Akbar Muhammad

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Akbar Muhammad is an associate professor of history and Africana studies at Binghamton University in New York. He specializes in African history, as well as the study of Islam in Africa and the Americas. He is the co-editor of Racism, Sexism, and the World-System, along with Joan Smith, Jane Collins, and Terrence K. Hopkins. His own writings have been focused on slavery in Muslim Africa, Muslims in the United States, and integration in Nigeria through the use of education.[1] He holds a notable role in the history of the Nation of Islam.[vague][2][3][4]

Early life[edit]

Muhammad is the youngest child of Elijah Muhammad and Clara Muhammad and he is also the brother of Imam Warith Deen Mohammed. He received his Doctor of Philosophy from Edinburgh University in Scotland. He also studied the theory of Arabic and Islamic law at Al-Azhar University in Cairo. He is fluent in Arabic.[1]


  1. ^ a b Muhammad, Akbar. Frontline. (Interview). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2010-08-15. 
  2. ^ Curtis, Edward E. (2006). Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960-1975. UNC Press Books. p. 241. ISBN 0-8078-5771-8. 
  3. ^ Roof, Wade Clark (2000). Contemporary American Religion. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 861. ISBN 0-02-864926-5. 
  4. ^ DeCaro, Louis A. (1997). On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. NYU Press. p. 363. ISBN 0-8147-1891-4.