20 June 2006.
- "Avianca takes delivery of Sharklet equipped A320". Airbus. 13 February 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (10 October 2006). "Airbus rethinks plan to put winglets on A320". Flight International.
- "Airbus undertakes Blended-Winglet evaluation on A320". Airbus. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- "Airbus launches new A320 'Sharklet' wingtips". The Australian. 16 November 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- "Airbus A320 to Get Sharklets Large Wingtip Devices by the End of 2012". Deagel.com. 15 November 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (15 November 2009). "Dubai 09: A320's sharklets to deliver 3.5% lower fuel burn from 2012". Flight International. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- "American Airlines takes delivery of its first A320 Family aircraft" (Press release). Airbus. 23 July 2013.
- Irish, John (15 November 2009). "Airbus says wingtip change to save fuel". Reuters. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- "Korean Air Aerospace to manufacture new A320 Family "Sharklets"". Airbus. 31 May 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Airbus drives cabin efficiency at Aircraft Interiors Expo Archived 17 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Airbus
- Airbus A320 overhead LED lights Archived 30 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine. YouTube video (requires Flash plugin)
- Enhanced Fap – Airbus 320 touchscreen display Archived 13 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. YouTube video (requires Flash plugin)
- Condor launch the A320 Enhanced Cabin Retrofit programme Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Airbus
- A320 NEO to have $7–8 million price premium Archived 31 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Flightglobal
- Stearns, Jonathan; Rothman, Andrea (1 December 2010). "Airbus to Deploy Superjumbo, Military Engineers for A320 NEO". Bloomberg. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "TAM becomes first A320neo customer in Latin America". Aviationnews.eu. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Airbus A320 Aircraft family". Airbus.com. 25 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Virgin America Confirms Order for 60 New Aircraft" (Press release). Virginamerica.com. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Ranson, Lori (11 January 2011). "IndiGo's potential A320neo order heats up engine competition". Flightglobal. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Robert Wall, Joe Anselmo, Jens Flottau and Guy Norris (Jun 27, 2011). "Paris Air Show 2011 Orders Recast Airliner Battlefield". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Yeo, Ghim-Lay (22 June 2011). "PARIS: IndiGo firms A320 MOU". Flightglobal. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "AirAsia orders 200 A320neo aircraft" (Press release). Airbus. 23 June 2011.
- "Airbus With New Order Record At Paris Air Show 2011" (Press release). Airbus. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "Airbus wins 211 orders and commitments worth US$20.5 billion" (Press release). Airbus. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (15 March 2013). "Turkish unveils huge A320 family order, including 57 Neos". Flightglobal. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "A320 Family / Technology". Airbus. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Norris & Wagner 1999, p. 42
- Dominique Brière, Pascal Traverse - Aérospatiale (22–24 June 1993). "Airbus A320/A330/A340 Electrical Flight Controls: A Family of Fault-Tolerant Systems" (PDF). FTCS-23 The Twenty-Third International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Computing. IEEE. 4.2 "Failure detection and redundancy". doi:10.1109/FTCS.1993.627364. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009.
- Gilbert Sedbon (13 February 1988). "Keeping the Complex Simple". Flight International. p. 44.
- Charlotte Adams (January 1, 2003). "Product Focus: Cockpit Displays: LCDs vs. CRTs". Avionics magazine.
- "Airbus launches a new systems Enhancement Package for In-Service A320 Family aircraft" (Press release). Airbus. 24 September 2007.
- "Digital head-up display system" (PDF). Thales. 2012.
- "P&W Main Website". Archived from the original on 9 June 2012.
- Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 October 2007, p. 63
- Maynard, Micheline (14 July 2008). "A New Bombardier Jet Draws Only Tepid Demand". New York Times. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Orders and Deliveries search page". Boeing. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- "737 Model Summary". Boeing. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- "Historical Orders and Deliveries 1974–2009". Airbus S.A.S. January 2010. Archived from the original (Microsoft Excel) on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- "Historical Deliveries". Boeing. November 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Norris, Guy (7 February 2006). "The 737 Story: Smoke and mirrors obscure 737 and Airbus A320 replacement studies". Flight International.
- "A30X Isn't Coming Soon". Aviation Week and Space Technology. Vol. 167 no. 18. 5 November 2007. p. 20. (registration required (. ))
- "Airbus sees lifespan of at least 10 years for re-engined A320". Flight International. 14 January 2010.
- "ICAO Document 8643". International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Airbus A320 Family approved for 180 minute ETOPS by the FAA Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Airbus
- "The Airbus A320 family vs the Boeing 737 family: Who's got the muscle?". The Flying Engineer. May 30, 2010.
- Gunston 2009, pp. 213–214
- Gunston 2009, pp. 214–215
- Wayne, Leslie (10 May 2007). "The Real Owner of All Those Planes". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- Eden 2008, pp. 26–27
- "Aircraft Families – Airbus Executive and Private Aviation – ACJ Family". Stagev4.airbus.com. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- ACJ Specifications Archived 8 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine., airbus.com
- "ACJ Analysis" Business & Commercial Aviation Magazine – July 2002, Page 44
- "– Government of Armenia A319CJ". Airliners.net. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "Il portale dell'Aeronautica Militare – Airbus A319CJ". Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Strong demand for used Airbus A320 aircraft drives joint decision to stop freighter conversion programme" Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. airbus.com
- "ST Aerospace, Airbus and EFW to launch A320 and A321P2F conversion programme" (PDF). ST Aerospace. 17 June 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- "hull-loss and repairable damage occurrences". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation.
- "hull-loss occurrences". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation.
- "Airbus A320 Statistics". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation.
- "Safety Recommendation A08-53" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. July 22, 2008. p. 2.
According to Airbus, as of May 2007, 49 events similar to the United Airlines flight 731 and UK events had occurred in which the failure of electrical busses resulted in the loss of flight displays and various aircraft systems.
- "Statistical Summary of Commercial Jet Airplane Accidents" (PDF). Boeing. July 2016. p. 19.
- "Type Certificate Data Sheet" (PDF). EASA. 28 June 2016.
- "Type Certificate Data Sheet" (PDF). FAA. August 12, 2016.
- "All About the Airbus A320 Family". Airbus. 2009.
- "High-density A320s for easyJet will retain seat pitch, assures airline". Runway Girl Network. 1 March 2016.
- "Airbus Studies 236-Seat A321". Aviation Week. December 10, 2012.
- "Airbus Aircraft Data File". Civil Jet Aircraft Design. Elsevier. July 1999.
- "A320 Family Technology". Airbus.
- "ACJ318". Airbus.
- "ACJ319". Airbus.
- "ACJ320". Airbus.
- Aris, Stephen (2002). Close to the Sun. London, UK: Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-830-1.
- Eden, Paul E. (general editor). Civil Aircraft Today. London: Amber Books, 2008. ISBN 978-1-905704-86-6.
- Gunston, Bill (2009). Airbus: The Complete Story. Sparkford, Yeovil, Somerset, UK: Haynes Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84425-585-6.
- Norris, Guy and Mark Wagner (1999). Airbus. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-0677-X.
- Reed, Arthur (1992). Airbus: Europe's High Flyer. Zürich, Switzerland: Norden Publishing House. ISBN 3-907150-10-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Airbus A320 family.|
|Airbus A320 family||Airbus A320neo family|
|Airbus A330||Airbus A330neo|
|Airbus A340||Airbus A350 XWB|
|= Narrow-body||= Wide-body|