Airbus A320neo family
|A320neo family |
|An IndiGo A320neo, the largest operator, about to land|
|Role||Narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner|
|First flight||25 September 2014|
|Introduction||25 January 2016 with Lufthansa|
|Status||In service, in production|
Azul Brazilian Airlines
|Number built||318 as of 31 May 2018[update]|
|Program cost||"slightly more than €1 billion [$1.3 billion]" predicted in 2010|
|Developed from||Airbus A320 family|
The Airbus A320neo family (neo for new engine option) is a development of the A320 family of narrow-body airliners produced by Airbus, the original family is renamed A320ceo, for current engine option. Launched on 1 December 2010, it made its first flight on 25 September 2014 and it was introduced by Lufthansa on 25 January 2016. Re-engined with CFM International LEAP-1A or Pratt & Whitney PW1000G engines and with large sharklets, it should be 15% more fuel efficient. Three variants are based on the previous A319, A320 and A321. Airbus received 6,031 orders by March 2018 and delivered 318 by May 2018.
- 1 Development
- 2 Variants
- 3 Orders and deliveries
- 4 Operators
- 5 Specifications
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In 2006 Airbus started the A320 Enhanced (A320E) programme as a series of improvements targeting a 4–5% efficiency gain with large winglets (2%), aerodynamic refinements (1%), weight savings and a new aircraft cabin. At the time Airbus' Sales Chief John Leahy said "Who's going to roll over a fleet to a new generation aircraft for 5% better than an A320 today? Especially if another 10% improvement might be coming in the second half of the next decade based on new engine technology".
Airbus launched the sharklet blended wingtip device during the November 2009 Dubai Airshow. Installation adds 200 kilograms (440 lb) but offers a 3.5% fuel burn reduction on flights over 2,800 km (1,500 nmi).
New Engine Option
At the February 2010 Singapore Air Show, Airbus said its decision to launch was scheduled for the July 2010 Farnborough Air Show. It still wasn't decided in August but the engine choice included the CFM International LEAP-1A and the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G, with 20% lower maintenance cost than current A320 engines. The new engines should burn 16% less fuel but the actual gain will be slightly less since 1–2% is typically lost when installed on an existing aircraft.
On 1 December 2010, Airbus launched the A320neo "New Engine Option" with 500 nmi (950 km) more range or 2 t (4,400 lb) more payload, and planned to deliver 4,000 over 15 years. Development costs were predicted to be "slightly more than €1 billion [$1.3 billion]". The neo list price would be $6 million more than the ceo, including $3.5 million for airframe modifications and around $0.9 million for the sharklets. The A320neo was stated for service entry in spring 2016, the A321neo six months later and the A319neo again six months after.
The 2010 order for 40 Bombardier CS300s (now known as Airbus 220-300) and 40 options from Republic Airways Holdings – then owner of exclusive A319/320 operator Frontier Airlines – pushed Airbus into the re-engine. Airbus COO-customers John Leahy initially avoided ignoring the CSeries and allowing it to grow as Boeing did with Airbus and aggressively competed against Bombardier Aerospace. [speculation?]
Introduction was then advanced to October 2015. Airbus announces a 15% fuel saving thanks to those latest-generation engines and large sharklet wingtip devices, keeping over 95% airframe commonality with the current A320. Its commonality helped to reduce delays associated with large changes. In March 2013, airlines' choices between the two engines were almost equal.
The new "Space-Flex" optional cabin configuration increases space-efficiency by a new rear galley configuration and a "Smart-Lav" modular lavatory design – allowing an in-flight change of two lavatories into one accessible toilet. The rearranged cabin allows up to 20 more passengers for the A321neo without "putting more sardines in the can" with the larger "Cabin-Flex" modified exits described below. This enables in total over 20% lower fuel consumption per seat while the rearranged cabin allows up to nine more passengers for the A320neo.
The first Airbus A320neo rolled out of the Toulouse factory on 1 July 2014 and first flight was scheduled to September 2014.
Its first flight occurred on 25 September 2014. Its Pratt & Whitney PW1100G-JM geared turbofan engine was certified by the Federal Aviation Administration on 19 December 2014. After 36 months, the A320neo and A321neo flew around 4,000h for both powerplant versions certification. This is about three-quarters of the certification effort of a new design.
Of these 4,000 hours flown, 2,250 were with PW GTFs and 1,770 with CFM LEAPs. The flight-test programme will conclude in 2018 with the completion of the A319neo testing. The changes impacts flying qualities, performance and system integration, necessitating to retune the fly-by-wire controls and meet type certification requirements which have evolved since 1988, and helped decrease the minimum V speeds. The Neo is a 1.8 t heavier than the Ceo but take-off and landing performance is the same with a modified rotation law, adjusted wing flaps and wing slats angles and rudder deflection increased by 5° to cope with the higher thrust.
First delivery slipped to early 2016. Lufthansa took delivery of the first A320neo on 20 January 2016. Two hundred deliveries are targeted in 2017, but as Pratt & Whitney faces ramp-up difficulties, 30 aircraft should be produced waiting for engines. The fourth and latest final assembly line in Hamburg should open in July 2017 and 60 A320s should be produced monthly from 2019.
With 90 A320neos delivered by October 2017, Airbus acknowledged that it won't attain the 200 target, even with many deliveries in the fourth quarter: more than 40 A320neos are parked without engines, but with most of the engine issues resolved by early 2018, more than half of the A320s delivered this following year should be Neos. Airbus should produce 60 narrow bodies per month by the middle of 2019, and studies higher rates. Airbus confirmed plans to reach 63 monthly from 55 in 2018 and study 70 to 75 monthly beyond 2019, but Safran, half of LEAP producer CFM, cannot commit to higher volumes.
In February 2018, after in-flight failures of PW1100G with its high pressure compressor aft hub modified –apparently problems with its knife edge seal, the EASA and Airbus grounded some A320neo family aircraft until they were fitted with spares. P&W engines have flown 500,000 hours since introduction and 113 P&W powered A320neo family aircraft are operated by eight customers. Airbus then stopped accepting PW1100G engines.
Deliveries of GTF-powered A320neos resumed in May after Pratt went back to the original design seal as a quick fix. By the end of June, Airbus expects to produce around 100 A320neo awaiting engines and to deliver most of them in the second half of the year, to hand over 800 aircraft in 2018. In the first five months of 2018, 69 had been delivered: 40% of all single-aisles, and almost 80% with CFM LEAP engines, but the 22 delivered in May were equally split between the two powerplants.
After the three-month halt, the GTF-powered deliveries goal for 2018 of 210 may be missed by 30-40 unless Pratt can accelerate production, exposing itself and Airbus to late penalties. Airbus COO Guillaume Faury wants to get rid of gliders by the end of 2018.Bernstein forecasts 50 fewer deliveries than planned and a 2019 normalisation. Delivery targets can still be met with other engine options, neo or ceo, as 210 Leap-powered jets are planned. After having peaked above 100, aircraft parked awaiting their turbofans declined to 86 by the end of June.
Qatar Airways was originally scheduled to be the launch operator of this shortened fuselage variant. It upgraded its order to the larger A320neo in late 2013. No new launch operator has been named since.
It made its first flight on 31 March 2017, powered by LEAP Engines but PW Engines are also available.
Lufthansa is the launch operator of this standard variant. The first A320neo rolled out of the Airbus factory in Toulouse on 1 July 2014. It first flew on 25 September 2014. A joint type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration was received on 24 November 2015.
Nearly 28 years after the first A320, on 25 January 2016, the A320neo entered service with Lufthansa, the type's launch customer. Six months later at Farnborough Airshow, John Leahy reported that the eight in-service aircraft had achieved 99.7% dispatch reliability. After a year in service, Lufthansa confirmed the 20% efficiency gain per passenger with up to 180 seats, along with reduced noise and CO₂ emissions.
By the end of February 2017, 28,105 scheduled flights had been performed by 71 A320neo aircraft with 134 cancellations for a 99.5% completion rate. Spirit faces Pratt & Whitney PW1000G issues on four of its five A320neos and don't fly them above 30,000 ft because the bleed air system froze shut on occasion due to cold temperatures, the same problem facing IndiGo.
By March 2017, 88 A320neos had been delivered to 20 airlines, 49 with the PW1000G and 39 with the CFM International LEAP-1A, and the fleet had accumulated more than 57,600 flight hours and 37,500 cycles (1.5h average); over 142 routes the average stage length is 900 nm and like the A320ceo the neo flies an average of 8.4 block hours and up to 10 cycles a day with Lufthansa operating 45 min. sectors from Frankfurt to Hamburg or Munich to China Southern Airlines flying close to 6 hr sectors. Operators confirm the 15% per seat fuel-burn savings even counterbalanced by the added weight on short sectors, which can rise to 16–17% on longer routes and to 20% or more for Lufthansa with 180 passengers up from 168 with two more seat rows; and Airbus plans to deliver about 200 A320neos in 2017.
Its first customer is ILFC. The Airbus A321neo prototype, D-AVXB, first flew on 9 February 2016. It suffered a tailstrike three days later and was flown to Toulouse for repairs, delaying the certification programme for several weeks.
It received its type certification with Pratt & Whitney engines on 15 December 2016, and simultaneous EASA and FAA certification for the CFM Leap powered variant on 1 March 2017. The first A321neo, leased by GECAS, was delivered in Hamburg to Virgin America configured with 184 seats and LEAP engines and entered service in May 2017. All leased from the same lessor, five A321neos should be delivered to Virgin in 2017 and five in 2018 if its buyer Alaska Airlines keeps two fleet types.
The neo empty weight is 1.8t heavier than the ceo due to new engines and associated airframe modifications : engine pylons, wing structure and bleed and oil systems were adapted. At the same maximum weight, It reaches FL310 30-nm before and 4 min earlier than the CEO.
At FL330 (10 000 m), ISA –2 °C and 67 t (148,000 lb), it burns 2,200 kilograms per hour (4,850 lb/h) at Mach 0.76 / 501 knots (928 km/h) long-range cruise or 2,440 kg/h (5,400 lb/h) at Mach 0.80 / 527 knots (976 km/h) high-speed cruise. To offer similar takeoff performance, pitch response to stick input is a rate-command to hit the 3°/sec rotation rate to capture the right pitch attitude and there is an "electronic tail bumper" preventing a tail-strike if the stick is less than three-quarters of the way aft; additional thrust, slower rotation and lift-off speeds require more rudder authority and its maximum deflection went from 25° to 30°.
By January 2018, the A321neo had received 1,920 orders, exceeding orders for the A321ceo. By this time the A321neo accounted for 32% of all A320neo family orders whereas the original A321 represented just 22% of A320ceo family orders. A stretch would probably involve fore and aft plugs to keep its centre-of-gravity but tail-strike clearance could constrain field speed and performance and a larger aircraft could need more powerful engines, while further cabin crew would be needed over 250 seats.
Stretching it by one or two rows would be needed to compete with the Boeing NMA: its take-off weight could increase to 100 t (220,000 lb) by tweaking its wing and strengthening its landing gear, requiring more engine thrust; or it could receive a lighter and larger new wing, more costly to develop but with the same thrust.
As Pratt & Whitney encountered early reliability issues with the PW1100G, retrofitting fixes is affecting the deliveries. Cebu Pacific was due to add its first three A321neos to its 40 A320 by the end of 2017 but agreed to postpone them and Airbus will deliver seven A321ceos in 2018, starting in March, to upgauge A320s routes from slot-constrained Manila Airport and will redeploy some of its international A330s to shorter-haul routes. Air New Zealand has at least seven A321neo in 13 A320-family orders, increase seating capacity by 27% over A320ceos currently used on short-haul international routes, mainly to Australia; these NEO will be delayed until July 2018 for the A320neos and September 2018 for the A321neos with a new, higher density and some A320ceo leases will be extended for the interim.
Hawaiian's first two A321neos should have been delivered in 2017 before its upcoming winter peak season but will be introduced in early 2018, a “frustrating” and “irritating” delay, with another nine in 2018, mostly in the first half. They are intended to open up thinner routes to the U.S. mainland not viable with its widebodies, such as Portland to Maui, or better matched and allowing two routes to be expanded to daily service instead of seasonal, bypassing its Honolulu hub for half of the A321neo fleet. They will replace Hawaiian Airlines's last eight Boeing 767s, intended for retirement by the end of 2018, leaving more than half of its 18 ordered A321neos for fleet growth. They will also free up some Hawaiian A330s to be redeployed to international markets around the Pacific Rim.
Well suited for 2,100–2,300 nmi (3,900–4,300 km) routes to the US West Coast, Hawaiian's 189-seat A321neos are more efficient than the competing narrow-body aircraft and even have slightly lower seat costs than its 294-seat A330-200s.
By deleting the second door pair in front of the wing and with a second overwing exit, the capacity is augmented from 221 seats to 240 and fuel efficiency per seat is increased by 6%, exceeding 20% together with the new engines and the sharklets. The modifications should weigh 100 kg more. Initial A321neos have the A321ceo exit door configuration with four exit doors pairs before the Airbus Cabin-Flex (ACF) layout can be selected.
The third door pair, aft of the wings, will move four frames back and could be plugged for 195 seats or less, and one overwing exit can be plugged for 165 seats or less. In October 2017, the first A321neo ACF was in final assembly in Hamburg. It was rolled-out on 5 January 2018, and will be ground tested before first flight in the following weeks. It should be delivered in mid-2018 and the optional layout will become the A321neo default from 2020. It made its first flight on 31 January 2018.
The ACF exit limit is 250 passengers, but the aircraft is available for up to 240 passengers, it could be offered for 244 or potentially beyond by integrating flight attendant seats in the lavatories outside wall to allow additional passenger seats. The EASA allow 244 passengers with "overperforming" Type C exits at both ends, two Type III overwing exits, a Type C mid-cabin exit and a separate approval for individual customised cabin layouts. The FAA would limit it to 200 as the mid-cabin exit would be derated to a Type III exit: 65 each for Type C doors at the ends plus 70 for all the Type III exits; Airbus seeks an exemption to increase it to 105 for 235 passengers for the aircraft.
In October 2014, Airbus started marketing a 164-seat, 97 t (214,000 lb) maximum takeoff weight variant with three auxiliary fuel tanks called the A321neoLR (Long Range) with 100 nm more operational range than a Boeing 757-200 configured with 169 seats, 27% lower trip costs and 24% lower per seat costs; it is scheduled for introduction in the second half of 2018, two years after the A321neo.
Airbus launched the A321LR on 13 January 2015 with Air Lease Corporation as the launch customer, hoping to sell 1,000 examples of the variant. The initial layout of 164 seats (20 in business, 30 in premium economy and 114 in economy) was replaced by a two-class 206-seat configuration (16 in business and 190 in economy) and range is 4,000 nmi (7,400 km), 500 nmi (930 km) farther than the regular 93.5t MTOW A321. The A321LR is taking the place of the B757 in the middle of the market. The A321LR will have the Cabin Flex layout and should be first delivered in Q4 2018.
Airbus is studying an A321LR variant that has a further increased MTOW needing a strengthened landing gear. With a lower-density cabin it is expected to fly almost 5,000 nmi (9,300 km). Certification is aimed for the second quarter of 2018, its programme include tests with one, two, three, or no additional centre tanks and a transatlantic flight on 13 February. Test flights included a Leap-powered, long range 4,100 nmi (7,600 km) flight by great circle distance, flown in near 11h and the equivalent of 162 passengers over 4,700 nmi (8,700 km) including headwinds, with five crew and 11 technicians.
Airbus Corporate Jets
Two Airbus Corporate Jets variants are offered: the ACJ319neo, carrying eight passengers up to 6,750 nmi/12,500 km, and the ACJ320neo, carrying 25 up to 6,000 nmi/11,100 km. The CFM LEAP or Pratt & Whitney PW1100G lower fuel-burn provides additional range along with lower engine noise while the cabin altitude does not exceed 6,400 ft (2,000 m). To increase its fuel capacity, the ACJ319neo is offered with up to five additional centre tanks (ACT).
Orders and deliveries
The A320neo family received over 2,000 orders in a little over two years following launch in December 2010, making it the fastest selling commercial aircraft in history. By May 2017 it had 5,052 orders : 49 A319neos (1%), 3,617 A320neos (72%) and 1,386 A321neos (27%), with 1,712 of them powered by CFM LEAPs (34%), 1,429 by PW GTFs (28%) and 1,911 undisclosed (38%).
In early January 2011, Indian low-cost carrier IndiGo reached a memorandum of understanding for 150 A320neos along 30 A320ceos. On 17 January, Virgin America became the launch customer, ordering 60 A320s including 30 A320neos.
At the June 2011 Paris Air Show, it gathered 667 commitments worth US$60.9 billion, raising the backlog to 1,029. Malaysian low-cost carrier AirAsia ordered 200, the largest commercial aviation order at the time. IndiGo confirmed its 150 order. Airbus received orders from GECAS, Scandinavian Airlines, TransAsia Airways, IndiGo, LAN Airlines, AirAsia, GoAir, Air Lease Corporation and Avianca.
On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets including 130 A320ceos and 130 A320neos, and intended to order 100 re-engined 737 with CFM LEAPs, pending Boeing confirmation. The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into the re-engined 737 MAX. As this sale included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause, the European airframer must refund any price difference to American if it sells to another airline at a lower price, so Airbus can't give a competitive price to competitor United Airlines, leaving it with a Boeing-skewed fleet.
On 25 January, Norwegian and Airbus confirmed an order of 100 A320neos. In November, Virgin America deferred the deliveries of the A320neo aircraft until 2020, making ILFC the new launch customer along with the A321neo. In December 2012 Pegasus Airlines, the second largest airline in Turkey, signed a deal for up to 100 A320neo family aircraft, of which 75 (57 A320neo and 18 A321neo models) are firm orders.
Lufthansa ordered an additional 70 A320neo and A321neo aircraft on 14 March 2013. easyJet, who already operates 195 A320ceo family aircraft, intends to acquire 100 Airbus A320neo for delivery between 2017 and 2022. As part of the deal, easyJet have options on a further 100 A320neo aircraft, and the Japanese carrier ANA is to order the A320neo and A321neo. Lion Air ordered 183. On 15 March 2013, Turkish Airlines ordered 82 A320s with 35 options including four A320neo and 53 A321neo.
On 15 October 2014 IndiGo signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Airbus for purchasing 250 A320neo family aircraft. The deal would be worth over $25.5 billion as per the list price per aircraft. This order will also be the largest by the airline, marking the largest number of jets ever sold by the European planemaker in a single order. The airline had earlier ordered 100 aircraft in 2005 and another 180 aircraft in 2011.
On 15 November 2017 Airbus announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding with Indigo Partners' four portfolio airlines for 430 A320neo family aircraft - a deal worth nearly $50 billion. On 14 December 2017 Delta Air Lines announced an order for 100 A321neo aircraft and 100 options, powered by Pratt & Whitney PW1100Gs.
It could require six to eight months to be converted for military missions like VIP transport, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance and maritime patrol for armed forces of France, Germany and the Netherlands; or Asia-Pacific nations such as Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the Philippines.
|2-class seats||140||165||206: 16J @36 in + 190Y @30 in|
|1-class maximum||160||195 @ 27 in||240 @ 28 in|
|Seat width||Economy at 6 abreast: 18 in (46 cm), 3.7 m (12 ft 1 in) cabin width|
|Cargo capacity||27 m³ (976 ft³)||37 m³ (1,322 ft³)||51 m³ (1,828 ft³)[a]|
|Length||33.84 m (111 ft)||37.57 m (123 ft 3 in)||44.51 m (146 ft)|
|Wingspan||35.80 m (117 ft 5 in)|
|Height||11.76 m (38 ft 7 in)|
|Max. takeoff weight||75.5 t (166,400 lb)||79 t (174,200 lb)||97 t (213,800 lb)|
|Max. payload||17.7 t (39,000 lb):3-2-1||20 t (44,100 lb):3-2-1||25.5 t (56,200 lb):3-2-1|
|Operating empty||42.6 t (93,900 lb)||44.3 t (97,700 lb)||50.1 t (110,500 lb)|
|Fuel capacity||26,730 l (7,060 USg)||32,940 l (8,700 USg)[b]|
|Engines (×2)||CFM International LEAP-1A or Pratt & Whitney PW1100G|
|Fan diameter||PW1100G: 81 in (206 cm), LEAP-1A: 78 in (198 cm)|
|Max. Thrust||107 kN (24,100 lbf)||120.6 kN (27,120 lbf)||147.3 kN (33,110 lbf)|
|Speed||Cruise: Mach 0.78 (450 kn; 833 km/h), Max.: Mach 0.82 (473 kn; 876 km/h)|
|Ceiling||39,100–39,800 ft (11,900–12,100 m)|
|Typical range||6,950 km / 3,750 nmi[c]||6,500 km / 3,500 nmi[d]||7,400 km / 4,000 nmi [e]|
|Takeoff||1,988 m (6,522 ft)|
|Aircraft model designation||Engines||Type certification date||Take-off thrust||Maximum continuous thrust|
|A320-271N||PW1127G-JM||24 November 2015||043 daN ( 12075 lb) 27||718 daN ( 11345 lb) 26|
|A320-251N||CFM LEAP-1A26||31 May 2016||064 daN ( 12120 lb) 27||868 daN ( 11680 lb) 26|
|A321-271N||PW1133G-JM||15 December 2016||728 daN ( 14110 lb) 33||581 daN ( 14780 lb) 32|
|A321-251N||CFM LEAP-1A32||1 March 2017||305 daN ( 14160 lb) 32||096 daN ( 14690 lb) 31|
|A321-253N||CFM LEAP-1A33||3 March 2017||305 daN ( 14160 lb) 32||096 daN ( 14690 lb) 31|
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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Media related to Airbus A320neo at Wikimedia Commons
- Official website
- Robert Wall, Joe Anselmo, Jens Flottau and Guy Norris (Jun 27, 2011). "Paris Air Show 2011 Orders Recast Airliner Battlefield". Aviation Week & Space Technology.