|Transmission electron micrograph of the Akabane virus|
Group V ((−)ssRNA)
The Akabane virus is an insect-transmitted virus that causes congenital abnormalities of the central nervous systems in ruminants. The virus is found in Australia, where it is most commonly spread by biting midges of the Culicoides species.
Malformation of the joints, brain, spine and jaw are common in affected newborn animals. Abortion may also occur if damage to the fetus is severe.
Diagnosis and treatment
Vaccination is used to control the spread of disease. Control of the insect vectors is advisable if possible, but often difficult to implement.
Cases of outbreaks
A European outbreak of a novel Orthobunyavirus began in 2011. The virus was initially isolated near Schmallenberg in Germany, and has been informally named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Schmallenberg virus falls in the Simbu serogroup of Orthobunyaviruses, in which the Aino and Akabane viruses are also grouped; as of January 2013, it is considered to be most closely related to the Sathuperi and Douglas viruses.
- Akabane. animalhealthaustralia.com.au
- Akabane Disease. Iowa State University. September 2009
- Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Peperkamp, Klaas; Windsor, Peter A. (24 September 2015). "Virus-induced congenital malformations in cattle". Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 57 (1). doi:10.1186/s13028-015-0145-8. PMC 4581091. PMID 26399846.
- Akabane Virus reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 10 October 2011.
- Schmallenberg-Virus: Gefahr für Tiere in Europa. augsburger-allgemeine.de. 27 January 2012
- Schmallenberg-Virus Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. fli.bund.de
- Schmallenberg virus. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. UK Government
- Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut: Schmallenberg virus (SBV)[permanent dead link] (updated 31 January 2013; accessed 5 February 2013)
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