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Coordinates: 43°31′35″N 5°26′44″E / 43.526304°N 5.445429°E / 43.526304; 5.445429
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Ais de Provença (Occitan)
Top down, from left to right: Aix Cathedral, Place d'Albertas, Pavillon Vendôme, Town Hall Clock Tower and Fontaine de la Rotonde
Flag of Aix-en-Provence
Coat of arms of Aix-en-Provence
Location of Aix-en-Provence
Aix-en-Provence is located in France
Aix-en-Provence is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Coordinates: 43°31′35″N 5°26′44″E / 43.526304°N 5.445429°E / 43.526304; 5.445429
RegionProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
CantonAix-en-Provence 1
Aix-en-Provence 2
 • Mayor (2021–2026) Sophie Joissains[1]
186.083 km2 (71.847 sq mi)
 • Density790/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Aixois, Aquisextain, Aquisestain (masculine)
Aixoise, Aquisextaine, Aquisestaine (feminine)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
13001 /13100, 13090
Elevation173 m (568 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Aix-en-Provence (UK: /ˌɛks ɒ̃ prɒˈvɒ̃s/,[3] US: /ˌks ɒ̃ prˈvɒ̃s, ˌɛks -/),[4][5][6] or simply Aix (Occitan: Ais de Provença), is a city and commune in southern France, about 30 km (20 mi) north of Marseille. A former capital of Provence, it is the subprefecture of the arrondissement of Aix-en-Provence, in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The population of Aix-en-Provence is approximately 145,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less commonly, Aquisextains.


Rue Espariat in November 2013

Aix (Aquae Sextiae) was founded in 123 BC by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus, who gave his name to its springs, following the destruction of the nearby Gallic oppidum at Entremont.[7][8] In 102 BC its vicinity was the scene of the Battle of Aquae Sextiae, where the Romans under Gaius Marius defeated the Ambrones and Teutones,[7] with mass suicides among the captured women, which passed into Roman legends of Germanic heroism.[9]

In the 4th century AD it became the metropolis of Narbonensis Secunda. It was occupied by the Visigoths in 477. In the succeeding century, the town was repeatedly plundered by the Franks and Lombards, and was occupied by the Saracens in 731 and by Charles Martel in 737. Aix, which during the Middle Ages was the capital of Provence, did not reach its zenith until after the 12th century, when, under the houses of Barcelona/Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat of learning.[7]

Aix passed to the crown of France with the rest of Provence in 1487, and in 1501 Louis XII established there the parliament of Provence, which existed until 1789. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the town was the seat of the Intendance of Provence.[7] Current archeological excavations in the Ville des Tours, a medieval suburb of Aix, have unearthed the remains of a Roman amphitheatre.[10] A deposit of fossil bones from the Upper Continental Miocene gave rise to a Christian dragon legend.[11]

Geography and climate[edit]

Aix-en-Provence is situated in the south of France, in a plain overlooking the Arc river, about 1.5 kilometres (1 mi) from the right bank of the river. The city slopes gently from north to south and the Montagne Sainte-Victoire can easily be seen to the east. Aix's position in the south of France gives it a warm climate, though more extreme than Marseille due to the inland location. It has an average January temperature of 6 °C (43 °F) and a July average of 24 °C (75 °F). It has an average of 300 days of sunshine and only 58 days of rain.[12] While it is partially protected from the Mistral, Aix still occasionally experiences the cooler and gusty conditions it brings.

Like most of the south of France, Aix-en-Provence has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa).

Climate data for Aix-en-Provence (1981–2010, extremes 1955–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 11.4
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.2
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.9
Record low °C (°F) −16.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.7 4.6 4.3 6.6 5.4 3.6 1.9 3.1 4.9 6.5 6.7 5.9 59.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 150.7 178.7 238.8 242.0 289.4 327.3 370.2 328.6 256.2 185.1 154.1 140.1 2,861
Source: Météo France[13]


Les Deux Garçons
The Cathedral Cloisters

The Cours Mirabeau is a wide thoroughfare, planted with double rows of plane trees, bordered by fine houses and decorated by fountains. It follows the line of the old city wall, and divides the town into two sections. The new town extends to the south and west; the old town, with its narrow, irregular streets, and its old mansions dating from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, lies to the north. Situated on this avenue, which is lined on one side with banks and on the other with cafés, is the Deux Garçons, the most famous brasserie in Aix. Built in 1792, it was frequented by the likes of Paul Cézanne, Émile Zola and Ernest Hemingway.[14] On 3 November 2019, Les Deux Garçons was devastated by a fire that engulfed the entire building, leaving the much loved establishment just a shell.[15]

The Cathedral of the Holy Saviour (Aix Cathedral) is situated to the north in the medieval part of Aix. Built on the site of a former Roman forum and an adjacent basilica, it contains a mixture of all styles from the 5th to the 17th century, including a richly decorated portal in the Gothic style with doors elaborately carved in walnut. The interior contains 16th-century tapestries, a 15th-century triptych depicting King René and his wife on the side panels, as well as a Merovingian baptistery, its Renaissance dome supported by original Roman columns. The archbishop's palace (Palais de l'Archêveché) and a Romanesque cloister adjoin the cathedral on its south side.[16] The Archbishopric of Aix is now shared with Arles.

Place de l'Hôtel de Ville

Among its other public institutions, Aix also has the second most important Appeal Court (Palais de Justice) outside of Paris, located near the site of the former Palace of the Counts (Palais des Comtes) of Provence.

The Aix-en-Provence Town Hall (Hôtel de Ville), a building in the classical style of the middle of the 17th century, looks onto a picturesque square (Place de l'Hôtel de Ville). It contains some fine woodwork and tapestries. At its side rises a handsome clock-tower, erected in 1510.[17] Also on the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville is the former Corn Exchange (1759–1761) (Halle de Grains). This ornately decorated 18th-century building was designed by the Vallon brothers. Nearby are the remarkable thermal springs, containing lime and carbonic acid, that first drew the Romans to Aix and gave it the name Aquae Sextiae. A spa was built in 1705 near the remains of the ancient Roman baths of Sextius.[18]

South of the Cours Mirabeau is the Quartier Mazarin. This residential district was constructed for the gentry of Aix by Archbishop Michele Mazzarino brother of Cardinal Jules Mazarin in the last half of the 17th century and contains several notable hôtels particuliers. The 13th-century church of Saint-Jean-de-Malte contains valuable pictures and a recently restored organ. Next to it is the Musée Granet, devoted to European painting and sculpture.

Aix is often referred to as the city of a thousand fountains.[19] Among the most notable are the 17th-century Fontaine des Quatre Dauphins (Fountain of the Four Dolphins) in the Quartier Mazarin, designed by Jean-Claude Rambot,[20] and three of the fountains down the central Cours Mirabeau: at the top, a 19th-century fountain depicts the "good king" René holding the Muscat grapes that he introduced to Provence in the 15th century; halfway down is a natural hot water fountain (34 °C), covered in moss, dating back to the Romans; and at the bottom, at la Rotonde, the hub of modern Aix, stands a monumental fountain from 1860 beneath three giant statues representing art, justice and agriculture. In the older part of Aix, there are also fountains of note in the Place d'Albertas and the Place des Trois-Ormeaux.

Aix is the birthplace of Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne. A walking trail links sites including his childhood home, Jas de Bouffan, and his former studio, Atelier Cézanne. The white limestone mountain Sainte-Victoire overlooks the city and was a frequent subject of Cézanne's works.


The Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po)

Aix has long been a university town: Louis II of Anjou granted a royal charter for a university in 1409. Today Aix-en-Provence remains an important educational centre, with many teaching and research institutes:

Aix also has several training collèges, lycées, and a college of art and design. It has also become a centre for many international study programmes. Several lycées offer CPGE.


Sir Simon Rattle conducting Das Rheingold in 2006


Aix holds two significant musical events each year. These are:

Festival d'Aix-en-Provence[edit]

An important opera festival, the Festival international d'Art Lyrique, founded in 1948, now ranks with those in Bayreuth, Salzburg and Glyndebourne. The director until 2018 was Bernard Foccroulle, organist and director of la Monnaie in Brussels. The festival takes place in late June and July each year. The main venues in Aix itself are the outdoor Théâtre de l'Archévêché in the former garden of the archbishop's palace, the recently restored 18th-century Théâtre du Jeu de Paume, and the newly built Grand Théâtre de Provence; operas are also staged in the outdoor Théâtre du Grand Saint-Jean outside Aix. Linked to the festival is the Académie européenne de musique, a summer school for young musicians with master classes by celebrated artists. Over the four-year period from 2006 until 2009, Sir Simon Rattle's version of Wagner's Ring Cycle with the Berlin Philharmonic was performed at the Aix festival. The current director of the festival is Pierre Audi.

Musique dans la Rue[edit]

This takes place each year in June to coincide with the national 'Fête de la Musique.' There is a week of classical, jazz, and popular concerts held in different street venues and courtyards in the city. Some of these events are held in the Conservatoire Darius Milhaud, named in honour of the French composer, a native of Aix.


The dance company Ballet Preljocaj of the French dancer and choreographer Angelin Preljocaj has been located in Aix since 1996. In 2007 it took up residence in the Pavillon Noir, a centre for dance performance, designed in 1999 by the architect Rudy Ricciotti. The centre is one of nineteen of its kind in France, designated Centre chorégraphique national.

European Capital of Culture[edit]

Aix-en-Provence was part of Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long cultural festival when the region served as the European Capital of Culture. Aix hosted several major cultural events including one half of the Grand Atelier du Midi gala exhibition and an episode of the Révélations pyrotechnical performance. The city also unveiled major new cultural infrastructure to coincide with Marseille-Provence 2013, including the Darius Milhaud Conservatory designed by Kengo Kuma.

Museums and libraries[edit]

Vendôme Pavilion
Granet's "Pumpkin Harvest" at the Musée Granet
Paul Cézanne's studio from 1902 until his 1906 death

Aix has several museums and galleries:

  • Le Musée du Vieil Aix (Museum of Old Aix), housed in two period "hôtels particuliers" and devoted to the history and provencal heritage of Aix.
  • Le Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle (Natural History Museum).
  • Le Musée de Tapisseries (Tapestry Museum), housed in the Archbishop's Palace and with a collection of tapestries and furniture from the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • Le Musée Paul Arbaud (Faïence/Pottery).
  • Le Musée Granet, a museum devoted to painting, sculpture and the archeology of Aix.[21] It recently underwent significant restoration and reorganization, prior to the international exhibition in 2006 marking the centenary of Cézanne's death.[22] Due to lack of space, the large archeological collection, including many recent discoveries, will be displayed in a new museum, still in the planning stages. The museum contains major paintings by Jean-Dominique Ingres (among which the monumental "Jupiter and Thetis"), an authentic self-portrait by Rembrandt, and works by Anthony van Dyck, Paul Cézanne, Alberto Giacometti and Nicolas de Staël. In June 2011, the first part of the collection of the Fondation Jean et Suzanne Planque opened at the Musée Granet, containing over 180 artworks. This legacy of the Swiss painter, dealer and art collector Jean Planque, a personal friend of Pablo Picasso, has been donated to the city for an initial period of 15 years. The collection contains over 300 works of art, including paintings and drawings by Degas, Renoir. Gauguin, Monet, Cézanne, Van Gogh, Picasso, Pierre Bonnard, Paul Klee, Fernand Léger, Giacometti and Dubuffet. The full collection will be housed in a specially constructed annex in the Chapelle des Pénitents Blancs, situated nearby: the expected opening is in 2013.
  • Le Pavillon de Vendôme, a 17th-century mansion housing permanent and touring art exhibitions.
  • The Fondation Vasarely, a gallery dedicated to the works of the Hungarian-born French abstract painter Victor Vasarely.
  • Le Camp des Milles
  • L'atelier Cézanne, the former studio of Paul Cézanne, now a museum, located in the northern outskirts of Aix. It has been preserved as it was at the time of the painter's death and contains many of his personal items and props used in his paintings.
  • Jas de Bouffan, the house and grounds of Cézanne's father, now partially open to the public.

Prior to 1989 Aix had several libraries, for example in the Parc Jourdan and the Town Hall. In 1989, many of these were moved to the Méjanes, an old match factory.

In 1993, the "Cité du Livre" was opened around the library. This has media spaces for dance, cinema and music, and a training facility for librarians. Adjacent to the Cité du Livre are the Grand Théâtre de Provence and the Pavillon Noir (see above).

Montagne Sainte-Victoire[edit]

Mont Sainte-Victoire and the Viaduct of the Arc River Valley, Paul Cézanne, 1882–1885
Mont Sainte-Victoire, Paul Cézanne, 1904–1906

To the east of Aix rises Montagne Sainte-Victoire (1,011 metres or 3,317 feet), one of the landmarks of the Pays d'Aix. It is accessible from the centre of Aix by road or on foot, taking the wooded footpath of Escrachou Pevou to the plateau of Bibemus.[23] It dramatically overshadows the small dam built by Émile Zola's father and was a favourite subject and haunt of Paul Cézanne throughout his lifetime. In the village of Le Tholonet on the precipitous southern side of Mont Sainte-Victoire, there is a windmill that he used, and beyond that a mountain hut, the refuge Cézanne, where he liked to paint.

To the north, the mountain slopes gently down through woodland to the village of Vauvenargues. The Château of Vauvenargues overlooking the village was formerly occupied by the counts of Provence (including René of Anjou) and the Archbishops of Aix before it became the family home of the marquis de Vauvenargues.[24] It was acquired by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso in 1958, who was resident there from 1959 until 1962, when he moved to Mougins. He and his wife Jacqueline are buried in its grounds,[25] [26][27] which are not usually open to the public. From 2009 onwards, the château, which now belongs to Jacqueline's daughter Catherine Hutin, has been open to the public from June to September.[28]

Mont Sainte-Victoire has a complex network of paths, leading to the priory and Croix de Provence at the summit, to the large man-made reservoir of Bimont and to the Roman viaduct above le Tholonet.



Calissons, a specialty of Aix-en-Provence

Industries formerly included flour-milling, the manufacture of confectionery, iron-ware, hats, matches and the extraction of olive oil.[30]

Current economic activities include:

  • Chocolate: the well known Chocolaterie de Puyricard is situated in the hills to the north of Aix.[37]
  • Saffron: The Safranière de Provence is an organic saffron producer situated near Aix-en-Provence.[38]

The airline Twin Jet has its head office in Aix-en-Provence.[39]

From 1990 to 2000, criminal organizations established complex extortion rings in Marseille extending to Aix-en-Provence and the greater French Riviera. Since 2002, Le Milieu is known for, in addition to its extortion rings, large counterfeiting and white-collar crime operations. Due to increased financial regulation, Le Milieu has collectively pushed to integrate their crime profits into the legal economy.[citation needed]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 27,000—    
1800 21,009−3.52%
1806 21,960+0.74%
1821 22,412+0.14%
1831 22,575+0.07%
1836 24,660+1.78%
1841 26,698+1.60%
1846 27,280+0.43%
1851 27,255−0.02%
1856 26,136−0.83%
1861 27,659+1.14%
1866 28,152+0.35%
1872 29,020+0.51%
1876 28,693−0.28%
1881 29,257+0.39%
1886 29,057−0.14%
1891 28,357−0.49%
1896 28,913+0.39%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 29,418+0.35%
1906 29,829+0.28%
1911 29,836+0.00%
1921 29,983+0.05%
1926 35,106+3.21%
1931 38,332+1.77%
1936 42,615+2.14%
1946 46,053+0.78%
1954 54,217+2.06%
1962 67,943+2.86%
1968 89,566+4.71%
1975 110,659+3.07%
1982 121,327+1.32%
1990 123,842+0.26%
1999 133,018+0.80%
2007 143,404+0.94%
2012 141,148−0.32%
2017 142,482+0.19%
Source: EHESS[40] and INSEE (1968-2017)[41]


The current mayor of Aix-en-Provence is Sophie Joissains, elected on September 24, 2021.[42]

List of successive mayors
term Name Party
2021–incumbent Sophie Joissains UDI
2001–2021 Maryse Joissains-Masini LR
1989–2001 Jean-François Picheral PS
1983–1989 Jean-Pierre de Peretti UDF
1978–1983 Alain Joissains UDF
1967–1978 Félix Ciccolini PS
1945–1967 Henri Mouret

Presidential Elections Second Round:

Election Winning Candidate Party %
2017[43] Emmanuel Macron EM 73.59
2012 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 53.09
2007 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 57.30
2002 Jacques Chirac RPR 80.74


Aix-en-Provence TGV railway station.

A set of ancient roads radiate out from Aix to the surrounding countryside, the Pays d'Aix. There are also a large number of modern autoroutes connecting Aix to nearby towns. There are autoroutes northwards to Avignon and to the Luberon; southwards to Marseille; and eastwards to Aubagne and the Mediterranean coast of Provence; and to Nice and other towns on the French Riviera. Aix and Marseille are equidistant from the Marseille Provence Airport (MRS) at Marignane on the Étang de Berre which features domestic and international scheduled passenger service. There is another airport at Les Milles, which is mostly used by general aviation. There is a frequent bus shuttle service from the main bus station in Aix which also serves the nearby TGV station at l'Arbois, in the middle of the countryside about 16 kilometres (10 mi) from Aix.

At Aix, the line from Paris branches to Marseille and Nice; it takes about 3 hours to get from Paris to Aix by TGV. Aix also has a railway station near the centre, Gare d'Aix-en-Provence, with connections to Marseille, Pertuis and Briançon in the French Alps. A frequent and rapid shuttle bus service for commuters operates between the bus station in Aix and Marseille. There are many other long distance and local buses from the bus station. The city also offers a "city pass" available in 24, 48, and 72-hour packages for visiting tourists.[44] The "pass tourisitque" is offered at the Aix-en-Provence Tourist Office, the Atelier de Cézanne, and the official Aix tourism website.[44]

In the town itself, there is an inexpensive municipal bus service, including a dial-a-bus service ("proxibus"), a park-and-ride service and tiny electrified buses for those with mobility problems – these are six-seater vehicles that circulate at a speed of 16 km/h (10 mph).[45] The central old town of Aix is for the most part pedestrianised. There are large underground and overground parking structures placed at regular intervals on the "boulevard exterieur", the predominantly one-way ring road that encircles the old town. Access to the old town is by a series of often narrow one-way streets that can be confusing to navigate for the uninitiated.[46][47]

As well as overland routes, two "rivers" flow through Aix, the Arc and the Torse, but neither of which can remotely be described as navigable.


Cours Mirabeau

The local Aix dialect, rarely used and spoken by a rapidly decreasing number of people, is part of the provencal dialect of the Occitan language. The provencal for "Aix-en-Provence" is "Ais de Prouvènço" [ˈaj de pʀuˈvɛ̃sɔ]. Most of the older streets in Aix have names in both Provençal and French.

Aix hosted the ninth International Congress of Modern Architecture in 1953.

Aix is the home town of the rugby union team Provence Rugby. It played host to the All Blacks during the early stages of the 2007 Rugby World Cup.[48][49]

Ysabel, the tenth novel of the best-selling Canadian author Guy Gavriel Kay, was set and written in Aix.

Italian electroacoustic artist Giuseppe Ielasi's album Aix[50] was produced in Aix-en-Provence, hence the title.

This is also the site of an alleged sighting and landing of a UFO in 1981 that is taken seriously by GEIPAN, the department within the French Space Agency responsible for investigating aerospace phenomena.[51]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Aix-en-Provence is twinned with:[52]

Friendship and cooperation[edit]

Aix-en-Provence also cooperates with:[52]

Notable people[edit]

Notable residents[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires" (in French). data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises. 4 May 2022.
  2. ^ "Populations légales 2021" (in French). The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2023.
  3. ^ "Aix-en-Provence". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Aix-en-Provence". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Aix-en-Provence". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  6. ^ French: [ɛksɑ̃ pʁɔvɑ̃s] ; Provençal: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm, (However, with the preposition a/à 'to', the forms are as Ais/à-z-Ais [aˈzaj]). pronounced [ˈajz de pʀuˈvɛnsɔ]
  7. ^ a b c d Chisholm 1911, p. 447.
  8. ^ « Histoire d'Aix » Archived 4 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, site de l'office du tourisme d'Aix-en-Provence.
  9. ^ cf Jerome, letter cxxiii, To Ageruchia, 8, 409 A.D.
  10. ^ "La Seds". Mairie d'Aix-en-Provence (in French). 23 April 2009. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022.
  11. ^ de Grazia, Alfred; de Grazia, Ami. "The Dragon at the bus-stop". Q-mag.org. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  12. ^ "Tourist office; the climate of Aix". Aixenprovencetourism.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  13. ^ "Aix en Provence (13)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  14. ^ Sarre, Claude-Alain (2007). Les Deux Garçons. Quatre Siècles d'Histoire au Coeur d'Aix-en-Provence. Université Aix. ISBN 978-2-903449-92-6.
  15. ^ "Aix : les "2G" totalement détruits par un incendie". La Provence. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  16. ^ Michelin Guide to Provence, ISBN 2-06-137503-0, pages 67–68.
  17. ^ "Tourist office: Old Aix". Aixenprovencetourism.com. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  18. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911.
  19. ^ Laurence Labrouche, "Ariane Mnouchkine: un parcours théâtral: le terrassier, l'enfant et le voyageur", L'Harmattan (1999), ISBN 2-7384-8022-5, page 66, "la ville aux mille fontaines"
  20. ^ Provence. Michelin Green Guide. Michelin. 1999. ISBN 0-320-03732-0., page 69. The fountain was built in 1667,
  21. ^ "Website of the Musée Granet". Museegranet-aixenprovence.fr. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  22. ^ "Reopening of the Musée Granet in Aix-en-Provence". The Art Tribune. 20 August 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  23. ^ "Montagne Ste-Victoire, Aix-en-Provence, Gardanne, Trets". La Carte de Randonnée, 1;25,000. 3244 ET. Institut Géographique National. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. ^ Mairie of Vauvenargues, History and heritage Archived 18 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  25. ^ O'Brian, Patrick (1976). Picasso: Pablo Ruiz Picasso : a Biography. Putnam. ISBN 88-304-0863-8.
  26. ^ "Pablo Picasso's Last Days and Final Journey". Time. 23 April 1973.
  27. ^ Bruno Ely (2009). Château de Vauvenargues. ImageArt. ISBN 978-2-9534525-0-1.
  28. ^ Château of Vauvenargues, official web site
  29. ^ Ribeiro, Benjamin. "Euro 2016: Aix, camp de base de l'Ukraine" Archived 26 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, aix-international.com (in French). Retrieved on 18 March 2016.
  30. ^ Histoire d'Aix-en-Provence. Edisud. 1977. ISBN 2-85744-237-8.
  31. ^ Beckett-Young, Kathleen (26 February 1989). "Fare of the Country; Provence's Almond Calissons". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  32. ^ "France battles China over sweets trademark". 16 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  33. ^ Parker, Robert (1996). The Wine Buyer's Guide. Dorling Kindersley. p. 488. ISBN 0-7513-0342-9.
  34. ^ "Official website for Château Simone". Chateau-simone.fr. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  35. ^ "Guide des Vins – Château Crémade" (in French). Guidevins.com. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  36. ^ "Aix en Provence Office de Tourisme". Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  37. ^ "The Chocolaterie of Puyricard". Puyricard.fr. Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  38. ^ "Saffron of Provence". safranieredeprovence.com. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  39. ^ "The company: Company information." Twin Jet. Retrieved on 8 July 2010. "Address : TWIN JET 1070 rue du lieutenant Parayre BP 30370 13799 AIX EN PROVENCE CEDEX 3 "
  40. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Aix-en-Provence, EHESS (in French).
  41. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  42. ^ "Sophie Joissains succède à sa mère à la mairie d'Aix-en-Provence".
  43. ^ "Résultats élections: Aix-en-Provence". Le Monde.fr.
  44. ^ a b "Aix-en-Provence City Pass | Aix en Provence │ Office de Tourisme". Aix-en-Provence Tourist Office. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  45. ^ "BILAN 2001/06: la ville á visage humain" (PDF). 27 February 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  46. ^ Aix-en-Provence, Plan Guide Blay-Foldex.
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Explanatory footnotes[edit]


  • Busquet, Raoul (1954). Histoire de la Provençade des origines à la révolution française. Éditions Jeanne Lafitte. ISBN 2-86276-319-5.


External links[edit]