Akademiska Sångföreningen

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The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki
Akademiska Sångföreningen
Choir
Akademiska sangforeningen logo.png
Emblem
Origin Helsinki, Grand Duchy of Finland,  Russian Empire
(now Helsinki, Finland)
Founded 1838; 179 years ago (1838)
Founder Fredrik Pacius
Genre Choral (male voice)
Members Ca 50 active
Chief conductor Kari Turunen
Choir admission Semiannual auditions
Headquarters Helsinki,  Finland
Affiliation University of Helsinki
Associated groups
Website akademen.com

The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki, in Swedish: Akademiska Sångföreningen, lit. 'The Academic Singing Association' (pronounced [akaˈdeːmɪska ˈsɔŋfœreːnɪŋɛn]), abbreviated AS, colloquially also referred to as Akademen (pronounced [akaˈdeːmɛn]),[a] is a Finland-Swedish academic male voice choir in Helsinki, Finland. The choir was founded in 1838 by Fredrik Pacius and is the oldest extant choir in Finland.[1] It is one of two male voice choirs affiliated with the University of Helsinki, the other being the oldest extant Finnish-language choir, the YL Male Voice Choir (Finnish: Ylioppilaskunnan Laulajat). Furthermore, it is one of two Swedish-language choirs affiliated with the University of Helsinki, the other being the Academic Female Voice Choir Lyran (Swedish: Akademiska Damkören Lyran).

History[edit]

Overview[edit]

Fredrik Pacius (1809–1891), founder and conductor 1838–1846
Drawing by Mazér of the young Pacius
Martin Wegelius (1846–1906), conductor 1870–1871 and 1873–1876
Nils-Eric Fougstedt (1910–1961), conductor 1946–1950
Erik Bergman (1911–2006), conductor 1950–1969
Henrik Otto Donner (1939–2013), conductor 1969–1976

Akademiska Sångföreningen was founded no later than in the spring of 1838 by Fredrik Pacius, music lecturer at the Imperial Alexander University of Finland (now the University of Helsinki) and known as "the father of Finnish music," at first under the name Akademiska Sångsällskapet.[b][2] The choir is thus the oldest extant in Finland.[1] The name Akademiska Sångföreningen was introduced no later than 1846.[3]

During the 19th century the choir became a symbol of national awakening in the emerging Finnish nation, at the time part of the Russian empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland. On 13 May 1848,[4] Pacius' composition Vårt land (Our Land), set to the poem by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, was performed for the first time by the choir, conducted by Pacius, during the students' celebration of the Flora Day. The composition was later to become the national anthem of the independent Finnish nation.

In the 1850s and 60s, elite triple quartets (so-called sångartolfvor, literally singer twelves) from within the choir's ranks participated in raising the funds necessary to build what is today known as the Old Student House in Helsinki (Swedish: Gamla studenthuset, Finnish: Vanha ylioppilastalo), by travelling the country performing.[5] The Old Student House was finished in 1870[6] and it is still the location for the choir's weekly rehearsals.

During the second half of the 20th century, the choir, directed by modernist Erik Bergman, came to carve out new paths for the male voice choir tradition in Finland, proving that this genre of music was able to exhibit superior musical qualities. After Bergman, jazz musician Henrik Otto Donner carried on this tradition.

At end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 80s the choir was engaged in lighter types of music. The Akademen a la carte concerts in Finlandia Hall were successful and, when necessary, members of the choir would compose pieces of music themselves.

During the 20th century the choir had several prominent conductors: Bengt Carlson, Nils-Eric Fougstedt, Erik Bergman, Henrik Otto Donner, Markus Westerlund, Eric-Olof Söderström, Tom Eklundh, John Schultz and Henrik Wikström all directed the choir.[7][8] Present conductor Kari Turunen, DMus, has directed the choir since the autumn semester of 2008.

List of chief conductors[edit]

The chief conductor is the artistic director of the choir.

Chief conductors[7][8]
From (semester) To (semester) incl. Consecutive tenure Total tenure Name Notes
1838, spring 1846, spring 812 yrs 812 yrs Pacius, FredrikFredrik Pacius Founder
1846, autumn 1850, spring 4 yrs 4 yrs Lindelöf, AugustAugust Lindelöf
Temporary conductors from the autumn semester of 1850 to the spring semester of 1857
1857, autumn 1860, spring 3 yrs 3 yrs Cederhvarf, Gustaf MagnusGustaf Magnus Cederhvarf
1860, autumn 1864, spring 4 yrs 4 yrs Borenius, Henrik GustafHenrik Gustaf Borenius
1864, autumn 1865, spring 1 yr 1 yr Pacius, Johannes EdvardJohannes Edvard Pacius
1865, autumn 1866, spring 1 yr 1 yr Kurtén, UnoUno Kurtén Appointed honorary member in 1920
1866, autumn 1868, spring 2 yrs 3 yrs Achté, Lorentz NikolaiLorentz Nikolai Achté
1868, autumn 1869, autumn 112 yrs 112 yrs Paldani, Nils PeterNils Peter Paldani
1870, spring 1871, spring 112 yrs 412 yrs Wegelius, MartinMartin Wegelius
1871, autumn 1872, spring 1 yr 3 yrs Achté, Lorentz NikolaiLorentz Nikolai Achté
1872, autumn 1873, spring 1 yr 1 yr Hahl, DavidDavid Hahl
1873, autumn 1876, spring 3 yrs 412 yrs Wegelius, MartinMartin Wegelius
1876, autumn 1879, spring 3 yrs 612 yrs Sohlström, GöstaGösta Sohlström Appointed honorary member in 1915
1879, autumn 1879, autumn 12 yr 12 yr Mechelin, OscarOscar Mechelin
1880, spring 1880, spring 12 yr 12 yr Kiljander, NilsNils Kiljander
1880, autumn 1880, autumn 12 yr 12 yr Holmberg, Jarl WernerJarl Werner Holmberg
1881, spring 1881, autumn 1 yr 1 yr Rindell, EdvardEdvard Rindell
1882, spring 1882, spring 12 yr 12 yr Moberg, Oscar W.Oscar W. Moberg
Interregnum from the autumn semester of 1882 to the spring semester of 1884
1884, autumn 1884, autumn 12 yr 12 yr Relander, ArturArtur Relander
1885, spring 1892, autumn 8 yrs 1112 yrs Knorring, CarlCarl von Knorring Appointed honorary conductor in 1900, honorary member in 1910
1893, spring 1894, spring 112 yrs 212 yrs Leander, EmilEmil Leander
1894, autumn 1894, autumn 12 yr 1112 yrs Knorring, CarlCarl von Knorring Appointed honorary conductor in 1900, honorary member in 1910
1895, spring 1895, autumn 1 yr 1 yr Öller, UnoUno Öller
1896, spring 1899, spring 312 yrs 612 yrs Sohlström, GöstaGösta Sohlström Appointed honorary member in 1915
1899, autumn 1902, spring 3 yrs 1112 yrs Knorring, CarlCarl von Knorring Appointed honorary conductor in 1900, honorary member in 1910
1902, autumn 1903, spring 1 yr 2 yrs Hallman, LennartLennart Hallman
1903, autumn 1904, spring 1 yr 1 yr Ångelin, KurtKurt Ångelin
1902, autumn 1905, spring 1 yr 2 yrs Hallman, LennartLennart Hallman
Vacancy during the autumn semester of 1905
1906, spring 1906, autumn 1 yr 1 yr Mattsson, GustafGustaf Mattsson
Vacancy during the spring semester of 1907
1907, autumn 1908, spring 1 yr 1 yr Uggla, AlarikAlarik Uggla
1908, autumn 1909, spring 1 yr 1 yr Sandelin, ThureThure Sandelin
1909, autumn 1911, spring 2 yrs 2 yrs Enckell, GöstaGösta Enckell
1911, autumn 1912, spring 1 yr 212 yrs Leander, EmilEmil Leander
1912, autumn 1915, spring 3 yrs 3 yrs Hollmérus, RagnarRagnar Hollmérus
1915, autumn 1920, spring 5 yrs 5 yrs Wallin, OlofOlof Wallin
1920, autumn 1946, spring 26 yrs 26 yrs Carlson, BengtBengt Carlson Appointed honorary conductor in 1932, honorary member in 1946
1946, autumn 1950, spring 4 yrs 4 yrs Fougstedt, Nils-EricNils-Eric Fougstedt
1950, autumn 1969, spring 19 yrs 19 yrs Bergman, ErikErik Bergman Appointed honorary conductor in 1961, honorary member in 1969
1969, autumn 1976, spring 7 yrs 7 yrs Donner, Henrik OttoHenrik Otto Donner
1976, autumn 1983, spring 7 yrs 7 yrs Westerlund, MarkusMarkus Westerlund
1983, autumn 1985, spring 2 yrs 2 yrs Söderström, Eric-OlofEric-Olof Söderström
1985, autumn 1990, spring 5 yrs 5 yrs Eklundh, TomTom Eklundh
1990, autumn 1997, spring 7 yrs 7 yrs Schultz, JohnJohn Schultz Joint conductorship with Henrik Wikström
1997, autumn 2008, spring 11 yrs 18 yrs Wikström, HenrikHenrik Wikström Total tenure inclusive of joint conductorship with John Schultz
2008, autumn Turunen, KariKari Turunen Incumbent

List of presidents[edit]

The president is the chairman of the committee.

Presidents[9][10]
From To Name Notes
No presidents proper before 1884
1884 1886 Londén, HjalmarHjalmar Londén
No presidents proper from 1886 to 1895
1896 1896 Schauman, OssianOssian Schauman
No presidents proper from 1896 to 1902
1903 1905 Bergman, KonstantinKonstantin Bergman
1905 1907 Hougberg, VernerVerner Hougberg
1908 1908 Topelius, GuyGuy Topelius
1908 1911 Norén, Bruno A.Bruno A. Norén
1911 1912 Juslén, GöstaGösta Juslén
1912 1912 Mörne, Axel A.Axel A. Mörne
1913 1913 Ekroth, EvertEvert Ekroth Acting president
1913 1913 Granholm, WidarWidar Granholm
1914 1915 Schybergson, GöstaGösta Schybergson
1916 1916 Ekroth, EvertEvert Ekroth
1916 1918 Pehrman, GunnarGunnar Pehrman
1919 1920 Sievers, TorstenTorsten Sievers
1920 1921 Troil, Werner vonWerner von Troil
1922 1923 Charpentier, GöstaGösta Charpentier
1923 1925 Hertzen, Knut vonKnut von Hertzen
1925 1926 Såltin, Erik G.Erik G. Såltin
1926 1926 Vaenerberg, ErikErik Vaenerberg
1927 1927 Lindberg, HåkanHåkan Lindberg
1927 1928 Nybom, RandallRandall Nybom
1928 1928 Leineberg, OlofOlof Leineberg
1929 1931 Hertzen, Knut vonKnut von Hertzen
1931 1932 Hernberg, RunarRunar Hernberg
1932 1934 Stadius, ÖyvindÖyvind Stadius
1934 1936 Creutz, Carl-ErikCarl-Erik Creutz
1937 1937 Lindblad, Gösta Th.Gösta Th. Lindblad
1937 1940 Creutz, Carl-ErikCarl-Erik Creutz
1940 1944 Westerholm, NilsNils Westerholm
1945 1947 Rosenius, OlofOlof Rosenius
1947 1949 Floman, Per ErikPer Erik Floman
1949 1951 Nordman, Bengt-OlofBengt-Olof Nordman
1951 1952 Krause, Tor H.Tor H. Krause
1952 1955 Pacius, EduardEduard Pacius
1955 1957 Lindberg, JohanJohan Lindberg
1957 1959 Tengström, Carl-MikaelCarl-Mikael Tengström
1959 1961 Hertzen, Carl-Henrik vonCarl-Henrik von Hertzen
1961 1963 Reims, ChristianChristian Reims
1963 1965 Kihlman, ErikErik Kihlman
1965 1967 Lindberg, ChristerChrister Lindberg
1967 1968 Lindberg, Lars-AxelLars-Axel Lindberg
1968 1969 Rosenquist, BengtBengt Rosenquist
1969 1970 Lundström, Carl-JohanCarl-Johan Lundström
1970 1972 Bargum, MagnusMagnus Bargum
1972 1974 Borgström, MarcusMarcus Borgström
1974 1975 Thesleff, ThomasThomas Thesleff
1975 1976 Nylund, HåkanHåkan Nylund
1976 1978 Sjöblad, UlfUlf Sjöblad
1978 1980 Blomqvist, KristerKrister Blomqvist
1980 1982 Kurtén, StaffanStaffan Kurtén
1982 1983 Pousette, MagnusMagnus Pousette
1983 1984 Sjöholm, KimKim Sjöholm
1984 1988 Aalto, JohanJohan Aalto Appointed honorary member in 2013
1988 1990 Tallqvist, TorkelTorkel Tallqvist
1990 1991 Nykvist, BjörnBjörn Nykvist
1991 1992 Söderman, RenéRené Söderman
1992 1993 Björkstam, DominicusDominicus Björkstam
1993 1994 Hartman, MartinMartin Hartman
1994 1995 Ginman, UlfUlf Ginman
1995 1995 Bergström, LeifLeif Bergström Acting president
1996 1997 Nylund, MathiasMathias Nylund
1998 2000 Holmlund, DennisDennis Holmlund
2001 2003 Sandström, JonneJonne Sandström
2004 2005 Perret, SebastianSebastian Perret
2006 2007 Welander, FredrikFredrik Welander
2008 2009 Westermarck, MathiasMathias Westermarck
2010 2011 Tallqvist, JohnJohn Tallqvist
2012 2013 Sundström, KasperKasper Sundström
2014 2015 Kurtén, RasmusRasmus Kurtén
2016 Zilliacus, AlexanderAlexander Zilliacus Incumbent

Present activities[edit]

The Old Student House in Helsinki, where the choir rehearsed from inauguration in 1870 and throughout most of the 20th century, and as of 2016 rehearses every other semester
The Balder House in Helsinki, where the choir as of 2016 rehearses every other semester

Being the oldest extant male voice choir in Finland, Akademiska Sångföreningen has always cared particularly for the classical Finnish male voice repertoire. Among the composers whose compositions form part of the choir's standard repertoire are honorary members[11] Jean Sibelius, Selim Palmgren and Erik Bergman, as well as fellow composers Toivo Kuula and Leevi Madetoja.[12] Furthermore, being a Finland-Swedish organization, the choir has always seen it as a natural and important task to champion the Swedish-speaking minority culture in Finland. Hence, the standard repertoire encompasses not only choral works of Finnish and Finland-Swedish origin, but also many works of Swedish origin, for example by honorary member Hugo Alfvén.[11][12]

As implied by its name, the choir is an academic or students' choir, and like its Helsinki sister choir the Academic Female Voice Choir Lyran (Swedish: Akademiska Damkören Lyran) an independent 'music corporation' (Swedish: musikkorporation, Finnish: musiikkikorporaatio) affiliated with the University of Helsinki. The choir presently comprises some 50 active singers, many of whom are university students. Concerts are given regularly in Finland, and the choir travels abroad frequently. In addition to most European countries, the choir has been on tour in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States,[13] Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Singapore.

Particularly in recent years, the choir has devoted itself to actively producing records, explicitly in order to document high quality male voice choir repertoire in Swedish. Apart from Swedish, the choir also sings in the parody language Transpiranto on the record Happi kvam pippi, which was released in 2006. A later album, Hymn to Finland, was produced by Swedish label BIS Records and documents works for male voice choir by founder Fredrik Pacius. The record was released on 19 March 2009, the 200th anniversary of Pacius' birth.

The choir maintains contacts with other similar choirs, in Finland in particular with male voice academic choirs Brahe Djäknar in Turku and the YL Male Voice Choir (Finnish: Ylioppilaskunnan Laulajat) in Helsinki, and in Sweden in particular with Orphei Drängar in Uppsala, Stockholm Academic Male Chorus (Swedish: Stockholms Studentsångare) in Stockholm, Linköping University Male Voice Choir (Swedish: Linköpings Studentsångare) in Linköping and Lund University Male Voice Choir (Swedish: Lunds Studentsångförening) in Lund.

Ever since 1954, the choir has collaborated extensively with the Academic Female Voice Choir Lyran (Swedish: Akademiska Damkören Lyran),[14][15] the only other Swedish-language University of Helsinki choir. The two choirs give several annually recurring concerts together.[16]

Discography[edit]

Studio, live and selections albums primarily featuring the choir
Year Title Translation Conductor(s) Label Format Notes
1964 Akademiska Sångföreningen 1838–1963 Bergman, ErikErik Bergman The Finnish Broadcasting Company LP 125th anniversary concert repertoire
1967 Bellman och serenader 'Carl Michael Bellman and serenades' Bergman, ErikErik Bergman The Finnish Broadcasting Company EP
1975 Studentsången i Kajsaniemi 'The students' singing in Kaisaniemi Park' Donner, Henrik OttoHenrik Otto Donner Akademiska Sångföreningen LP
1980 Etude Westerlund, MarkusMarkus Westerlund Finlandia Records LP
1983 Magnificat Westerlund, MarkusMarkus Westerlund Finlandia Records LP
1988 A la carte Various Akademiska Sångföreningen LP Selected live recordings from the Akademen à la carte concerts 1980–1987
1995 Första maj 'May Day' Schultz, JohnJohn Schultz Akademiska Sångföreningen CD
1999 Julstämning 'Christmas spirit' Wikström, HenrikHenrik Wikström, Turunen, KariKari Turunen Akademiska Damkören Lyran & Akademiska Sångföreningen CD Christmas album; in collaboration with the Academic Female Voice Choir Lyran
2002 Skaparegestalter 'Creator figures' Wikström, HenrikHenrik Wikström Fuga CD
2005 För ögonblicket 'At the moment' Wikström, HenrikHenrik Wikström Fuga CD
2006 Happi kvam pippi Wikström, HenrikHenrik Wikström Fuga CD Translations into the parody language Transpiranto
2009 Hymn to Finland: Fredrik Pacius: Works for Male-Voice Choir Wikström, HenrikHenrik Wikström BIS Records CD
2011 Julen vi minns 'The Christmas we remember' Turunen, KariKari Turunen, Seppinen, JuttaJutta Seppinen Akademiska Damkören Lyran & Akademiska Sångföreningen CD Christmas album; in collaboration with the Academic Female Voice Choir Lyran
2013 Från tidevarv till tidevarv 'From epoch unto epoch' Various Fuga Triple CD Selections album; released for the 175th anniversary
2013 Solglitter 'The sun's glistening' Turunen, KariKari Turunen Fuga CD
2016 I Dreamt: Beställningsverken 2007–2013 'I Dreamt: Works commissioned 2007–2013' Turunen, KariKari Turunen Fuga CD

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A construed Swedish definite form related to the adjective akademisk (lit. 'academic') but without lexical meaning
  2. ^ At the time spelt Akademiska Sång-Sälskapet, lit. 'The Academic Singing Society'

Citations[edit]

References[edit]

Erik Bergman conducting the choir on May Day 1968 in Helsinki.
  • Anon., ed. (1920). Akademiska Sångföreningen 80 år [The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 80 years] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Holger Schildts. 
  • Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki (n.d.a). "English". Akademen (Web page). Helsinki. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki (n.d.b). "Dirigenten" [The conductor]. Akademen (Web page) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki (n.d.c). "Historia" [History]. Akademen (Web page) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki (n.d.d). "Kören" [The choir]. Akademen (Web page) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki (n.d.e). "Skivor" [Albums]. Akademen (Web page) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Aho, Kalevi; Jalkanen, Pekka; Salmenhaari, Erkki & Virtamo, Keijo (1996). Finnish Music. Translated by Binham, Timothy & Binham, Philip. Helsinki: Otava. ISBN 951-1-14477-4. 
  • Andersson, Otto (1938). Den unge Pacius och musiklivet i Helsingfors på 1830-talet [The young Pacius and the musical life in Helsinki in the 1830s] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Holger Schildts. 
  • Bargum, Katja (7 February 2013). "Punchdoftande herrkotteri eller konstnärligt instrument?" [Punsch-smelling gentlemen's clique or artistic instrument?]. University of Helsinki (News article) (in Swedish). University of Helsinki. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Bränn, Michaela, ed. (2013). Manskörssång i tid och rum. Akademiska Sångföreningen 1838–2013. 175-årsjubileumsskrift [Male voice choir singing in time and space. The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 1838–2013. 175th anniversary publication] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. ISBN 978-952-93-1792-9. 
  • Collan-Beaurain, Maria (1921). Fredrik Pacius. Lefnadsteckning [Fredrik Pacius. Biography] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Söderström & C:o. 
  • Dahlström, Fabian (1988). Paulig, Torsten & Thulé, Gustav, eds. Akademiska Sångföreningen 1838–1988. 150-årsjubileumsskrift med historik [The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 1838–1988. 150th anniversary publication with history] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. ISBN 951-99926-3-4. 
  • Dahlström, Fabian (2009) [1st printed ed. 1982–1985; 2nd printed ed. 2003–2007]. "studentsång" [student singing]. In Ekberg, Henrik & Svenska folkskolans vänner. Uppslagsverket Finland (Printed and online encyclopedia) (in Swedish) (Online ed.). Helsinki: Svenska folkskolans vänner (Previous editions Schildts). Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Duncker, Kaj, ed. (1948). Akademiska Sångföreningen 1938–1948. En krönika [The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 1938–1948. A chronicle] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. 
  • Eerola, Jari (n.d.). Abridged. "History". Vanha Ylioppilastalo (Web page). Helsinki: Royal Ravintolat. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Ekberg, Henrik & Svenska folkskolans vänner, eds. (2016) [1st printed ed. 1982–1985; 2nd printed ed. 2003–2007]. "Akademiska Sångföreningen" [The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki]. Uppslagsverket Finland (Printed and online encyclopedia) (in Swedish) (Online ed.). Helsinki: Svenska folkskolans vänner (Previous editions Schildts). Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Ekström, Ralf & Duncker, Kaj, eds. (1963). Akademiska Sångföreningen 1938–1963 [The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 1938–1963] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. 
  • Federley, Stefan & Holmlund, Dennis, eds. (2008). Akademiska Sångföreningen 170 år. Sångarminnen 1988–2008 [The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 170 years. Singer memories 1988–2008] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. ISBN 978-952-92-3539-1. 
  • Finlands svenska manssångarförbund (n.d.). "Medlemskörer" [Member choirs]. Finlands svenska manssångarförbund (Web page) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Floman, Per Erik (1999). Om sång och spel och gemenskap [Of song and play and fellowship] (in Swedish). Helsinki. 
  • Helsingfors sång- och musikförbund (n.d.). "Medlemmar" [Members]. Helsingfors sång- och musikförbund (Web page) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Hirn, Julius (1910). Akademiska Sångföreningen 1840–1910. En återblick [The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 1840–1910. A retrospect] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. 
  • Holmqvist, Christian (2011). Sång ur vår själ. FSM 75. En bok om Finlands svenska manssångarförbund och finlandssvensk manssångskultur [Song from our soul. FSM 75. A book about the Finland-Swedish confederation of male voice singers and Finland-Swedish male voice singing culture] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Finlands svenska manssångarförbund. ISBN 978-952-92-9765-8. 
  • Jansson, Paul, ed. (1986). FSM 50. Finlands svenska manssångarförbund 1936–1986. Festskrift [FSM 50. The Finland-Swedish confederation of male voice singers 1936–1986. Anniversary publication] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Finlands svenska manssångarförbund. 
  • Korhonen, Kimmo (2007). Toivonen, Aarne, ed. Inventing Finnish Music. Contemporary Composers from Medieval to Modern (PDF). Translated by Mäntyjärvi, Jaakko (2nd ed.). Helsinki: Finnish Music Information Centre. ISBN 978-952-5076-61-5. 
  • Kvist Dahlstedt, Barbro (2001). Suomis sång. Kollektiva identiteter i den finländska studentsången 1819–1917 [The song of Suomi. Collective identities in the Finnish student singing 1819–1917]. Studentsången i Norden (in Swedish). IV. University of Gothenburg. ISBN 91-85974-62-5. 
  • Lappalainen, Seija (2009) [Article first published online 2007]. "Pacius, Fredrik". In Knif, Henrik; Dahlberg, Julia; Forsén, Jeannette & Hertzberg, Fredrik. Biografiskt lexikon för Finland (Printed and online encyclopedia) (in Swedish). II (Online ed.). Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland (published 2014). ISBN 978-951-583-185-9. URN:NBN:fi:sls-4340-1416928956946. 
  • Liljeroos, Mats (18 October 2016). "Musikrecension: Sibeliansk bro från Åbo till Helsingfors"Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required [Music review: A Sibelian bridge from Turku to Helsinki]. Hufvudstadsbladet (News article) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Liljeroos, Mats (1 March 2016). "Osviklig känsla för manskör i klingande beställningsverk"Free registration required [Unfailing feeling for male voice choir in resounding commissioned works]. Hufvudstadsbladet (News article) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Mäkelä, Tomi (2009). Fredrik Pacius, kompositör i Finland [Fredrik Pacius, composer in Finland] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. ISBN 978-951-583-192-7. 
  • Nymark-Björkstam, Julia; Colliander, Nina & Harms-Aalto, Martina, eds. (1996). Upp att söka framtiden. Akademiska Damkören Lyran 50 [Up to seek the future. The Academic Female Voice Choir Lyran 50] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Damkören Lyran. ISBN 952-90-7310-0. 
  • Paulig, Torsten; Bergman, Roger; Duncker, Kaj & Thulé, Gustav, eds. (1978). 100 år med MM. 1878–1978 [100 years with the Merry Musicians. 1878–1978] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Sällskapet Muntra Musikanter. ISBN 951-99154-6-X. 
  • Rosas, John (1949). Fredrik Pacius som tonsättare [Fredrik Pacius as composer] (in Swedish). Turku: Åbo Akademi. 
  • Runn, Iris, ed. (2004a). Florakören vid Åbo Akademi r.f. 1944–2004. Historik [Florakören vid Åbo Akademi 1944–2004. History] (in Swedish). I. Turku: Eternellföreningen. ISBN 952-91-7233-8. 
  • Runn, Iris, ed. (2004b). Florakören vid Åbo Akademi r.f. 1944–2004. Historik [Florakören vid Åbo Akademi 1944–2004. History] (in Swedish). II. Turku: Eternellföreningen. ISBN 952-91-7283-4. 
  • Söderholm, Olle (1969). Manskörssången i Finland 1819–1969 [The male voice choir singing in Finland 1819–1969] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Finlands svenska manssångarförbund. 
  • Sohlström, Gösta (1913). Sångarminnen [Singer memories] (in Swedish). Helsinki. 
  • Sohlström, Gösta (1915). Några minnesblad ur Akademiska Sångföreningens historia 1840–1915 [Some notes from the history of the Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 1840–1915] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. 
  • Sommerschield, Finn E., ed. (1938). Akademiska Sångföreningen 1838–1938 [The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki 1838–1938] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. 
  • Student Union of the University of Helsinki (n.d.a). "Culture organisations". HYY (Web page). Helsinki. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Student Union of the University of Helsinki (n.d.b). "HYY's history". HYY (Web page). Helsinki. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Student Union of the University of Helsinki (n.d.c). "Student Houses". HYY (Web page). Helsinki. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Svenska Nationer och Ämnesföreningar (n.d.). "Medlemmar" [Members]. SNÄf (Web page) (in Swedish). Helsinki. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  • Theman, Petra & Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, eds. (n.d.). "The Finnish National Anthem". thisisFINLAND (Web article). The Finland Promotion Board. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  • Thesleff, Thomas (1978). Akademen 1838–1978. Akademiska Sångföreningen. 140 år levande musik [Akademen 1838–1978. The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki. 140 years of live music] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Sångföreningen. 
  • Turunen, Kari (2008). A brief outline of Finnish Choral Music. Helsinki: Finnish Music Information Centre. ISBN 978-952-5076-67-7. 
  • Väresmaa, Livia, ed. (2006). Nya vägar. Akademiska Damkören Lyran 60 år [New roads. The Academic Female Voice Choir Lyran 60 years] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Akademiska Damkören Lyran. ISBN 952-92-0040-4. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Anderson, Martin (2008). "Choral music as an amateur activity". Finnish Music Quarterly. Helsinki. 2008 (2). 
  • Andersson, Otto (1922). Johan Josef Pippingsköld och musiklivet i Åbo 1808–1827 [Johan Josef Pippingsköld and the musical life in Turku 1808–1827] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Holger Schildts. 
  • Bonsdorff, Lena von (2001). Barfota i cylinderhatt. Nils-Eric Fougstedt. En levnadsteckning [Barefoot in top hat. Nils-Eric Fougstedt. A biography] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Söderströms. 
  • Grandell, Åke (2002). Translated by Gräsbeck, Magnus. "'Har du visor, min vän?' The Finnish-Swedish songs". Finnish Music Quarterly. Helsinki. 2002 (2). 
  • Kilpiö, Markku (1987). "The story of the Finnish choir. Social institution and human instrument". Finnish Music Quarterly. Helsinki. 1987 (2). 
  • Länsiö, Tapani (1997). "Choral Singing! For pleasure or for hire?". Finnish Music Quarterly. Helsinki. 1997 (1). 
  • Nordman, Anna-Maria, ed. (2004). Ekot av vår glada trall. Finlands svenska sång- och musikförbund 75 år [The echo of our happy tune. The Finland-Swedish confederation of singing and music 75 years] (in Swedish). Vaasa: Finlands svenska sång- och musikförbund. ISBN 951-97926-5-1. 
  • Stadius, Anneli; Bergman, Anne; Enholm, Henrik; Holmlund, Britta & Stenman, Hedvig, eds. (1997). Den sång är oss kär. Helsingfors sång- och musikförbund 80 år 1917–1997 [The song is dear to us. The Helsinki singing and music confederation 80 years 1917–1997] (in Swedish). Helsinki: Helsingfors sång- och musikförbund. ISBN 952-90-9175-3. 
  • Turunen, Kari (1992). "From pathos to professionalism. 20th century Finnish choral music". Finnish Music Quarterly. Helsinki. 1992 (4). 
  • Turunen, Kari (1995). "Helsinki, driving force in Finnish choral life". Finnish Music Quarterly. Helsinki. 1995 (1). 

External links[edit]