|Region of origin||Scotland|
|Meaning||Adam ("red earth")|
|Variant(s)||Acheson, Atkinson, Aicheson, and Aitcheson, Adcock, Atcock|
|Footnotes: Frequency Comparisons|
Another variant of the name is Acheson. It corresponds to the English name Atkinson, which is particularly common in Northern England. At the time of the British Census of 1881, the relative frequency of the name Aitcheson was highest in Berwickshire (174.6 times the British average), followed by Haddingtonshire, Roxburghshire, Selkirkshire, Peeblesshire, Dumfriesshire, Edinburghshire, Linlithgowshire, Northumberland and Lanarkshire. The Aitchisons are traditionally a mainly Borders and Lowlands family. They are considered to be a sept of Clan Gordon.
In Ireland, the name is common only in Ulster and particularly in counties Antrim and Down. Some Aitchisons are descended from Planters, although the name was recorded in Ireland before that period.
- Beatrice Aitchison (1908–1997), American mathematician, statistician, and transportation economist
- Craigie Mason Aitchison, Lord Aitchison (1882–1941), Scottish politician and judge
- His son Craigie Aitchison (painter) (1926–2009), Scottish painter
- D. Craig Aitchison (b. 1968), Canadian Army officer
- James Aitchison (cricketer) (1920–1994), Scottish first class cricketer
- James Edward Tierney Aitchison (1836–1898), Scottish surgeon and botanist
- James H. Aitchison (1908–1994), Canadian academic and politician
- James Aitchesoun, Master of the Scottish Mint in 1553
- Jean Aitchison (b. 1938), British linguist
- John Aitchison (1926–2016), Scottish statistician
- Martin Aitchison (1919–2016), British illustrator for Eagle comic and Ladybird books
- Ronald Ernest Aitchison (1921–1996), Australian physicist
- W. J. Aitchison (b. 1941), also known as Colonel Joseph Aitchison, Colonel of The Royal Canadian Regiment
- Charli XCX, real name Charlotte Aitchison (born 1992), British singer-songwriter
- Aitchison Surname at Forebears
- "Aitchison Surname Meaning and Distribution". ancestry.co.uk. Retrieved 25 January 2014
- "Aitchison Meaning and Distribution". forebears.co.uk. Retrieved 25 January 2014
- Alphabetical list of Scottish names associated with clans and families.
- Bell, Robert (1990) . The Book of Ulster Surnames (Paperback). Belfast: The Blackstaff Press Limited. ISBN 0-85640-405-5.
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