Ajmer

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Ajmer
Ajayameru[1]
Metropolis
Mayo College
Ajmer is located in India
Ajmer
Ajmer
Ajmer is located in Rajasthan
Ajmer
Ajmer
Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 74°38′24″E / 26.4499°N 74.6399°E / 26.4499; 74.6399Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 74°38′24″E / 26.4499°N 74.6399°E / 26.4499; 74.6399
Country India
State Rajasthan
District Ajmer
Founded by Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II
Named for Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II
Government
 • Body Ajmer Development Authority (ADA), Ajmer Municipal corporation (AMC)
Elevation1574.8 480 m (1,570 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Metropolis 542,321
 • Urban 551,101
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Regional Marwari, English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN 305001 to 305023
Telephone code 0145, +91145
Vehicle registration

RJ-01(Ajmer) RJ-36 (Beawar) RJ-42 (Kishangarh)

RJ-48 (Kekri)
Nearest city Jaipur, Udaipur, Jodhpur
Website www.ajmer.rajasthan.gov.in

Ajmer (अजमेर; pronounced [ədʒmeːr] (About this sound listen)) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. According to the 2011 census, Ajmer had a population of 542,321 in the city, 551,101 including its suburbs.[2]

The city was established as "Ajayameru" by a Shakambhari Chahamana (Chauhan) ruler, either Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II, and served as the Chahamana capital until the 12th century CE.[3][4]

Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. It is the base for visiting Pushkar (11 km), an ancient Hindu pilgrimage city, famous for the temple of Lord Brahma, and also a pilgrimage centre for the shrine of the Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti. Ajmer has been selected as one of the heritage cities for the HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.[5][better source needed]

History[edit]

Jahangir receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on his return from the Mewar campaign

Ajmer was originally known as Ajayameru.[6] The 12th century text Prithviraja Vijaya states that the Shakambhari Chahamana (Chauhan) king Ajayaraja II (ruled c. 1110 – 1135 CE) established the city of Ajayameru.[4] Historian Dasharatha Sharma notes that the earliest mention of the city's name occurs in Palha's Pattavali, which was copied in 1113 CE (1170 VS) at Dhara. This suggests that Ajmer was founded sometime before 1113 CE.[7] A prashasti (eulogistic inscription), issued by Vigraharaja IV and found at Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra, states Ajayadeva (that is, Ajayaraja II) moved his residence to Ajmer.[3]

The later text Prabandha-Kosha states that it was the 8th century king Ajayaraja I who commissioned the Ajayameru fort, which later came to be known as the Taragarh fort of Ajmer.[4] According to historian R. B. Singh, this claim appears to be true, as inscriptions dated to the 8th century CE have been found at Ajmer.[8] Singh theorizes that Ajayaraja II later expanded the town area, constructed palaces, and moved the Chahamana capital from Shakambhari to Ajmer.[9]Mughal prince Dara Shikoh was born here in 1615. Jahanara Begum powerful mughal princess also born here.

Geography[edit]

Ajmer is in the northwest section of India and is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. It is situated on the lower slopes of the Taragarh Hill of that range. The massive rocks of Nagpaharh range protects Ajmer from the Thar Desert to the west.

Ajmer is antipodal to the Chilean island Isla Salas y Gómez.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Ajmer
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
25.7
(78.3)
31.3
(88.3)
36.5
(97.7)
39.7
(103.5)
38.4
(101.1)
33.6
(92.5)
31.3
(88.3)
32.6
(90.7)
33.5
(92.3)
29.2
(84.6)
24.7
(76.5)
31.6
(88.9)
Average low °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
10.5
(50.9)
16.0
(60.8)
22.2
(72)
26.8
(80.2)
27.5
(81.5)
25.6
(78.1)
24.4
(75.9)
23.7
(74.7)
18.0
(64.4)
12.3
(54.1)
8.4
(47.1)
18.6
(65.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 7.3
(0.287)
6.0
(0.236)
5.0
(0.197)
4.0
(0.157)
15.7
(0.618)
58.1
(2.287)
181.5
(7.146)
157.5
(6.201)
73.0
(2.874)
13.1
(0.516)
4.0
(0.157)
3.8
(0.15)
529
(20.826)
Source: IMD[10]

Ajmer has a hot, semi-arid climate with over 55 centimetres (22 inches) of rain every year, but most of the rain occurs in the monsoon months, between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having an average daily temperature of about 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there is frequent heavy rain and thunderstorms, but flooding is not a common occurrence. The winter months of November to February are mild and temperate with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) with little or no humidity. There are, however, occasional cold weather fronts that cause temperatures to fall to near freezing levels.

Transportation[edit]

Pushkar Valley that connects Pushkar and Ajmer in the Aravalli Mountains

Air[edit]

Work on the Kishangarh Airport near Ajmer was inaugurated by Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in September 2013.[11] The airport was inaugurated by Union Minister of State for Civil Aviation Jayant Sinha and Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje on 11 October 2017.[12]

Rail[edit]

Ajmer is well connected by railways. The Ajmer Junction is the main railway station situated in the city.[13]

Landmarks and monuments[edit]

City of Gold in Ajmer Jain temple
  • Pushkar Located few kilometres from Ajmer, is an important tourist and pilgrimage destination. It is famous for Pushkar Lake and the 14th century Brahma Temple at Pushkar, dedicated to Brahmā, according to the Padma Purāņa, Pushkar is important pilgrimage site for Lord Brahmā.[14]
  • Taragarh Fort: The fort guarding Ajmer, was the seat of the Chauhan rulers. It is reputed to be one of the oldest hill forts in India and the world. It was built by King Ajaypal Chauhan on the summit of Taragarh Hill and overlooks Ajmer. The battlements run along the top of the hill. The walls are about two miles (3 km) in circumference and the fort can only be approached by way of a very steep slope. When it fell to the British Raj, the fort was dismantled on the orders of Lord William Bentinck and was converted into a sanatorium for the British troops stationed at the garrison town of Nasirabad.[15]
  • Ajmer Sharif Dargah: It is a shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti which is situated at the foot of the Taragarh hill, and consists of several white marble buildings arranged around two courtyards, including a massive gate donated by the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the Akbari Mosque, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and containing the domed tomb of the saint. Akbar and his queen used to come here by foot every year on pilgrimage from Agra in observance of a vow when he prayed for a son. The large pillars called "Kose ('Mile') Minars", erected at intervals of about two miles (3 km) along the entire way between Agra and Ajmer mark the places where the royal pilgrims halted every day.[15] About 125,000 pilgrims visit the site every day. The urs for Moinuddin Chishti is celebrated every year on the 6th and 7th of Rajab.
  • Ajmer Jain temple, also known as Soniji Ki Nasiyan, is an architecturally rich Jain temple built in the late nineteenth century whose main chamber Swarna Nagari "City of Gold", has prominent depiction of Ayodhya made from 1000 kg of gold.[16]
  • Mayo College: The college was founded in 1875 by Lord Mayo, Viceroy of India.[17] It was known as "Indian Eton", as a number of Indian princes studied in this college. The main building, in white marble, is a classic example of Indo-Saracenic architecture. In front of the college is memorial statue of Lord Mayo.[17]
  • Akbari Fort & Museum: The city's museum was once the residence of Prince Salīm, the son of the Emperor Akbar, and presently houses a collection of Mughal and Rajput armour and sculpture. This is a magnificent example of Mughal architecture, construction of which was commissioned by Akbar in 1570. This is where Salim, as the Emperor Jahangir, read out the firman permitting the British East India Company to trade with India.[18]
Nareli Jain Temple is a recent addition to Ajmer
  • Nareli Jain Temple: is a Jain temple complex of fourteen temples recently built. It is known for its architecture and intricate stone carvings which gives it both a traditional and contemporary look.[19]

Notable places:[20]

Baradari on Lake Anasagar
  • Anasagar Lake: This is an historic man-made lake built by Maharaja Anaji (1135–1150 AD).[21] By the lake is the Daulat Bagh, a garden laid out by Emperor Jahangir. Emperor Shah Jahan later added five pavilions, known as the Baradari, between the garden and the lake.
  • Lake Foy Sagar is situated is a picturesque artificial lake that was created as a famine relief project in 1892. It offers views of Aravalli mountains range as well migrating birds.[22]
  • Prithviraj Smarak: Prithviraj Smarak is dedicated to Maharaja Prithviraj of Rajput Chauhan dynasty of Ajmer. It is located on the way to Taragarh Fort. This place has a life size statue of King Prithviraj Chauhan mounted on a horse.[23]

Demographics[edit]

Religions in Ajmer
Religion Percent
Hindus
83.53%
Muslims
11.58%
Others
4.89%
Population growth of Ajmer 
CensusPop.
189168,800
190173,8007.3%
191186,20016.8%
1921113,20031.3%
1931119,5005.6%
1941147,30023.3%
1951196,30033.3%
1961231,20017.8%
1971264,30014.3%
1981374,40041.7%
1991402,7007.6%
2001485,19720.5%
2011542,32111.8%
source:[24][25][2]
Population growth through the years
Year Population
1891
68,800
1901
73,800
1911
86,200
1921
113,200
1931
119,500
1941
147,300
1951
196,300
1961
231,200
1968
265,200
1971
264,300
1981
374,400
1991
402,700
2001
485,197
2011
542,321

[24][25][2]

As of the 2011 Census of India the population of Ajmer city was 542,321 placing Ajmer in the top 100 major cities of India and 5th in Rajasthan. Including suburbs outside the city limits the population was 551,101. The female to male ratio in the city was 947/1,000. The literacy rate in the city was 86.52%, male literacy being 92.08% and female literacy being 80.69%.[2] Ajmer's population growth in the decade was 18.48%; this compares to a growth figure of 20.93% in the previous decade.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Majumdar, R.C. Volume 5: The Struggle for Empire. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 107. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Ajmer City Population Census 2011 | Rajasthan". www.census2011.co.in. 
  3. ^ a b Har Bilas Sarda 1911, pp. 68-74.
  4. ^ a b c R. B. Singh 1964, p. 87.
  5. ^ "Introduction". Hriday official website. 
  6. ^ "Ajmer Tourism: Places to Visit in Ajmer - Rajasthan Tourism". tourism.rajasthan.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-03-10. 
  7. ^ Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 40.
  8. ^ R. B. Singh 1964, p. 88.
  9. ^ R. B. Singh 1964, pp. 131-132.
  10. ^ "Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature and total rainfall of important cities (PDF)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-13. Retrieved 2013-07-28. 
  11. ^ "Focus on connecting small cities by air: Manmohan". The Hindu. 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  12. ^ "Kishangarh airport inauguration ends decade long wait of Ajmer residents: CM Raje". Deccan Chronicle. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  13. ^ "Rajasthan finds favour in railway budget". The Hindu. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  14. ^ a b PADMA PURANA - Significance of Pushkara Tirtha
  15. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ajmere". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 452–453. 
  16. ^ "This Temple In Rajasthan Has A Golden Chamber Where 1000kg Of Gold Was Used To Carve Out Depictions Of Ayodhya. It's Truly Mesmerizing!". Daily Bhaskar. 24 Jul 2017. Retrieved 29 Jul 2017. 
  17. ^ a b Mayo College, Ajmere - British Library
  18. ^ "Akbar Ka Kila, AJMER". 
  19. ^ "Enlightenment completed the pilgrimage area - www.bhaskar.com". dainikbhaskar. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  20. ^ Ajmer Sightseeing
  21. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 173. 
  22. ^ The Future of Power - summary report, Ajmer - February 2014
  23. ^ Prithviraj Memorial Ajmer
  24. ^ a b "Historical Census of India". 
  25. ^ a b c "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]