Airbus A320neo family

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A320neo family
A319neo/A320neo/A321neo
A twin-engined jet aircraft with distinctive winglets, in blue and white livery, on the ground
A Lufthansa A320neo taking off from Frankfurt Airport
Role Narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner
National origin Multinational
Manufacturer Airbus
First flight 25 September 2014
Introduction 25 January 2016 with Lufthansa[1]
Status In service
Primary users IndiGo
Lufthansa
GoAir
Pegasus Airlines
Produced 2012-present[2]
Number built 16 as of 31 August 2016[3]
Unit cost
A319neo: US$98.5 million, approx. 90.6 million (2016)[4]
A320neo: US$107.3 million, approx. €98.7 million (2016)[4]
A321neo: US$125.7 million, approx. €115.6 million (2016)[4]
Developed from Airbus A320 family

The Airbus A320neo family is a series of airliners developed since December 2010 by Airbus,[5] with the suffix "neo" meaning "new engine option". It is the last step of the A320 Enhanced (A320E) modernisation programme, which was started in 2006. The A320neo replaces the original A320 family, which is now referred to as A320ceo, for "current engine option".

In addition to the new engines, the modernisation programme also included such improvements as: aerodynamic refinements, large curved winglets (sharklets), weight savings, a new aircraft cabin with larger hand luggage spaces, and an improved air purification system.[6][7] Customers will have a choice of either the CFM International LEAP-1A or the Pratt & Whitney PW1100G engines.

These improvements in combination are predicted to result in 15% lower fuel consumption per aircraft, 8% lower operating costs, reduced noise production, and a reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by at least 10% compared to the A320 series, as well as an increase in range of approximately 500 nautical miles (900 km).[8] A rearranged cabin allows up to 20 more passengers[9] enabling in total over 20% lower fuel consumption per seat.[10]

Airbus has firm orders for the A320neo family totalling 4,796 as of August 2016.[3] The first A320neo rolled out of the Airbus factory in Toulouse on 1 July 2014.[11] The first flight of the aircraft took place on 25 September 2014.[12] A joint type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration was received on 24 November 2015.[13]

On 25 January 2016, the A320neo entered service with Lufthansa, the type's launch customer.[14] Six months later at Farnborough Airshow, John Leahy reported that the 8 in-service aircraft fleet had achieved a 99.7% dispatch reliability.[15]

Development[edit]

A320 Enhanced[edit]

Airbus A320 Enhanced (A320E) with sharklets at ILA 2012

Airbus had been studying the successor to the A320 family with the option of a completely new aircraft or a re-engined and updated one. In 2006 Airbus started the A320 Enhanced (or "A320E") programme as a series of improvements to the A320 family. The improvements include aerodynamic refinements, such as adding large curved winglets (Sharklets) with 3.5% fuel burn improvements, weight savings, a new cabin, and engine improvements.[6] These engine improvements were fitted into the A320 in 2007/2008 with the CFM56 Tech Insertion and the V2500Select (One), they were estimated to reduce fuel consumption by only 1–2%, which finally led to Airbus's decision of going with the new engine option, abbreviated "neo".[16][17][18]

"Who's going to roll over a fleet to a new generation aircraft for 5% better than an A320 today? Especially if another 10% improvement might be coming in the second half of the next decade based on new engine technology," said John Leahy, Airbus Chief Operating Officer and executive member, in 2006.[6]

Sharklets[edit]

A320 Enhanced (A320E) and A320neo sharklet detail at ILA 2012.

The A320 Enhanced as well as the A320neo will also include some modifications to the wing, mainly the installation of blended winglets called "sharklets"[19][20] to A320s (and A320neos) commencing in 2012 with launch customer Air New Zealand.[21] These Airbus winglets, which are 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) tall and weigh 200 kilograms (440 lb),[22] would reduce fuel burn by 3.5% and offer increases in payload of 500 kilograms (1,100 lb), or range by 100 nautical miles (190 km) at the original payload.[23] This corresponds to an annual CO2 reduction of around 700 tonnes per aircraft,[20] saving operators US$220,000 per aircraft per year.[24] The sharklets are to be manufactured and distributed by Korean Air Aerospace Division.[25]

In December 2011, Airbus filed suit in the western district of Texas over Aviation Partners' claims of infringement of its patents on winglet design & construction, which patents were granted to Aviation Partners in 1993. Airbus' lawsuit seeks to reject responsibility to pay royalties to Aviation Partners for using its designs, despite work performed together with both parties to develop advanced winglets for the A320neo.[26]

Enhanced cabin[edit]

A new quieter aircraft cabin was fitted also offering better and larger luggage storage[27] as well as a more modern look and feel. A new air purification system with filters and a catalytic converter removes toxic fumes and unpleasant smells from the air before it is pumped into the cabin.[28] LED ambience lighting is optionally available. Anytime LEDs are used for the Passenger Service Unit (PSU)[29] and the flight crew can control the cabin through new touchscreen displays.[30]

The new "Space-Flex" optional cabin configuration increases space-efficiency by a new rear galley configuration and a "Smart-Lav" modular lavatory design – allowing an in-flight change of two lavatories into one accessible toilet.[31] It allows up to 9 more passengers for the A320neo and – with larger, relocated exit doors ("Cabin-Flex") – up to 20 more passengers for the A321neo without "putting more sardines in the can".[32] The moved and enlarged exit doors are estimated to add 100 kg empty weight.[33] Fuel efficiency per seat is increased by 6% with this option, together with the new engines and the sharklets in total exceeding 20%.[10]

A320neo: New Engine Option[edit]

An A321neo prototype in flight

On 1 December 2010, Airbus officially launched its successor to the A320 Enhanced, the A320neo "New Engine Option". The choice for new engines include the CFM International LEAP-1A and the Pratt & Whitney PW1100G.[34][35][36] Though the new engines will burn 16% less fuel, the actual fuel efficiency gain on an A320 installation will be slightly lower, since 1–2% is typically lost upon installation on an existing aircraft. Overall this means an additional range of 510 nmi (950 km), or 2 t (4,400 lb) of extra payload.[37]

Airbus' CEO was said to be "comfortable" with the projections of 15% lower maintenance cost for the Pratt & Whitney's PW1000G family, compared with today's engines.[34] Airbus plans to deliver 4,000 A320neo over 15 years. Airlines' choices between the two engines are almost equal.[38]

The first Airbus A320neo rolled out of the Toulouse factory on 1 July 2014.[39] The Pratt & Whitney PW1100G-JM geared turbofan engine was Federal Aviation Administration certified on 19 December 2014.[40]

Contrary to most recent airliner developments with years of delay (including competitors Bombardier CSeries, Comac C919, Irkut MS-21, or postponed development of Boeing Y1/737 MAX), its first flight was advanced to September 2014.[41] 95% commonality with the A320 helped to reduce delays associated with large changes.[42] The A320neo delivery was initially advanced to October 2015 from the second quarter 2016,[43] but afterwards postponed to early 2016.[44] Lufthansa has taken delivery of the first A320neo on 20 January 2016.[45]

The Airbus A321neo prototype, D-AVXB, first flew on 9 February 2016.[46] However, the plane suffered a tailstrike three days later, requiring that the aircraft be flown to Toulouse for repairs. Airbus estimates a delay of several weeks for the certification programme due to the time required for repairs.[47]

Design[edit]

Virgin America Airbus A320 Enhanced economy class cabin with LED lighting

The A320neo Family incorporates latest-generation engines and large "Sharklet" wingtip devices, which according to Airbus deliver together a total of 15 percent in fuel savings.[48] The new winglets reduce fuel consumption by 3.5% to 4% due to the decrease of lift-induced drag.

The A320neo has over 95% airframe commonality with the current A320 with 91% commonality in tooling; the airframe includes more composite materials and aluminium alloys, which helps save weight. Use of the new materials will helps reducing the total number of parts of the plane, which is expected to decrease the maintenance costs.[48][49]

Variants[edit]

For the Airbus A320ceo or Current Engine Option variants, see Airbus A320 family § Variants.

Airbus has decided to offer three advanced variants of the A320 family with the "New Engine Option". The A319, A320 and A321 will all be developed further while the A318 is not expected to be offered as a "neo", although that may change in the future.[50]

A321LR[edit]

The A321neo weight variant with increased MTOW of 97 tons – often called A321LR or sometimes A321neoLR (LR = long-range) – transports 206 passengers in a 2-class layout with increased range to 4,000 nmi (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) by using three additional 2,990 L (790 US gal) fuel tanks.[56] An extended 2-class layout additionally including a premium economy class with 164 passengers allows a range of up to 4,100 nmi (7,600 km; 4,700 mi).[33][57] Historically this is the second MTOW increase after the initial A321-100 with 83 tons, which was quickly replaced by the -200 with 93.5 tons. In October 2014 Airbus started to offer it also as a replacement for the aging Boeing 757-200, including the modified version with winglets, known as the 757-200W.

Compared to the 757-200W, Airbus predicts an A321LR gives overall 25–30% lower operating cost depending on the number of seats[58][59] on routes where a wide-body would be uneconomical. Although Boeing has nicknamed a response to the A321LR as "Middle of Market" (MOM),[60] they denied working on for example a new "757MAX", a modification of the 737MAX-9 or Boeing 767 or the 787-3.[61][62][63][64]

Orders and deliveries[edit]

The A320neo family received over 2,000 orders in a little over two years following launch in December 2010, making it the fastest selling commercial aircraft in history.[65][66] Virgin America became the launch customer with a firm order of 30 A320neo aircraft as a part of a 60 aircraft order on 17 January 2011.[67] However, in November 2012 they deferred the deliveries of the A320neo aircraft until 2020, making ILFC the new launch customer along with the A321neo.[68] Significant orders include 150 aircraft from IndiGo,[69][70] 200 from AirAsia, 100 from American Airlines and 174 from Lion Air. The A320neo entered service in January 2016 with Lufthansa, about 27 years after the first A320 was delivered. Originally, the A320neo was to be followed by the shrunk A319neo and later by the stretched A321neo. However, in a change reflecting market demand, Airbus adjusted the schedule during development so the A320neo as the lead variant will be followed by the A321neo, with the A319neo to come after that.

Airbus A320neo family orders and deliveries by variant[71]
Total orders Total deliveries
A319neo 58
A320neo 3,444 16
A321neo 1,294
Total 4,796 16

As of 31 August 2016[71]

Airbus A320neo family orders and deliveries by year
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Orders A319neo 26 19 2 3 8 58
A320neo 30 1,081 378 387 824 583 161 3,444
A321neo 119 81 341 183 301 269 1,294
Total 30 1,226 478 728 1,009 887 438 4,796
Deliveries A319neo
A320neo 16 16
A321neo
Total 16 16

As of 31 August 2016[71]

Airbus A320neo family orders and deliveries (cumulative, by year):

As of 31 August 2016[71]

Orders

Deliveries


At the Paris Air Show 2011, Airbus confirmed orders from GECAS, Scandinavian Airlines, TransAsia Airways, IndiGo, LAN Airlines, AirAsia and GoAir.[72] Airbus also received commitments for 83 A320neo aircraft from Air Lease Corporation and Avianca. In total, the 2011 Paris Air Show endowed the A320neo with a combined 667 orders and 83 commitments, including 200 aircraft for Malaysian low-cost carrier AirAsia, which was hailed as the largest-ever deal in Airbus history.[73] A month later, American Airlines ordered 130 A320neo's, which would cause the airline to cease having an all-Boeing fleet, and Lufthansa became the aircraft's first German customer, ordering 30 examples.[74] The Dubai Airshow in November 2011 saw a further total of 130 orders and 105 commitments by several customers. On 25 January 2012 Norwegian and Airbus confirmed an order of 100 A320neo.[75] In December 2012 Pegasus Airlines, the second largest airline in Turkey, signed a deal for up to 100 A320neo family aircraft, of which 75 (57 A320neo and 18 A321neo models) are firm orders.[76] Lufthansa ordered an additional 70 A320neo and A321neo aircraft in March 2013.[77] easyJet, who already operates 195 A320ceo family aircraft, intends to acquire 100 Airbus A320neo for delivery between 2017 and 2022. As part of the deal, easyJet have options on a further 100 A320neo aircraft, and the Japanese carrier ANA is to order the A320neo and A321neo.[78] On 15 October 2014 IndiGo signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Airbus for the purchase of 250 A320neo family aircraft. The deal would be worth over $25.5 billion or Rs 1.55 lakh crore, as per the list price per aircraft. This order will also be the largest by the airline, marking the largest number of jets ever sold by the European planemaker in a single order. The airline had earlier ordered 100 aircraft in 2005 and another 180 aircraft in 2011.[79]

Operators[edit]

There are 16 A320neo family aircraft in service as of 31 August 2016.[3]


Specifications[edit]

Airbus Family figures[83]
A319neo A320neo A321neo
Cockpit crew Two
Seating capacity 140 (2-class)
160 (1-class, maximum)
165 (2-class)
195 (1-class, Maximum)[84][85]
206 (2-class)
240 (1-class, maximum)
Seat pitch max density : 28–29 in (71–74 cm) [86] max density : 28 in (71 cm)[32]

16B @ 36 in (91 cm) + 190Y @ 30 in (76 cm)[33]

Seat width Economy at 6 abreast: 18 in (46 cm)[32]
Cargo capacity 27 m³ (976 ft³) 37 m³ (1,322 ft³) 51 m³ (1,828 ft³)
A321LR: < 51 m³ (1,828 ft³)
Length 33.84 m (111') 37.57 m (123'3") 44.51 m (146')
Wingspan 35.80 m (117'5")
Height 11.76 m (38'7")
Cabin width 3.7 m (12'1")
Cruising speed Mach 0.78[87](447 knots (828 km/h) at cruising altitude)
Max. zero-fuel weight 60.3 t (132,900 lb) 64.3 t (141.800 lb) 75.6 t (166.700 lb)
Max. landing weight 63.9 t (140.900 lb) 67.4 t (148.600 lb) 79.2 t (174.600 lb)
Max. takeoff weight 75.5 t (166.400 lb) 79 t (174.200 lb) 93.5 t (206.100 lb)[33]
A321LR : 97 t (213.800 lb)
Jet fuel capacity 26,730 l (7,060 USg) 26,730 l (7,060 USg) 29,560 l (7,810 USg)[verification needed]
A321LR : 32,940 l (8,700 USg)
Typical range 6,950 km (3,750 nm) 6,500 km (3,500 nm) 6,500 km (3,500 nm)[33]
A321LR : 7,400 km (4,000 nm)
Engines (×2) CFM International LEAP-1A or Pratt & Whitney PW1100G[87]
Fan diameter PW1100G: 81 in (206 cm),[88] LEAP-1A: 78 in (198 cm)[89]
Thrust PW1124G : 107.82 kN (24,240 lbf) [90]

LEAP-1A24 : 106.8 kN (24,010 lbf)[91]

PW1127G : 120.43 kN (27,075 lbf) [90]

LEAP-1A28 : 120.64 kN (27,120 lbf)[91]

PW1133G : 147.28 kN (33,110 lbf) [90]/PW1135G

LEAP-1A32/33 : 143.05 kN (32,160 lbf)[91]

First Flight - 25 September 2014[92] 9 February 2016[93]

Engines[edit]

Type certificate[85]
Aircraft model designation Engines Type Certification Date Take-off Thrust Maximum continuous
A320-271N PW1127G-JM November 24, 2015 12 043 daN (27 075 lbs) 11 718 daN (26 345 lbs)
A320-251N CFM LEAP-1A26 May 31, 2016 12 064 daN (27 120 lbs) 11 868 daN (26 680 lbs)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Media related to Airbus A320neo at Wikimedia Commons