Aircraft losses of the Vietnam War

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Burning American aircraft at Bien Hoa Air Base

During the Vietnam War, thousands of U.S. aircraft were lost to antiaircraft artillery (AAA), surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), and fighter interceptors (MiG)s. The great majority of U.S. combat losses in all areas of Southeast Asia were to AAA. The Royal Australian Air Force also flew combat and airlift missions in South Vietnam, as did the Republic of Vietnam. Among fixed-wing aircraft, more F-4 Phantoms were lost than any other type in service with any nation. In total, the United States lost in Vietnam almost 10,000 aircraft and helicopters, excluding number of UAVs. South Vietnam's army lost 2,500 aircraft and helicopters, excluding number of UAVs. North Vietnam lost 150 - 200 aircraft and helicopters.

United States aircraft[edit]

Captured American-made and overpainted SVNAF warplanes in Saigon's War Remnants Museum

United States Air Force[edit]

All told, the U.S. Air Force flew 5.25 million sorties over South Vietnam, North Vietnam, northern and southern Laos, and Cambodia, losing 2,251 aircraft: 1,737 to hostile action, and 514 in accidents. 110 of the losses were helicopters and the rest fixed-wing. A ratio of roughly 0.4 losses per 1,000 sorties compared favorably with a 2.0 rate in Korea and the 9.7 figure during World War II.[1]

USAF fixed-wing[edit]

Downed USAF Douglas A-1E, pilot was later awarded the Medal of Honor
–First loss A-1E 52-132465 (1st Air Commando Squadron, 34th TG) shot down during the night of 28–29 August 1964 near Bien Hoa, SVN
–Final loss A-1H 52-139738 (1st Special Operations Squadron, 56th Special Operations Wing) which was shot down 28 September 1972 (pilot was rescued by an Air America helicopter).
–First loss 71–0310 (355th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 354th TFW) on 2 December 1972 shot down on a CSAR mission in Laos (Capt Anthony Shine KIA).
–71-0312 (353d TFS) mid-air collision with an FAC O-1 Bird Dog in Laos on 24 December 1972, (Capt Charles Riess PoW)
-71-0316 (355th TFS) operational loss (non-combat) crash in Thailand on 11 January 1973 (Pilot Rescued)
-70-0949 (354th TFW) shot down Laos on 17 February 1973 (Maj J J Gallagher Rescued)
-71-0305 (3rd TFS, 388th TFW) shot down in Cambodia on 4 May 1973 (1Lt T L Dickens Rescued)
-Final loss 70–0945 (354th TFW) shot down in Cambodia on 25 May 1973 (Capt Jeremiah Costello KIA)
–First loss B-26B 44-35530 (Detachment 2A, 1st ACG) shot down in IV CTZ on the night of 4–5 November 1962 killing the 3 crew.
–Final loss A-26A 64-17646 (609th SOS, 56th SOW) lost over Laos on the night of 7–8 July 1969 killing both crewmen.
–First loss 1967; final loss 1972
Wing of downed USAF warplane
–First loss 1965, final loss 1969
–First loss AC-119G 52-5907 (Det.1, 17th SOS, 14th SOW) which crashed on take-off from Tan Son Nhut, SVN on 11 October 1969 killing 6 of the 10 crewmen.
–Final loss 1971
–First loss AC-130A 54-1629 (16th SOS, 8th TFW) hit by 37mm Anti-aircraft gun over Laos and crash-landed at Ubon RTAFB, 2 crewmen died (one died of injuries before reaching Ubon) but 11 others survived.
–Final loss 1972
Soviet specialists inspect the wreckage of the B-52 Stratofortress which was shot down near Hanoi December 23, 1972
  • B-52 Stratofortress-- --31 total (17 in combat, and two more being scrapped after sustaining battle damage).[2]
-First losses were operational (non-combat) mid-air collision 2 B-52F 57-0047 and 57-0179 (441st Bomb Squadron, 320th Bomb Wing), 18 June 1965, South China Sea during air refueling orbit, 8 of 12 crewmen killed
-Final loss B-52D 55-0056 (307th Bomb Wing Provisional) to SAM 4 January 1973, crew rescued from Gulf of Tonkin
-First loss 1964, final loss 1970
-First lost C-7B 62-4161 (459th Tactical Airlift Squadron, 483d Tactical Airlift Wing) which was hit by a US 155mm shell on 3 August 1967 in SVN killing the 3 crewmen. Note: there were two fatal crashes during Operation Red Leaf transition training of USAF crews in Army CV-2's, on 4 and 28 October 1966.[3]
-Final loss was C-7B 62-12584 (483d TAW) which crashed in SVN on 13 January 1971, all 4 crewmen survived.
-A C-47 was very first USAF aircraft lost in the SEA conflict, C-47B 44-76330 (315th Air Division) on TDY at Vientiane, Laos which was shot down by the Pathet Lao on 23 March 1961 killing 7 of the 8 crewmen. The sole survivor, US Army Maj. Lawrence Bailey was captured and held until August 1962.
-Final loss EC-47Q 43-48636 (361st Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron, 56th SOW) shot down in Laos on the night of 04/5 4–5 February 1973, killing all 8 crewmen.
-First loss was C-123B 56-4370 attached to the 464th TAW which came down on an Operation Ranch Hand (defoliation) training flight between Bien Hoa and Vung Tau, SVN on 2 February 1962
-Final loss 1971
Wreckage of downed C-130 Hercules
-First loss was C-130A 57-0475 (817th Troop Carrier Squadron, 6315th Operations Group) on 24 April 1965, a Blind Bat flareship that crashed into high ground near Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand, attempting to land in bad weather with a heavy load, two engine failures, and low fuel, killing all six crewmen. This was the 14th recorded loss of a C-130 to all causes.
-Final loss C-130E 72-1297 (314th TAW) destroyed by rocket fire at Tan Son Nhut AB on 28 April 1975.
-C-141A 65-9407 (62d Military Airlift Wing) destroyed in a night runway collision with a USMC A-6 at Danang, SVN on 23 March 1967 killing 5 of the 6 crewmen.
-C-141A 66-0127 (4th Military Airlift Squadron, 62d MAW) crashed soon after take-off from Cam Ranh Bay, SVN on 13 April 1967 killing 6 of the 8 man crew.
-First loss was RB-66B 53-0452 (Det 1, 41st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 6250th Combat Support Group) which crashed 22–23 October 1965 west of Pleiku, SVN killing the crew.
-Final loss EB-66B 42nd TEWS, 388th TFS lost to engine failure on 23 December 1972 during Operation Linebacker II. 3 crewmen were KIA.
-EC-121R 67-24193 (554th Reconnaissance Squadron, 553d RW) crashed 25 April 1969 on take-off in a thunderstorm from Korat RTAFB, killing all 18 crewmen.
-EC-121R 67-21495 (554th RS) crashed on approach to Korat RTAFB on 6 September 1969, 4 of the 16 men were killed.
-First loss was operational (non-combat), F-4C 64-0674 (45TH TFS, 15th TFW) which ran out of fuel after strike in SVN on 9 June 1965; first combat loss F-4C 64-0685 (45th TFS, 15th TFW) shot down Ta Chan, NW NVN on 20 June 1965. 9 of the losses were parked aircraft struck by rockets.
-Final loss, F-4D 66-8747 (432d TRW) on 29 June 1973.
-First loss 1965, final loss 1967
-First loss 1964, final loss 1971
-First loss 1964, final loss 1967. 4 of the combat losses were parked aircraft
-First loss 1965, final loss 1969
A U.S. Air Force F-105D Thunderchief shot down
-First loss 62–4371 (36th TFS, 6441st TFW) written off from battle damage over Laos 14 August 1964, at Korat, Thailand
-Final loss 61–0153 (44th TFS, 355th TFW) shot down Laos 23 September 1970, pilot Capt. J. W. Newhouse rescued
-First loss EF-105F 63-8286 (13th TFS, 388th TFW) shot down by AAA RP-6 July 1966, Maj. Roosevelt Hestle and Capt. Charles Morgan KIA
-Last loss F-105G 63-8359 (Det.1 561st TFS, 388th TFW) shot down by SAM 16 November 1972, RP-3, crew rescued
-First loss mission-related TFR failure, 66-0022 (428th TFS 474th TFW, Project Combat Lancer), 28 March 1968, Maj. H.E. Mccann and Capt. D.L. Graham MIA
-Final loss 67–0111 (474th TFW) mid-air collision over Cambodia, 16 June 1973, both crewmen rescued
-51-5287 to unk cause 19 June 1965
-51-0058 to unk cause 3 July 1965
-51-0071 (33d ARRS) shot down by AAA 14 March 1966, two crewmen killed
-51-7145 (37th ARRS) disappeared 18 October 1966, 7 crewmen KIA-BNR
-Only loss KB-50J 48-0065 (421st Air Refueling Squadron Detachment) at Takhli RTAFB which crashed in Thailand on 14 October 1964, all 6 crewmen survived.
-Two crashes in 1968, one 1969, all operational (non-combat)
-First loss 1963, final loss 1972
-First loss 1967, final loss 1972
First loss 1968, final loss 1973
-First loss YQU-22A 68-10531 (554th RS, 553d RW) crashed due to engine failure on 11 June 1969
-Final loss QU-22B 70-1546 (554th RS) on 25 August 1972, pilot killed.
-First loss 1966, final loss 1972
A U.S. aircraft shot down over North Vietnam, 1968
-First loss 1964, final loss 1968
-64-17969 (Det OL-8, 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) suffered engine failure over Thailand on 10 May 1970, both crewmen ejected safely
-64-17978 (Det OL-KA, 9th SRW) crashed on landing at Kadena, Okinawa on 20 July 1972, both crewmen survived
-First loss 1962, final loss 1968
-Only loss 56–6690 (349th Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron 100th SRW) which crashed on 8 October 1966 near Bien Hoa, SVN, Maj. Leo J Stewart ejected and was rescued.
-Only loss 60–6058, destroyed on the ground during a VC attack on Tan Son Nhut, SVN on 14 June 1968.
Only loss 51-15565 (432d Tactical Reconnaissance Wing) which crashed in Thailand 28 December 1966, both crewmen survived.
-63-13102 (5th SOS, 14th SOW) shot down 14 August 1969 near Bien Hoa killing 1/Lt Roger Brown.

USAF rotary-wing[edit]

-First loss CH-3E 63-9685 (38th ARRS) to AAA North Vietnam on 6 November 1965, three crewmen POW, one rescued
-Last loss HH-3E 65-12785 (37th ARRS) 21 November 1970, combat-assaulted inside Son Tay POW camp (Operation Ivory Coast) and deliberately destroyed by U.S. Special Forces
-First loss 63–9713 (38th ARRS) damaged by fire 2 June 1965, crew rescued and aircraft destroyed to prevent its capture
-Final loss 60–0282 (38th ARRS) crashed Cam Ranh Bay 7 August 1969, crew rescued
-First loss HH-53C 66-14430 (40th ARRS) in Laos, damaged by gunfire 18 January 1969 crew rescued and aircraft destroyed by bombing to prevent capture
-Last losses four CH-53's (68-10925, −10926, −10927, 70–1627 all from 21st SOS, 56th SOW) to AAA on 15 May 1975, Koh Tang, Kampuchea, (Mayaguez incident final aircraft losses of Vietnam War)

United States Navy[edit]

Twenty-one aircraft carriers conducted 86 war cruises and operated 9,178 total days on the line in the Gulf of Tonkin. 530 aircraft were lost in combat and 329 more to operational causes. Resulting in the deaths of 377 naval aviators, with 64 airmen reported missing and 179 taken prisoner-of-war.

USN fixed-wing carrier-based[edit]

-First loss A-1H 139760 (VA-145, USS Constellation), to AAA 5 August 1964, Lt.j.g. R. C. Sather KIA (Body recovered in 1985)
-Final loss A-1H 134499 (VA-25, USS Coral Sea), to MIG 14 February 1968, Lt.j.g. J. P. Dunn MIA
-First loss A-3B 142250 (VAH-4, USS Hancock), operational loss (non-combat) 22 December 1964, 3 rescued, 1 killed
-Final loss A-3B 144627 (VAH-4, USS Kitty Hawk), AAA 8 March 1967, 3 crewmen KIA
Burning U.S. aircraft carrier
-First loss A-4C 149578 (VA-144, USS Constellation), AAA 5 August 1964, Lt.j.g. Everett Alvarez POW (second longest held prisoner)
-Final loss A-4F 155021 (VA-212, USS Hancock), AAA 6 September 1972, pilot rescued
-First loss A-6A 151584 (VA-75, USS Independence), own bomb detonation Laos 14 July 1965, crew rescued
-Final loss A-6A 157007 (VA-35, USS America), AAA South Vietnam 24 January 1973, crew rescued
-First loss A-7A 153239 (VA-147, USS Ranger), SAM North Vietnam 22 December 1967, LCdr J.M. Hickerson POW
-Final loss A-7E 156837 (VA-147, USS Constellation), operational loss (non-combat) 29 January 1973, pilot missing
-Operation Frequent Wind loss - "The Enterprise flew 95 sorties in support of the operation, but on no occasion was any ordnance used in anger, although an A-7E was lost to undetermined causes". The pilot was rescued at sea.[4]
-C-1A 146047 (VR-21, USS Independence), non-combat 30 August 1965, 7 passengers and crew rescued
-C-1A 136784 (VR-21, USS Independence), operational loss (non-combat) 12 September 1965, 9 passengers and crew rescued, 1 killed
-C-1A 146016 (Composite Squadron Five VC-5), operational loss (non-combat) 8 August 1967, 3 passengers and 2 crew rescued
-C-1A 146054 (Carrier Air Wing 11, Kitty Hawk), operational loss (non-combat) 16 January 1968, 7 passengers and crew rescued, 3 killed
-First loss C-2A 152796 (VRC-50, USS Constellation), Gulf of Tonkin crash 2 October 1969, 26 passengers and crew killed
-Final loss C-2A 152793 (VRC-50, USS Ranger), Gulf of Tonkin crash 15 December 1970, 3 crew killed
-First loss E-1B 148918 (VAW-12, USS Independence), operational loss (non-combat) 22 September 1965, crew rescued
-Final loss E-1B 148132 (VAW-111, USS Oriskany), operational loss (non-combat) 8 October 1967, 5 crewmen killed
-E-2A 151711 (VAW-116, USS Coral Sea), 8 April 1970, 5 crewmen killed
-E-2B 151719 (VAW-115, USS Midway), 11 June 1971, 5 crewmen missing
-EKA-3B 142400 (VAQ-132, USS America), operational loss (non-combat) 4 July 1970, 3 rescued
-EKA-3B 142634 (VAQ-130, USS Ranger), operational loss (non-combat) 21 January 1973, 3 crewmen killed
-First loss EA-1E 139603 (VAW-111, USS Yorktown), operational loss (non-combat) 15 April 1965, crew rescued
-Final loss EA-1F 132543 (VAW-13, USS Franklin D Roosevelt), operational loss (non-combat) 10 September 1966, crew rescued
USAF F-4 Phantom II destroyed during the Tet Offensive
-First loss F-4B 151412 (VA-142, USS Constellation), operational loss (non-combat) 13 November 1964, crew rescued
-Last combat loss (also last USN combat loss of war) F-4J 155768 (VF-143, USS Enterprise), AAA South Vietnam 27 January 1973, Cdr H.H. Hall and Lcdr P.A. Keintzer POW
-Final loss F-4J 158361 (VF-21, USS Ranger), operational loss (non-combat) 29 January 1973, crew killed
-First loss F-8D (VF-111, USS Kitty Hawk), to AAA over Laos 7 June 1964, LCdr C.D. Lynn rescued
-Final loss (operational) F-8J 150887 (VF-191, USS Oriskany) 26 November 1972, pilot rescued
-KA-3B 142658 (VAH-4, USS Oriskany), operational loss (non-combat) 28 July 1967, 1 crewmen rescued, 2 killed
-KA-3B 138943 (VAH-10, USS Coral Sea), operational loss (non-combat) 17 February 1969, 3 crewmen killed
Destroyed A-5 Vigilante
-First loss RA-5C 149306 (RVAH-5, USS Ranger), operational loss (non-combat) 9 December 1965, 2 crewmen killed
-Final loss RA-5C 156633 (RVAH-13, USS Enterprise), to MiG-21 North Vietnam 28 December 1972, Lcdr A.H. Agnew POW, Lt. M.F. Haifley KIA
-First loss RF-8A (Det. C VFP-63, USS Kitty Hawk), 6 June 1964, to AAA in Laos, Lt. C. F. Klusmann POW
-Final loss RF-8G 144608 (VFP-63, USS Oriskany), operational loss (non-combat) 13 December 1972, pilot rescued
-First loss S-2D 149252 (VS-35, USS Hornet), unk combat loss 21 January 1966, 4 crewmen MIA
-S-2E 152351 (VS-21, USS Kearsarge), combat loss 11 October 1966, 4 crewmen KIA
-US-2C 133365 (VC-5, NAS Atsugi, Japan), combat loss 13 May 1967, 2 crewmen KIA
-US-2C 133371 (VC-5, USS Hornet), operational loss (non-combat) 27 September 1967, crew rescued
-Final loss S-2E (VS-23, USS Yorktown), unk combat loss 17 March 1968, 4 crewmen KIA

USN fixed-wing shore-based[edit]

[citation needed]

USN rotary-wing[edit]

-First loss UH-2A 149751 (HC-1, USS Hancock), operational loss (non-combat) 10 January 1966, 4 crewmen rescued
-Final loss UH-2C 149767 (HC-1, USS Bon Homme Richard), operational loss (non-combat) 10 August 1969, 4 crewmen rescued
-First loss SH-3A 148993 (HS-2, USS Hornet), AAA North Vietnam 13 November 1965, 4 crewmen rescued
-Final loss SH-3D 156494 (HS-7, USS Saratoga), operational loss (non-combat) 31 December 1972, crew rescued

United States Marine Corps[edit]

U.S. Marine Corps aircraft lost in combat included 193 fixed-wing and 270 rotary wing aircraft.

USMC fixed-wing[edit]

Burning VNAF C-130 Hercules

[citation needed]

RF-4 explodes after being hit by SA-2 missile

Source for F-4 losses is Phantom with U.S. Marine Corps (Joe Baugher), others are unsourced

USMC rotary-wing[edit]

Wreckage of downed UH-1 Iroquois

United States Army[edit]

USA fixed-wing[edit]

OV-1A/B/C/D Mohawk – 65 lost[6]
O-1 Bird Dog – 297 lost

USA rotary-wing[edit]

5,086 (which include not in addition to the above statistics) [7]

Wreckage of downed USAF HH-3 Jolly Green Giant helicopter
1 Bell 205 was destroyed (Air America)
270 AH-1G were destroyed
1 BELL was destroyed
Two downed CH-21s
14 CH-21C were destroyed
2 CH-34 were destroyed
1 CH-37B was destroyed
1 CH-37C was destroyed
83 CH-47A were destroyed
20 CH-47B were destroyed
29 CH-47C were destroyed
9 CH-54A were destroyed
3 H-13D were destroyed
2 H-37A were destroyed
147 OH-13S were destroyed
93 OH-23G were destroyed
45 OH-58A were destroyed
842 OH-6A were destroyed
60 UH-1 were destroyed
1 UH-1A was destroyed
357 UH-1B were destroyed
365 UH-1C were destroyed
886 UH-1D were destroyed
90 UH-1E were destroyed
18 UH-1F were destroyed
1313 UH-1H were destroyed
176 UH-34D were destroyed

Republic of Vietnam aircraft[edit]

VNAF pilot jumps into the sea from his Huey
  • A-1 Skyraider
  • A-37A/B Dragonfly
  • AC-47
  • AC-119G/K Stinger – served Mar'72 –
  • B-57 Canberra
  • C-7A Caribou – served late'71 – mid'74 (grounded due to budget cuts)
  • C-47 Skytrain
  • C-119 Flying Boxcar – served Mar'68 –
  • C-123K Provider – served May'73 – 1973 only (replaced by C-130A) 10 lost, 4 to ground fire
  • C-130A Hercules – 2 combat losses
  • F-5A/B/C Freedom Fighter
  • F-5E Tiger II
  • U/H-1D/H Iroquois (helicopter)
  • C/UH-34C/D/G Choctaw (helicopter)
  • CH-47A Chinook (helicopter)
  • O-1 Bird Dog
  • O-2A Skymaster – served 1970 – mid'74 (grounded due to budget cuts)
  • T-28 Trojan
  • T-37 Tweety Bird (trainer)
  • T-41D Mescalero (trainer)
  • U-6A Beaver
  • U-17A/B Skywagon

VNAF a/c details sourced from "Flying Dragon – The South Vietnamese Air Force" Robert C. Milikesh, Schiffer Military History, 2005

North Vietnam army captured 877 South Vietnam aircraft at war's end. The total number of downed and captured aircraft is unknown.[8]

Royal Australian Air Force[edit]

Fixed wing[edit]

7 total

  • C-7 Caribou: three total, one in combat; all from No. 35 Squadron RAAF.
    • Caribou A4-193 was destroyed by mortar fire while taxiing at That Son (near the Cambodian border) on 29 March 1970.[9]
  • English Electric Canberra: two total, two in combat; both from No. 2 Squadron RAAF.
    • First loss: Canberra A84-231 disappeared on 3 November 1970 on a night bombing mission in the northern 1st Corps Tactical Zone region of South Vietnam after dropping its bombs near Da Nang. Pilot Officer Robert Charles Carver (24) and Flying Officer Michael Patrick John Herbert (24), were both MIA until 30 July 2009 when their remains were positively identified.[10]
    • Final loss: A84-228 shot down by two SA-2 SAM missiles on 14 March 1971; Wing Commander F. J. L. Downing and Flight Lieutenant A. J. Pinches were both rescued.[9]
  • CAC Sabre: two total, two in combat; both from No. 79 Squadron RAAF.
    • First Loss; CA-27 Sabre Mk 32 A94-984; 24 September 1964, crashed 28 nautical miles west of RAAF Ubon, Thailand following engine failure; the pilot, Flight Lieutenant Ian McFarlane ejected.
    • Final loss; CA-27 Sabre Mk 32 A94-986; 3 January 1968; crashed due to engine failure three miles south west of RAAF Ubon; Pilot Officer Michael McGrath was killed, one Thai national injured on ground. The first and only fatal crash by an RAAF aircraft in Thailand.

Rotary wing[edit]

All from No. 9 Squadron RAAF.[9]

North Vietnamese aircraft[edit]

MiG-21 №4326, which shot down 13 aircraft during war

Fixed-wing losses[edit]

Claimed by VPAF: 154 MiG aircraft lost through all causes, including 131 in air combat (includes 63 MiG-17s, 8 MiG-19s and 60 MiG-21s)[11]

Claimed by U.S (air-to-air combat only)[12]

At least two VPAF MiGs were claimed to have been downed by U.S. Navy warships.

People's Republic of China aircraft[edit]

Fixed-wing losses[edit]

Reference notes[edit]

  1. ^ Schlight, John. "A War too Long: The USAF in Southeast Asia 1961–1975" (PDF). Air Force History and Museums Programs. Retrieved 20 February 2007.  Page 103
  2. ^
  3. ^ Photo of Caribou crash
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ USMC HELO LOSSES(1962–1973) by aircraft type
  6. ^ "The OV-1 Mohawk Remembered Firsthand: Piloting the Mohawk in Vietnam". Defense Media Network. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  7. ^ Roush, Gary. "Helicopter Losses in the Vietnam War" (PDF). Vietnam Helicopter Pilots' Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
  8. ^ Toperczer, Istvan. MiG-21 Units of the Vietnam War. Osprey 2001, No. 29. pp.80-81
  9. ^ a b c
  10. ^
  11. ^ Migs over North Vietnam: The Vietnam People's Air Force in Combat, 1965-75, Stackpole Military History
  12. ^
  13. ^ U.S. Air-to-Air Victories during the Cold War, Wars in Yugoslavia, and Anti-Terror War


Sources for USAF figures:

USAF Operations Report, 30 November 1973[1]
Campbell, John M. and Hill, Michael. Roll Call: Thud. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1996. ISBN 0-7643-0062-8.
Hobson, Chris. Vietnam Air Losses, USAF, USN, USMC, Fixed-Wing Aircraft Losses in Southeast Asia 1961–1973. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2001. ISBN 1-85780-115-6.

Sources for USN carrier-based figures:

  • Francillon, René. Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club: US Carrier Operations off Vietnam, Naval Institute Press (1988) ISBN 0-87021-696-1
  • [2] US Air-to-Air Losses in the Vietnam War
  • [3] US Air-to-Air Victories in the Vietnam War[dead link]

External links[edit]