Airport Rail Link (Bangkok)
|Airport Rail Link|
City Line train at City Air Terminal. Makkasan Station.
|System||Airport rail link, Red Line Mass Transit System Project (Separated Project)|
(Express Services Suspended and will be reopening after the extension completed)
|Opened||23 August 2010|
|Owner||State Railway of Thailand|
|Operator(s)||Eastern High-Speed Rail Linking Three Airports Company Limited|
|Rolling stock||Siemens Desiro Class 360/2|
|Line length||28.4 km (17.6 mi) (estimated) |
(planned 48.6 km)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||Overhead line, 25 kV AC|
|Operating speed||120 km/h (75 mph)|
The Airport Rail Link (ARL) (Thai: รถไฟฟ้าเชื่อมท่าอากาศยานสุวรรณภูมิ Rt̄hfịf̂ā cheụ̄̀xm th̀āxākāṣ̄yān s̄uwrrṇp̣hūmi) is an express and commuter rail in Bangkok, Thailand. The line provides an airport rail link from Suvarnabhumi Airport, via Makkasan Station, to Phaya Thai station in central Bangkok. Most of the line is on a viaduct over the main eastern railway. It is owned by State Railway of Thailand (SRT) and operated by Eastern High-Speed Rail Linking Three Airports Company Limited, a special-purpose vehicles by the consortium of Charoen Pokphand Holding and partners. Including Charoen Pokphand Holding (CP), Ch. Karnchang PLC. (CK), Bangkok Expressway and Metro PLC. (BEM), Italian-Thai Development PLC. (ITD) and China Railway Construction Corporation Limited (CRCC). The 28.6 kilometers (17.8 mi) Airport Rail Link opened for service on 23 August 2010. Services originally consisted of both express services and the City Line, a commuter rail service with eight stations. However since September 2014, all express services have been suspended indefinitely due to a shortage of rolling stock availability.
The airport link contract was signed in January 2005, and construction began in July 2005. The line was built by a consortium of B.Grimm, STECON, and Siemens. It is operated by SRTET (SRT Electric Train Company), a wholly owned subsidiary of the State Railway of Thailand (SRT). The cost of the project was 25.9 billion baht.
The line is built largely along the same alignment as the failed Bangkok Elevated Road and Train System (BERTS) project, started by Hopewell, but stopped in 1997 when only 10 percent had been completed. Many previously constructed BERTS pillars stood in the way of the new system. After extensive debate and an engineering review on their suitability for use in the ARL project—and demands for compensation from Hopewell—the SRT eventually decided to demolish the pillars and build new ones.
Originally scheduled to be completed by 2007, the Hopewell debacle, an extended bidding process, and a series of legal challenges from squatters and property owners who had encroached on SRT's land, repeatedly delayed the project. Initial test runs were conducted in October 2009, with a free limited trial service open to the public running from April 2010. Full commercial services were launched on 23 August 2010.
The ARL operates daily from 05:30 to 24:00, with services departing every 10–11 minutes during peak hours (06:00-09:00 and 16:00-20:00) and every 12–13 minutes off peak and weekends.
The number of passengers using the service in the first three years of operation was about half that projected. The SRT estimated about 95,000 passengers total per day, but the actual ridership was about 40,000, including 38,000 for the City Line and 2,500 for the Express Line. Airport Rail Link, a subsidiary of the SRT set up to operate the Airport Link services, has operated at a loss since the start of its operations. The ARL averaged around 56,000 passengers a day on weekdays and 40,000 a day on weekends in 2015. As of May 2018, the daily average is around 72,000 passengers and overcrowding it still a major problem during peak periods due to insufficient rolling stock with only 7 of the 9 trains operational.
The commuter/suburban City Line stops at all eight stations. It is used by many residents and students in the eastern suburbs as well as airport staff. The City Line has suffered from significant overcrowding since 2012. City Line units allow passengers to bring bicycles during off peak periods and on weekends, but excessively large bags for trips to the airport can be difficult during peak periods. The system has come under some local scrutiny for this.
As of September 2014, all express services were suspended until further notice due to a shortage of rolling stock.
On 1 June 2011, additional Express Line services became available between Phaya Thai station and the airport with a journey time of 18 minutes. This resulted in two distinct Express Services: one to/from Phaya Thai with a 60-minute headway; and one to/from Makkasan Terminal also with a 60-minute headway. This was due to a design flaw in the original laying of the rail which meant that the Express Line track terminates at Makkasan and does not connect with the City Line track which run on the outer side of the Express line, to Phaya Thai. The SRT allocated 17m baht in Feb 2012 to rectify this problem. As of early 2018 the two tracks had still not been connected.
At the end of April 2014, the Phaya Thai Express service was suspended for 12 months due to insufficient rolling stock being available while long term, overhaul maintenance of the express rolling stock was undertaken. Thereafter, the hourly Makkasan Express service was only averaging 400 passengers a day. Subsequently, in September 2014 the SRTET decided to suspend the Makkasan Express due to low passenger numbers and insufficient rolling stock. There have been no Express Services since this time. It will eventually be replaced with high speed train services once the high speed train to U-Tapao International Airport and the EEC area is completed. The high speed train will stop at Don Mueang International Airport, Bang Sue Central Station, Makkasan Station, Suvarnabhumi Airport, Chachoengsao, Chonburi, Si Racha, Pattaya and terminate at U-Tapao International Airport.
Standard fare for the City Line is between 15–45 baht depending on distance. (The Express Line was priced between 90/150 baht for one way/return).
City Air Terminal check-in
From 4 January 2011, a baggage check-in service began for passengers traveling on flights operated by Thai Airways International, 08:00–21:00. Passengers checking in at Makkasan station (the city air terminal) were required to purchase an Express Line ticket and check in at least between 3 and 12 hours in prior to flight departure. Bangkok Airways discontinued baggage check-in service in this facility on 13 June 2011. However, very few passengers—20 or fewer per day—used the Makkasan station check-in service. The SRTET stated that they wanted to encourage further airlines to use the City check in service in early 2014 with a target of 1,000 people a day by late 2014. However, in July 2014 the SRTET stated that it would most likely cease check-in operations as only 10 people were using it a day with only 200 pieces of luggage checked in each month. The service was costing SRTET 5.27m baht a month. All check-in services ceased in September 2014 when the Express service was suspended.
The standard gauge line is 28.6 km (17.8 mi) long and is elevated, running above the existing eastern railway, with an underground terminal at the airport. Commuter trips take 27 minutes from Phaya Thai to Suvarnabhumi Airport.
Siemens supplied nine Desiro Class 360/2 trainsets. The only significant difference from the UK units is a much larger air conditioning pod on the roof, providing extra cooling to cope with the Thai climate. City services are operated by five three-car trains, and the express services by four trainsets with a fourth car for check-in baggage. The first trains left Germany in September 2007, and testing in Bangkok began in March 2008. On 15 May 2012 the Thai Cabinet approved a budget of 5.2 billion baht for the SRT to order seven new, four car sets of Siemens Desiro rolling stock to be delivered by 2014. However, as of June 2013 no orders for new rolling stock had been placed.
The line is electrified at 25 kV AC. All stations were built to accommodate 10-car trains, and the express train platform of Makkasan station and all platforms at Suvarnabhumi are fitted with platform automatic screen doors. The top speed is 160 km/h (99 mph), but the short distances between the stations do not permit commuter services to reach that speed.
At Makkasan and Suvarnabhumi, both lines have their own tracks and platforms. At Hua Mak the express line can bypass the city line via a passing loop.
Four Express trains—four cars, red colour—were used for the two separate express service between Makkasan and Phaya Thai and Suvarnabhumi Airport. The fourth car is a baggage car with no passenger seating The other five City Line trains—three cars, blue colour—are used for commuter City Line service stopping at all eight stations on the Airport Line. All units are based on the Class 360, which operates with British TOCs Abellio Greater Anglia and TfL Rail. Since the suspension of the Express Services in September 2014, all Express sets have been used as all stop City Line services. In 2017, the SRTET commenced refurbishment of the four Express trains to install seating in the fourth car in order to increase passenger capacity.
New rolling stock order
Approval was granted by the Transport Ministry (MOT) for the SRT to purchase seven new, four car sets of rolling stock in early 2012 due to overcrowding and the urgent need to provide extra rolling stock. During, 2013 the MOT reviewed the purchase intention to consider cheaper Chinese rolling stock. In December 2013, the Thai Cabinet approved 4.9 billion baht for the seven new sets of rolling stock. As of mid-2014, a supplier had not been selected, but the SRT indicated its intention to invite bidders to tender for new rolling stock in September 2014. This was subsequently delayed with the SRT expecting to conduct an e-tender in April 2015 with a schedule to sign the contract by June 2015. However, a subsequent tender was suspended in 2016 after allegations of corruption surrounding the bidding process.
In early 2017, the SRT Deputy Director stated that the new rolling stock would be tendered and a contract signed by the end of 2017. However, in January 2018 the SRT stated that the purchase would be delayed until the finalisation of the Eastern high speed line tender as rolling stock for this line would be used on the extended ARL.
|Code||Station Name||Thai||Transfer||Future Transfer|
|A1||Suvarnabhumi (Airport)||สุวรรณภูมิ||Samut Prakan||Bang Phli|
|A2||Lat Krabang||ลาดกระบัง||Eastern Line||Bangkok||Lat Krabang|
|A3||Ban Thap Chang||บ้านทับช้าง||Eastern Line||Prawet|
|A4||Hua Mak||หัวหมาก||Eastern Line||Phatthanakan,:||Suan Luang|
(City Air Terminal)
|A8||Phaya Thai||พญาไท||: Phaya Thai|
Extension to Don Mueang Airport
Since its inception, the ARL was intended to be extended north to the new SRT Bang Sue Intercity Terminal (under construction) and ultimately Don Mueang Airport (DMK). This would use the SRT Dark Red Line and main SRT north line corridor. The 21.8 km (13.5 mi) extension—3.5 km (2.2 mi) underground and 18.3 km (11.4 mi) elevated—would consist of five stations beyond the current terminus at Phaya Thai: Ratchawithi (underground), Bang Sue Central, Bang Khen, Laksi, and Don Mueang.
Originally, it was thought that work on the extension would not commence until after 2016. However, the Thai Cabinet designated a two-airport policy in March 2012 encouraging airlines, particularly low-cost carriers, to move to Don Mueang Airport. This resulted in an advance of the ARL extension timeline. The SRT budgeted for the extension in its 2013 budget and the 27 billion baht extension was planned to be tendered in the latter half of 2013. The political crisis in the last three months of 2013 and early-2014 delayed any further progress of the project. The military coup of May 2014 resulted in a military administration which did not fund the project in 2014. The ARL was intended to be the backbone of a future high speed rail line (HSR) to Chonburi and Rayong - originally scheduled to be completed by 2018. The military coup of May 2014 subsequently resulted in deferring all HSR line proposals for a period of two years. Construction resumed along the elevated line to the station at Don Mueang International Airport in late 2016.
In February 2015, the Thai Cabinet approved a budget for land appropriation with the expectation that the extension would be tendered later in 2015. However, this did not occur and there was no advance on the project in 2016. In 2017 that the Thai Government decided that the new Eastern high speed line would originate at Don Mueang Airport, and not Bang Sue Terminal. Thus, this project effectively became the ARL extension to Don Mueang Airport as it will use the ARL track and stations.
In early 2018, the SRT stated that the Eastern HSR line section from Phaya Thai to Bang Sue and Don Mueang Airport is expected to be tendered by May 2018 with a 4 months auction period before the successful bidder is awarded. The cost of the project is estimated to be over 200 billion baht, of which the Thai Government will fund 123 billion baht and the private sector estimated to contribute 90 billion baht.
|Code||Station Name||Thai||Future Transfer|
|A9||Bang Sue (Central Station)||กลางบางซื่อ||inter-city rail, , ,||Chatuchak|
|A10||Don Mueang (Airport)||ดอนเมือง||inter-city rail,||Don Mueang|
Passive provision is being made for an extension of the rail link to a future second terminal at Suvarnabhumi Airport. The Suvarnabhumi second terminal station will be on ground floor before the Suvarnabhumi station that is on underground floor.
- Mass Rapid Transit Master Plan in Bangkok Metropolitan Region
- SRT Dark Red Line
- SRT Light Red Line
- BTS Skytrain
- Sukhumvit Line
- Silom Line
- Bangkok Metro
- MRT Blue Line
- MRT Brown Line
- MRT Grey Line
- MRT Light Blue Line
- MRT Orange Line
- MRT Pink Line
- MRT Purple Line
- MRT Yellow Line
- Bangkok BRT
- "Bangkok Airport Express to change city travel". Railway Gazette International. December 2005.
- David Briginshaw (April 2005). "Work starts on link to Bangkok's new airport". International Railway Journal.
- "Removing 25 unusable Hopewell pillars to make way for the Airport Link". Prachachat Thurakij. 18 November 2004.
- "Time to fix Airport Link". Bangkok Post. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- http://www.prachachat.net/news_detail.php?newsid=1426478279 Archived 21 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Pracha News, 16 March 2015
- "Airport Link overloaded as schools reopen". Bangkok Post. Bangkok. 17 May 2018.
- "รถไฟฟ้าด่วนเปิดเส้นทางใหม่ พญาไท – สุวรรณภูมิ พร้อมแถมเที่ยวเดินทางอีก 1 เที่ยวฟรี". State Railway of Thailand. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "แอร์พอร์ตลิงก์" ยันไม่มีปัญหาขาดแคลนอะไหล่ ปลดล็อกจอดรับส่งที่มักกะสัน, The Manager Online, 14 February 2012
- Agents, airlines blame SRT for poor rail link service, The Nation, 8 August 2011
- Airport Link to expand check-ins, Bangkok Post, 16 November 2013
- Airport rail baggage check risks axe, Bangkok Post, 17 July 2014
- "Bangkok Desiro deliveries begin". Railway Gazette International. 10 September 2007.
- แอร์พอร์ตลิงก์ชงบอร์ดซื้อรถใหม่ 7 ขบวน 4.2พันล้าน เตรียมเข็นล็อตแรกปี57 (in Thai). Pracha News. 16 May 2012.
- แพงเว่อร์คมนาคมรื้อ"ซีเมนส์"ดึง"จีน-ยุโรป"เสียบแอร์พอร์ตลิงก์ (in Thai). Pracha News. 18 June 2013.
- http://www.prachachat.net/news_detail.php?newsid=1426478279 Archived 21 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Pracha News, 16 March 2015
- ""ไพรินทร์"กลับลำจัดซื้อแอร์พอร์ตลิงก์เพิ่ม". Post Today. Bangkok. 19 January 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Single-airport policy ends. Don Mueang to be used for more budget flights, Bangkok Post, 16 March 2012
- Transport Ministry speeds up Airport Link extension; sees completion in 3 years, Thai News Agency, 4 October 2012
- http://www.prachachat.net/news_detail.php?newsid=1424777653, Pracha News, 24 February 2015
- "Auction for train contracts in April". Bangkok Post. Bangkok. 28 February 2018.
- "New govt 'won't halt airport fast rail plan'". Bangkok Post. Bangkok. 9 March 2018.
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