Ajmer

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This article is about the municipality in Rajasthan, India. For its namesake district, see Ajmer district. For the historical region, see Ajmer region.
Ajmer
अजमेर
अजयमेरू
Metropolis
Mayo College
Mayo College
Nickname(s): City of Unity, Heart of Rajasthan [1]
Ajmer is located in Rajasthan
Ajmer
Ajmer
Ajmer is located in India
Ajmer
Ajmer
Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 74°38′24″E / 26.4499°N 74.6399°E / 26.4499; 74.6399Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 74°38′24″E / 26.4499°N 74.6399°E / 26.4499; 74.6399
Country India
State Rajasthan
District Ajmer
Founded by Raja Ajaypal Chauhan
Named for Raja Ajaypal Chauhan
Government
 • Body

District Headquarter Ajmer Ajmer Municipal Corporation (AMC)

Ajmer Development Authority (ADA)
Elevation 200 m (700 ft)
Population (2011 census)
 • Total 542,580
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Regional Marwari, Parsi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 305001
Telephone code 0145, +91145
Vehicle registration

RJ-01(Ajmer) RJ-36 (Beawar) RJ-42 (Kishangarh)

RJ-48 (Kekri)
Nearest city Jaipur, Udaipur, Jodhpur
Website www.ajmer.rajasthan.gov.in
Statue of Parshvanatha at a Jain temple in Ajmer

Ajmer (pronounced [ədʒmeːr]) is one of the major city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and is the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. According to the 2011 census, Ajmer has a population of around 551,360 in its urban agglomeration and 542,580 in the city. The city is located at a distance of 135 km from the state capital Jaipur and 391 km from the national capital New Delhi.

Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. It is a pilgrimage centre for the shrine of the Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti and is also the base for visiting Pushkar (11 km), an ancient Hindu pilgrimage city, famous for the temple of Brahma.

Prithviraj Chauhan (1149–1192 CE), of the Chauhan dynasty, ruled Ajmer along with Delhi during the latter half of the 12th century. He succeeded to the throne at the age of 13, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi, and was the last independent Hindu king to sit upon the throne of Delhi.

Ajmer has been selected as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. [2]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Ajmer
Jahangir receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on his return from the Mewar campaign

Ajmer, earlier known as 'Ajayameru' (Sanskrit: अजयमेरु, lit. invincible mountain) was founded in the late 7th century A.D. by Ajayraj Singh Chauhan. Chauhan clan is a branch of Rajputs. The Chauhan dynasty ruled Ajmer in spite of repeated invasions by Turkic Muslim armies from Central Asia across the north of India. Ajmer was conquered by Muhammad of Ghor, founder of the Delhi Sultanate, in 1193. However, the Chauhan rulers were able to gain autonomy upon the payment of a heavy tribute to him. Ajmer regained independence under the ruler of Mewar in 1365. In 1509, control of Ajmer was disputed between the Maharajas of Mewar and Marwar until it was conquered by the Marwar in 1532. In 1553, the state was ruled by the Hindu Emperor Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly known as Hemu, who was killed in 1556 in the Second Battle of Panipat. The city was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1559. In the early 1700s century, control passed to the Marathas.

In 1818 the British forced the Marathas to cede the city for 50,000 rupees, whereupon it became part of the Province of Ajmer-Marwar in the colonial British Raj. It consisted of the districts of Ajmer and Merwara, and were physically separated by the territory of the Rajputana Agency. Ajmer-Marwar was directly administered by the British Raj, by a commissioner who was subordinate to the Governor-General's agent for Rajputana.

Ajmer-Marwar remained a province of India until 1950, when it became the Ajmer State. Ajmer state became part of Rajasthan state on 1 November 1956.

Geography[edit]

Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. The city is sied on the lower slopes of the Taragarh Hill in the Aravalli Range. It is situated almost in the centre of Rajasthan. To the north of the city is a large artificial lake, called Anasagar with a marble structure known as Baradari. Ajmer is protected from the Thar desert by the massive rocks of Nagpathar range.

Ajmer is also antipodal to the Chilean remote island of Isla Sala y Gómez.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Ajmer
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
25.7
(78.3)
31.3
(88.3)
36.5
(97.7)
39.7
(103.5)
38.4
(101.1)
33.6
(92.5)
31.3
(88.3)
32.6
(90.7)
33.5
(92.3)
29.2
(84.6)
24.7
(76.5)
31.62
(88.92)
Average low °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
10.5
(50.9)
16.0
(60.8)
22.2
(72)
26.8
(80.2)
27.5
(81.5)
25.6
(78.1)
24.4
(75.9)
23.7
(74.7)
18.0
(64.4)
12.3
(54.1)
8.4
(47.1)
18.58
(65.45)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 7.3
(0.287)
6.0
(0.236)
5.0
(0.197)
4.0
(0.157)
15.7
(0.618)
58.1
(2.287)
181.5
(7.146)
157.5
(6.201)
73.0
(2.874)
13.1
(0.516)
4.0
(0.157)
3.8
(0.15)
529
(20.826)
Source: IMD[3]

Ajmer has a hot semi-arid climate with over 55 centimetres (25.4 in) of rain every year, but most of the rain occurs in the Monsoon months, between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having an average daily temperature of about 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there are frequent heavy rains and thunderstorms but flooding is not a common occurrence. The winter months of November to February are mild and temperate with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) with little or no humidity. There are, however, occasional cold weather fronts that cause temperatures to fall to near freezing levels.

Transportation[edit]

The Pushkar Ghati connecting Ajmer and Pushkar
A long shot of Pushkar ghati

Ajmer is well connected to the major cities of India by land and rail.

Air[edit]

Work on the Kishangarh Airport near Ajmer was inaugurated by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in September 2013 and it is expected to commence operations in 2016.[4] At present the nearest airport is the Jaipur International Airport, about 132 km away, with daily flights to the major cities in India.

Rail[edit]

Ajmer is at an important railway junction on the Broad gauge Jaipur-Ahmedabad line. Presently, the rail lines are without overhead Electric wires i.e. only Diesel engines can be run on them. Electrification of the railway lines is under progress, starting with Ajmer-Jaipur line and Ajmer-Udaipur line.

Road[edit]

The city is located on the Golden Quadrilateral National Highway 8 (NH 8) midway between Delhi and Mumbai, about 400 km from Delhi and 135 km from Jaipur. The Ajmer - Jaipur expressway is a 6 lane highway. There are air-conditioned bus services to Ajmer from Delhi, Jaipur and other cities.

Intra-city transport[edit]

Low floor bus, Mini bus, Taxi, and Cabs such as Ola, Uber and Taxi for sure are available for travel within the city and to nearby towns such as Pushkar and Kishangarh. E-Rickshaw and Cycle Rickshaw are also available within the wall city.

Tourist sites[edit]

Ajmer Sharif Dargah
Baradari on Lake Anasagar
  • The Ajmer Sharif Dargah: It is a shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti which is situated at the foot of the Taragarh hill, and consists of several white marble buildings arranged around two courtyards, including a massive gate donated by the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Akbari Mosque, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. It contains the domed tomb of the saint. Akbar and his queen used to come here by foot on pilgrimage from Agra every year in observance of a vow when he prayed for a son. The large pillars called "Kose ('Mile') Minar", erected at intervals of two miles (3 km) along the entire way between Agra and Ajmer mark the places where the royal pilgrims halted every day. It has been estimated that around 125,000 pilgrims visit the site every day.
  • Happy valley [5]
  • Dargah Of Miran Syed Husain: On the highest point of Taragarh fort stands the Dargah of Hazrat Miran Syed Husian Asghar Khangswar who was the governor of Ajmer after its conquest by Sultan Shahabuddin Ghori.. On the death of Qutubuddin Aibak in 1210 A.D., the Rathor and Chauhan Rajputs joined in a night attack on the Taragarh Fort when most of the men of Miran Saheb were out collecting taxes in the district, and the number of his garrison was, therefore, numerically very small. The Rajpurs thus massacred Miran Saheb and his garrison to a man on 18th Rajab.
  • Taragarh Fort: The fort guarding Ajmer, was the seat of the Chauhan rulers and was originally believed to be built by Mughal ruler Akbar.[6] It is reputed to be one of the oldest hill forts in India and the world. It was built by King Ajaypal Chauhan on the summit of Taragarh Hill and overlooks Ajmer. The battlements run along the top of the hill. The walls are two miles (3 km) in circumference and the fort can only be approached by way of a very steep slope. When it fell to the British Raj, the fort was dismantled on the orders of Lord William Bentinck and was converted into a sanatorium for the British troops stationed at the garrison town of Nasirabad.
  • Adhai Din Ka Jhonpda: A mosque by Qutubuddin Aibak built in 1193, is situated on the lower slope of Taragarh hill. Aibak's successor, Shams al-Din Iltutmish added to the mosque. It is noted for its double-depth calligraphy inscriptions, in the Naskh and Kufic scripts. Apart from the mosque, called Jama Iltutmish (pronounced Altamash locally), nearly the whole of the ancient temple has fallen into ruins, but the relics are still unsurpassed as examples of Hindu architecture and sculpture. Forty columns support the roof, but no two are alike and the ornaments are exceptional in their decorations.[7]
  • Akbari Fort & Museum : The city's Museum, was once the residence of Prince Salīm, the son of the Emperor Akbar, and presently houses a collection of Mughal and Rajput armour and sculpture. This is a magnificent example of Mughal architecture, construction of which had been commissioned by Akbar in 1570. This is the location from where Salim, as the Emperor Jahangir read out the firman permitting the British East India Company to trade with India.[8]
Lake Foysagar at sunset
  • Maqbara Shaikh Husain: It houses the tomb of Khwaja Husain Chishty Rehamatullah Alaih (Shaikh Husain Ajmeri) who was the Peer of Ajmer Sharif Dargah in Emperor Akbar's Time, He was the great grandson of Khwaja Moinuddin Hasan Chishty Rehmatullah Alaih, his tomb was built in 1637–1638 by Khwaja Alauddin Chishty and Sajjadanashin Hazrat Khwaja Moinuddin
  • Mayo College: College was founded in 1875 by Lord Mayo, Viceroy of India. The architecture of the school buildings is in the same style as royal Rajasthani architecture. The school's main building, in white marble, is a classic example of Indo-Saracenic architecture.[9]

Ajmer Sightseeing:[10]

  • Anasagar Lake: This is an historic man-made lake built by Maharaja Anaji (1135–1150 AD).[6] By the lake is the Daulat Bagh, a garden laid out by Emperor Jahangar. Emperor Shah Jahan later added five pavilions, known as the Baradari, between the garden and the lake.

On the way to Prithviraj Chauhan Statue, the famous Sai Baba temple is also an important tourist destination which is having same architecture as that of Sai Baba temple in Shirdi.

  • Lord Ram (at centre)
    Soniji Ki Nasiyan: It is an architecturally rich Digambara Jain temple. It was built in the late nineteenth century. The main chamber, known as the Swarna Nagari "City of Gold", has several gold-plated wooden figures, depicting several figures in the Jain religion.[11] it has a gold model of the city of Ayodhya, the birthplace of Ram.[5]
  • Lake Foy Sagar: It is situated in the outskirts of the city, it is a picturesque artificial lake that was created as a famine relief project in 1892. It offers panoramic views of the neighbouring Aravalli mountains as well as of the evening flights of nearby birds.
  • Nareli Jain Temple: It is a relatively new Jain temple. It is located on the outskirts of Ajmer and lies in NH8[12]

Located about 11 kilometres from Ajmer Pushkar is also an important tourist destination. It is famous for Pushkar Lake and the 14th century Brahma Temple at Pushkar, dedicated to Brahmā, according to the Padma Purāņa, Pushkar is the only place where Brahmā may be worshipped.[13] There is a general belief amongst Hindus that no pilgrimage to the four principal pilgrim centres (Char Dham) namely, Badrinath, Jagannath, Rameshwaram and Dwarka, would be complete without a blessing that comes from bathing in the holy Pushkar Lake. Pushkar has 52 bathing ghats and many temples. Pushkar is also famous for its annual Pushkar Fair.

Shopping[edit]

Ajmer is home to antiques and silver jewellery. It is also popular for shopping items like bandhini sarees and dupattas, Jodhpuri juttis, ittar (perfume), Rajasthani crafts, etc. Some of the famous markets are Naya Bazaar, Madar Gate, Churi Bazaar, Ajaymeru Udyog Crafts Mela.[14]

Ajmer, a view from Taragarh Fort

Education[edit]

Sophia School and College

it is the site of Dayanand College. The origin of Dayanand College, Ajmer is unique in way more than one. The college owes its existence neither to the zeal of an educationist, nor to that of a social reformer. It was in the year 1888 Pt. Jiyalalji thought of setting up a school for imparting value oriented education. In due course of time,incessant efforts of Pt. Jiyalalji and later of Prof. D.Vable transforming that little school into a leading college.

Mayo College was founded by the British Raj in 1875 to educate the children of India's royalty under mayo college general council two more schools were built in later half of 20th century Mayo college girls school(girls boarding) and Mayoor school(day school)both these schools are built on land given by Mayo college once part of its campus and hence located nearby . Ajmer is also home to Saint Anselms School (1904), St. Mary's Convent Girls' School, Sophia Girls' School (1918/1935) & College (1943), and the historic Ajmer Music College (1942), the first accredited institution in Rajasthan for teaching Hindustani classical music.

JIALAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION: Jialal Teachers Training Institution was established by the Arya Samj Education Committee, Ajmer in the year of 1963 in the name of the late Pandit Jialalji who was a Famous social worker and also a great Arya Samaj Devotee. the credit of establishing this also goes to ex–principal of Dayanand College, Sh. Duttatery Arya. The foundation stone laid by the Education Minister Late Hari Bhau Upadhyaya on 17 February 1964 and real systematic Inauguration was done by the Governor of Rajasthan in 1965 Dr. Sampurnand . The Institution was established to the follow the traditions of protecting, propagating and preaching vedic religion.

Government Polytechnic College Ajmer at Makhupura Ajmer offers various diploma courses in Civil Engineering, Computer Science And Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Instrumentation Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering (Auto) and Printing Technology.

Regional Institute of Education Capt. D.P Choudhary Marg,Ajmer-305004 is National Council of Educational Research and Training under CBSE research program.

It is home to Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati University, Ajmer established on 1 August 1987.The teaching departments and centres of learning at the university campus include Botany, Commerce, Computer Science, Economics, Education, Environmental Science, Food Science and Nutrition, History, Journalism, Law, Library and Information Science, Management Studies, Microbiology, Political Science, Population Studies, Pure & Applied Chemistry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics, Sanskrit, Yogic Sciences and Human Consciousness, Zoology and Center for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management (CESBM). There are 226 Government and Private Colleges affiliated to this University, which are spread over 4 districts of the state of Rajasthan.

The headquarter of Board of Secondary Education Rajasthan (BSER) is in Ajmer.

Yet one more famous institution Regional College Ajmer offering a variety of undergraduate and graduate programs

The Central University of Rajasthan is also situated near Kishangarh.

The city also houses JLN Medical College proving MBBS, MD and DM course training in various fields including cardiology.

Demographics[edit]

Population Growth of Ajmer 
Census Pop.
1891 68,800
1901 73,800 7.3%
1911 86,200 16.8%
1921 113,200 31.3%
1931 119,500 5.6%
1941 147,300 23.3%
1951 196,300 33.3%
1961 231,200 17.8%
1971 264,300 14.3%
1981 374,400 41.7%
1991 402,700 7.6%
2001 490,520 21.8%
2011 551,101 12.4%
source:[15]
Population growth through the years
Year Population
1891
68,800
1901
73,800
1911
86,200
1921
113,200
1931
119,500
1941
147,300
1951
196,300
1961
231,200
1968
265,200
1971
264,300
1981
374,400
1991
402,700
2001
490,520
2011
551,101

Source:[15]

According to the 2011 India census,[16] Ajmer district has a population of 2,584,913, which was made up of 1,325,911 males and 1,259,002 females. Ajmer district had an average literacy rate of 70.46 percent, male literacy being 83.93% and female literacy 56.42%. There was a total of 1,557,264 literates compared to 1,168,856 in the 2001 census. The population density in Ajmer district was 305 compared to 257 per km2 in 2001. The female to male ratio in Ajmer was 950/1000. This represents an increase of 2.04% from the 2001 census. Ajmer's population growth in the decade was 18.48%, this compares to a growth figure of 20.93% for the previous decade. The population of Ajmer city according census 2011 is 542,580 positioning Ajmer in top 100 major cities of India and 5th in Rajasthan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ajmer.rajasthan.gov.in/
  2. ^ "Introduction". Hriday official website. 
  3. ^ "Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature and total rainfall of important cities (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-07-28. 
  4. ^ "Focus on connecting small cities by air: Manmohan". The Hindu. 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  5. ^ a b "Ajmer – Travel guide at Wikivoyage". en.wikivoyage.org. Archived from the original on 2015-11-24. Retrieved 2015-10-30. 
  6. ^ a b Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 173. 
  7. ^ Arhai-din-ka Jhompra Mosque archnet.org.
  8. ^ "Akbar Ka Kila , AJMER". 
  9. ^ Main Building Architecture: Official website of Mayo College, Ajmer, India
  10. ^ Ajmer Sightseeing
  11. ^ "Magazine | Jain Culture | Temples | India | Rajasthan ►Ajmer ►Soniji Ki Nasiyan". Herenow4u.net. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  12. ^ "Sight Seeing". Ajmer.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-05-19. 
  13. ^ News India Times, New York NY, USA, April 25, 2008.
  14. ^ "Best places to enjoy local and street shopping in Ajmer | TripFactory". Trip Factory. Retrieved 2015-11-05. 
  15. ^ a b "Historical Census of India". 
  16. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 

External links[edit]