International Academy of Sciences San Marino
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The International Academy of Sciences San Marino (Esperanto: Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino, AIS) is a scientific association. It was established in 1983 and had its first convention, SUS 1, around New Year 1984 in the City of San Marino. After the Sammarinese skeleton law on higher education had been passed the academy was officially founded on 13 September 1985, in the presence of the Captains-Regent. Its name uses the constructed international auxiliary language Esperanto.
The Sammarinese government at first gave the academy broad moral support. When, however, the università degli studi was founded at San Marino in 1988, it gained priority over the AIS, which then concentrated on working abroad from San Marino. Conventions and summer schools were held in Bulgaria, Korea, the Czech Republic, Germany, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Sweden.
The AIS is divided into the following four sectors:
- Scientific Sector (SciS)
- Technological Sector (TeS)
- Artistic Sector (ArS)
- Supporting Sector (SubS)
The Scientific Sector consists of six faculties. Its structure follows a strictly philosophical system, based on two criteria:
- The basic approach used by a scientific discipline, either idiographic (descriptive) or nomothetic (predictive), as proposed by Wilhelm Windelband;
- The position of the object of scientific research in Karl Popper's "three worlds": the outer world as perceived sensually, the mental world and the world of abstractions.
|World 1||(natural) sciences||morphologic sciences|
|World 3||structural sciences||philosophy|
Each faculty is headed by a dean and is also further divided into three or four departments, each with their own head. Within the Scientific Sector there is a hierarchy of contributors.
|Level of Membership||Title|
|Full Members (MdAIS)||Professors in ordinary (OProf)|
|Associated Members (AMdAIS)||Associated professors (AProf) and the independent lecturers (PDoc)|
|Adjuncts (AdAIS)||Associated lecturers (ADoc) or scientific assistants (ASci)|
The AIS is based on three principles that its members see insufficiently supported in other universities:
- The absence of any cultural and linguistic bias not only in scientific content but also in the teaching of this content. In order to achieve this goal as far as possible the AIS holds its conventions and summer schools in a neutral language, at present using Esperanto. Students write their thesis in two parallel languages: Esperanto and a second language of their choice (usually their native language). Research papers, too, are often written in two languages to reduce influence of language on the paper's logic.
- Studying in several places. Students are encouraged to spend part of their studies abroad, or at least at an AIS summer school, so as to get in contact with other cultures.
- Interdisciplinarity, intense contact and scientific exchange between the faculties and scientific branches. To achieve this, other faculties must be represented in examination committees, and students get maximum freedom in choosing their minor.
In 2006 the AIS consisted of about 250 scientists, among them a little fewer than 50 full members, including co-founder Reinhard Selten.
Some 300 scientists contribute to the AIS as members of the "International Scientific College" (Internacia Scienca Kolegio, ISK). They are not active in teaching for the AIS but are available for opinions on theses and similar tasks. Knowledge of Esperanto is a precondition for membership in the ISK (as well as the AIS).
The current rector is Fabrizio Angelo Pennacchietti, an Italian orientalist who graduated from University of Rome La Sapienza.
- Program of SUS 1 in: Brigitte Frank-Böhringer, Ekesto kaj celoj de la Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj, Dortmund, verlag modernes lernen, 1985, p. 74–79.
- In San Marino und anderswo, in Deutsche Universitäts-Zeitung 15/16, August 16, 1996, p. 28–29.
- "Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about AIS". 1995-02-18. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- H. Frank: Noto pri proponita sciencoklasigo por strukturigi sciencan akademion. In: Brigitte Frank-Böhringer, loc. cit., p. 23.
- AIS statute, art. 4. Published in: R. Fössmeier, H. Frank: AIS, La Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino / Die Internationale Akademie der Wissenschaften San Marino. Berlin, Institut für Kybernetik, 2000, p. 197–200
- AIS and ISK member list, http://www.ais-sanmarino.org/isd/html
- www.ais-sanmarino.org The AIS website