Nawab Akbar Shahbaz Khan Bugti نواب اکبر شہباز بُگٹی
|4th Governor of Balochistan|
15 February 1973 – 3 January 1974
|Preceded by||Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo|
|Succeeded by||Ahmad Yar Khan|
|6th Chief Minister of Balochistan|
4 February 1989 – 6 August 1990
|Preceded by||Jam Ghulam Qadir Khan|
|Succeeded by||Taj Muhammad Jamali|
|19th Tumandar of the Bugti Tribe|
|Preceded by||Nawab Mehrab Khan Bugti|
|Succeeded by||Nawab Aali Khan Bugti|
|Born||12 July 1927|
|Died||26 August 2006 (aged 79)|
|Political party||Jamhoori Watan Party|
|Spouse(s)||Three Marriages: 1st Baloch, 2nd Pashtun & 3rd Persian|
|Residence||Dera Bugti, Balochistan|
|Profession||Tumandar of Bugti Tribe, politician|
Nawab Akbar Shahbaz Khan Bugti (Urdu: نواب اکبر شہباز خان بُگٹی;12 July 1927 – 26 August 2006) was the Tumandar (head) of the Bugti tribe of Baloch people who served as the Minister of State for Interior and Governor of Balochistan Province in Pakistan. He also became minister of state for defence in the cabinet of Feroz Khan Noon. Earlier, he has also served as the minister of state for interior.
Bugti had strictly opposed education and development programmes in his area. He was a labelled as a cruel leader by many including people from his own tribe. Thousands of people from his tribe who raised their voice against his autocratic and absolute rule had been driven out of their homes and exiled. The areas which were under the control of Akbar Bugti remained some of the most poor in all of Pakistan and lacked any kind of infrastructure.
He was involved in a struggle, at times armed, for greater autonomy for Balochistan. The government of Pakistan accused him of keeping a private militia and leading a guerrilla war against the state. On 26 August 2006, Bugti, was killed when his hide-out cave, located in Kohlu, about 150 miles east of Quetta, collapsed.
Early life and family
Nawab Akbar Shahbaz Khan Bugti was born on 12 July 1927 in Barkhan (in present-day Balochistan), the rural home of the Khetran, a Baloch tribe, to which his mother belonged. He was the son of the chief of his tribe, Nawab Mehrab Khan Bugti, and grandson of Sir Shahbaz Khan Bugti. He received his early education from Karachi Grammar School and later from Aitchison College after his father's death. Being the son of the tribe's chief, he became the tumandar (chief) of his tribe after his father. Nawab Akbar Bugti had three wives and thirteen children (6 sons and 7 daughters) altogether. From his first wife:Nawab Saleem Bugti, Talal, Rehan and Salal Bugti. All four of these sons have died. Nawabzada Salal Bugti was murdered in a shootout in Quetta by the rival Bugti Kalpar sub clan in June 1996. From Nawab Akbar Bugti's second wife: Jamil Bugti. And from Nawab Akbar Bugti's third wife: Shahzwar Bugti. Jamil Bugti and Shahzwar Bugti are the surviving sons of Nawab Akbar Bugti. Akbar Bugti had five daughters from his first wife: Durr-e-Shahwar (deceased), Nilofer, Nazli (deceased), Durdana and Dreen. And two from his second wife: Shahnaz Marri (wife of Nawab Khair Bux Marri's relative, Humayun Marri) and Farah Naz Bugti (wife of Bivragh Bugti, the son of Nawabzada Ahmad Nawaz Bugti who was the brother of Nawab Akbar Bugti), who are the sisters of Jamil Bugti. The Bugti grandchildren consist of Nawab Mohammad Mir Aali Bugti (the current Nawab of Bugti Tribe), Late Nawabzada Mohammad Mir Zong Bugti, Shaheed Nawabzada Mohammad Mir Taleh Bugti, Nawabzada Mohammad Mir Zamran Bugti and Nawabzada Mohammad Mir Kohmir Bugti are (son's of Late Nawab Saleem Akbar Khan Bugti), Brahamdagh Bugti (son of Rehan Bugti), Shahzain, Gohram and Chakar Bugti (sons of Talal Bugti).
Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan, is abundant in natural resources but due lack of proper development and education to the masses, has become one of the poorest regions of the country. This is largely perceived as injustice by the Baloch people has led to the Baloch people calling for greater share in resources and more autonomy.
Increase in tensions in 2005
In 2005, Bugti presented a 15-point agenda to the Pakistan government. Their stated demands included greater control of the province's resources and a moratorium on the construction of military bases. It also included a near 50% share of all the money used in the development of the province. In the meantime, attacks against the Pakistan Army also increased in the area, including a 2005 attack on a helicopter, in which the head of Pakistan's Frontier Corps and his deputy were injured.
In March 2006, a crowded bus carrying a wedding party hit an anti-tank mine in Dera Bugti. The blast resulted in the death of 28 people, mostly women and children, and injured 7 others. Most of the victims belonged to Masoori Bugti tribe which had revolted against Akbar Bugti's rule. Akbar Bugti claimed responsibility for the attack on the bus. Abdul Samad Lasi, a district chief, claims that militants under the command of Akbar Bugti had planted hundreds of mines on dirt roads in various part of Dera Bugti. The aim of planting such and mines was to target civilians in the area. He claimed that Pakistani security forces had neutralised many of these land mines planted in the area.
On 26 August 2006, Akbar Bugti was killed after the cave in which he was hiding collapsed.
Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) Director General, during a press conference, gave details regarding the death of Akbar Bugti. The Director General claims that the soldiers were rushed to the nine-foot-wide mouth of the L-shape cave after one of the two guides hired to help locate Nawab Akbar Bugti in the Kohlu area had signalled that 'he was inside' the cave. The guides belonged to Bugti tribe. The Director General claims that the soldiers had gone into the cave "to negotiate with Akbar Bugti". The soldiers were ordered to "apprehend Akbar Bugti". They were ordered not to harm or kill Akbar Bugti. Once the soldier had entered the cave, a "blast of undetermined origin" took place. The blast brought down the cave killing everyone who was inside the cave. The Director General claimed that no fighting or use of explosives preceded the 'mysterious' blast which brought down the cave. Moreover, Director General claimed that around 100 million Rupees and $96,000 cash, two satellite phones, documents, eight AK-47 rifles and some rockets were found in the rubble of the cave.
Similarly, some analysts also believe that no official orders were given to kill Akbar Bugti. As Akbar Bugti was politically isolated because of the decision of Bugti tribesmen during a Jirga in Dera Bugti. The Jirga of Bugti tribesmen had declared an end to the Sardari (feudal) system and proclaimed that Akbar Bugti was no longer their leader. Hence, it was not logical to launch a direct military operation to kill the ailing old Akbar Bugti.
However, according to some news reports, the cave collapsed because of the crossfire between the soldiers and the militants. As a result, 21 soldiers and 60 militants along with Akbar Bugti were killed.
Later on, Pakistan military took media teams to the cave where Akbar Bugti was killed. Pakistan army engineer were clearing the rubble of the cave to retrieve the bodies of Akbar Bugti and others who were killed inside the cave. On 31 August 2006, the body of Akbar Bugti was found crushed under a boulder. He was identified through the glasses and Rolex wristwatch which was used by Akbar Bugti. His glasses, walking stick and Rolex wristwatch was presented to the journalists.
Brahamdagh Bugti's claims
The Chairman of the Baloch Youth Council (London), Waja Mir Hazar Khan Baloch, claimed that Balach Marri was behind the murder of Akbar Bugti. Hazar Khan claims that he heard this accusation from Brahamdagh Bugti. He further claims that Brahamdagh Bugti told him that the cave in which Akbar Bugti was hiding in, came down due to blast by remote control and Balach Marri was standing just outside the cave at that time. Balach Marri was the head of Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) at that time.
On 1 September 2006 Bugti was buried in Dera Bugti, with his coffin sealed, next to the graves of his son and brother. His family, who wanted a public funeral in Quetta, did not attend the burial. Some of family members of Akber Bugti and People from Bugti tribe thinks that the dead-body buried in Dera Bugti was not of Akber Bugti . 
On 26 September 2010 Abdul Qayyum Khan Jatoi, a senior Pakistan federal minister, criticized and accused the army of killing Baloch leader Nawab Akbar Bugti as well as the Pakistani politician, Benazir Bhutto. He later resigned when his political party summoned him and asked him to explain his comments.
Investigation and prosecution
On 11 July 2012, a Pakistani anti-terrorism court in Sibi, Balochistan, issued arrest warrants for the former military ruler, Pervez Musharraf and several other high-ranking officials who were accused of involvement in the killing of Akbar Bugti. The other officials included the former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, former Interior Minister Aftab Ahmad Sherpao, former Governor of Balochistan Owais Ahmed Ghani, former Chief Minister of Balochistan Jam Mohammad Yousaf, former Provincial Home Minister Shoaib Nosherwani, and former Deputy Commissioner Abdul Samad Lasi. All these were named suspects in the F.I.R. registered by police regarding the killing of Bugti in the military operation. Musharraf was formally arrested by a police team from Balochistan on 13 June 2013, however was later granted bail due to his poor health and ultimately due to non-provision of evidence.
- Ataullah Mengal
- Bugti militia
- Balochistan Liberation Army
- Talal Akbar Bugti
- Hyderabad tribunal
- Abdul Nawaz Bugti
- Aali Khan Bugti
- Mir Ahmed Nawaz Bugti
- Banerjee, Paula; Chaudhury, Sabyasachi Basu Ray; Das, Samir Kumar; Adhikari, Bishnu (2005). Internal Displacement in South asia: The Relevance of the UN's Guiding Principles. SAGE. ISBN 0-7619-3313-1.
- "Nawab Bugti: maligned, but widely respected". DAWN.COM. 28 August 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
- "Making of Martyr". India Today. 11 September 2006. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019.
- "Pakistan general hurt in attack", BBC News, 15 December 2005.
- "Land mine blast kill 28 wedding guest". Arab News. 11 March 2006. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012.
- "Mine blast kills 26 on wedding party bus in Pakistan". The New York Times. 10 March 2006.
- Syed Irfan Raza (30 August 2006). "'Mysterious' blast caused collapse of cave: ISPR". Dawn News. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- "Making of Martyr". India Today. 11 September 2006. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019.
Some analysts doubt Bugti's killing would have been sanctioned as a matter of policy. A few days earlier, the Government had managed to stage-manage a large jirga, or gathering, of Bugti tribesmen in Dera Bugti. The jirga had declared an end to the sardari (feudal) system, thereby making the laws of Pakistan applicable to their tribal areas, and proclaimed that Bugti was no longer their leader..... However, the fact that such an attempt had been made to politically isolate Bugti, makes the launch of a direct military action to kill the ailing old sardar, less understandable logically.
- "Baloch leader killed in Pak". Hindustan Times. 28 August 2016.
- "Clashes at Bugti's funeral prayers". Al Jazeera. 29 August 2016.
- "Armymen clear cave rubble amid stench". Dawn News. 31 August 2006. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019.
- "Army takes journalists to cave where they say Bugti was hiding". Associated Press (AP).
- "Baloch rebel chief body 'found'". BBC News. 31 August 2006.
- "Akbar Bugti buried against family wishes". Arab News. 2 September 2006.
- "Harbiyar Marri to be tried for murder of justice Nawaz Marri". Pakistan Today. 25 February 2012.
- "Lonely burial for Baloch leader". BBC News. 1 September 2006. Archived from the original on 4 October 2006. Retrieved 1 September 2006.
- "Pakistan minister resigns after accusing army of killings". The Guardian. London. 26 September 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- "Pak court issues arrest warrant for Musharraf in Bugti case". The Times of India. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Musharraf formally arrested in Bugti murder case". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- Dawn – Dera Bugti jirga ‘ends Sardari system’
- Dawn – Elders term ‘jirga’ a govt drama
- DAWN – The Tumandar of the Bugtis
- Daily Times – Akbar Bugti killed in army operation
- Dawn – Bugti killed in operation: Six officers among 21 security personnel dead
- Gulf News – Bugti's killing will haunt Musharraf
- Matheson, Sylvia A. The Tigers of Balochistan. London: Arthure Barker Limited (1967). Reprint: Oxford University Press, Karachi (1998), ISBN 0-19-577763-8.
- Interview by Qurat ul ain Siddiqui
- Rediff Pakistan – Birth Till Death Nawab Akbar Shahbaz Khan Bugti[dead link]
Video and audio
- CNN Video Clip CNN Video Report on the Bugti tribe 2001[dead link]
- BBC Reporters BBC Video Report on Dera Bugti, Balochistan situation 2005
- BBC Reporters BBC Video Report on Dera Bugti, Balochistan situation 2006
- An interview with Brahamdagh Bugti starting orcehstrated separatist movement against Pakistan
- General Musharraf talks to The Washington Post about his view of the rape victims[relevant? ]
Nawab Shahbaz Khan Bugti
Nawab Mehrab Khan Bugti
|Tumandar of Bugti Tribe||Succeeded by|
Nawab Aali Khan Bugti
Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo
| Governor of Balochistan
Ahmad Yar Khan
Khuda Bux Marri
| Chief Minister of Balochistan
Mir Humayun Khan Marri