Akabane virus

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Akabane virus
CSIRO ScienceImage 1936 Akabane Cattle Virus.jpg
Transmission electron micrograph of the Akabane virus
Virus classification
Group:
Group V ((−)ssRNA)
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
Akabane virus

The Akabane virus is an insect-transmitted virus that causes congenital abnormalities of the central nervous systems in ruminants.[1][2] The virus is found in Australia, where it is most commonly spread by biting midges of the Culicoides species.[3]

Disease[edit]

Malformation of the joints, brain, spine and jaw are common in affected newborn animals. Abortion may also occur if damage to the fetus is severe.[4]

Diagnosis and treatment[edit]

Viral isolation can also be attempted with immunofluorescence or PCR.[4]

Vaccination is used to control the spread of disease. Control of the insect vectors is advisable if possible, but often difficult to implement.[4]

Cases of outbreaks[edit]

A European outbreak of a novel Orthobunyavirus began in 2011. The virus was initially isolated near Schmallenberg in Germany, and has been informally named Schmallenberg virus (SBV).[5][6][7] Schmallenberg virus falls in the Simbu serogroup of Orthobunyaviruses, in which the Aino and Akabane viruses are also grouped; as of January 2013, it is considered to be most closely related to the Sathuperi and Douglas viruses.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Akabane. animalhealthaustralia.com.au
  2. ^ Akabane Disease. Iowa State University. September 2009
  3. ^ Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Peperkamp, Klaas; Windsor, Peter A. (24 September 2015). "Virus-induced congenital malformations in cattle". Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 57 (1). doi:10.1186/s13028-015-0145-8. PMC 4581091. PMID 26399846.
  4. ^ a b c Akabane Virus reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 10 October 2011.
  5. ^ Schmallenberg-Virus: Gefahr für Tiere in Europa. augsburger-allgemeine.de. 27 January 2012
  6. ^ Schmallenberg-Virus Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. fli.bund.de
  7. ^ Schmallenberg virus. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. UK Government
  8. ^ Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut: Schmallenberg virus (SBV)[permanent dead link] (updated 31 January 2013; accessed 5 February 2013)

External links[edit]