Akhaltsikhe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Akhaltsikhe
ახალციხე
Skyline of Akhaltsikhe  ახალციხე
Akhaltsikhe  ახალციხე is located in Samtskhe-Javakheti
Akhaltsikhe  ახალციხე
Akhaltsikhe
ახალციხე
Akhaltsikhe  ახალციხე is located in Georgia (country)
Akhaltsikhe  ახალციხე
Akhaltsikhe
ახალციხე
Location of Akhaltsikhe in Georgia
Coordinates: 41°38′20″N 42°59′10″E / 41.63889°N 42.98611°E / 41.63889; 42.98611
Country  Georgia
mkhare Samtskhe-Javakheti
Elevation 1,029 m (3,376 ft)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 17,903
Time zone Georgian Time (UTC+4)

Akhaltsikhe (Georgian: ახალციხე [ɑxɑltsʰixɛ], literally "new castle"; formerly known as Lomsia) is a small city in Georgia's southwestern region (mkhare) of Samtskhe-Javakheti. It is situated on the both banks of a small river Potskhovi, which separates the city to the old city in the north and new in the south.

History[edit]

Akhaltsikhe c. 1887

The city is first mentioned in the chronicles in the 12th century. In the 12th–13th centuries it was the seat of the Akhaltsikhelis, dukes of Samtskhe, whose two most illustrious representatives were Shalva and Ivane Akhaltsikheli (of Akhaltsikhe). From the 13th up to the 17th century the city and Samtkhe were governed by the feudal family of the Jaqelis. In 1576 the Ottomans took it and from 1628 the city became the centre of the Samtskhe Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire as "Ahıska". In 1828, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829, Russian troops under the command of General Paskevich captured the city and, as a consequence of the 1829 Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne), it was ceded to the Russian Empire as part of first Kutaisi and then Tiflis Governorates. In the old part of the city one can see an old fortress, castle and mosque, the old fortress of the Jakelis (13th–14th century), and St. Marine's Church. The hills nearby the city harbour the Sapara Monastery (10th–14th centuries).

In the late 1980s the city was host to the Soviet Army's 10th Guards Motor Rifle Division, which became a brigade of the Georgian land forces after the fall of the Soviet Union.

Population[edit]

Population and ethnic composition of Akhaltsikhe from the late 19th century[2]
Year Georgians Armenians Russians Jews Others Total
1886 2,733 17% 10,417 64.6% 146 0.9% 2,545 15.8% 275 1.7% 16,116
1897[3][4] 3,578 23.3% 9,035 58.8% 1,172 7.3% 438 2.9% 1,134 3.4% 15,357
1926[5] 1,817 14.8% 6,516 52.9% 1.425 11.6% 94 0.8%  % 12,310
1959[6] 6,801 25.7% 14.341 54.1% 3,509 13.2% 368 1.4%  % 26,497
1989 24,570
2014[7] 12,838 71.7% 4,781 26.7% 75 0.4% 208 1.1% 17,903

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Akhaltsikhe
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
2.3
(36.1)
7.5
(45.5)
14.1
(57.4)
19.0
(66.2)
22.1
(71.8)
24.9
(76.8)
25.1
(77.2)
21.5
(70.7)
15.7
(60.3)
8.6
(47.5)
3.0
(37.4)
13.67
(56.61)
Average low °C (°F) −8.6
(16.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−2.9
(26.8)
1.7
(35.1)
6.4
(43.5)
9.4
(48.9)
12.4
(54.3)
12.4
(54.3)
8.0
(46.4)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.1
(30)
−5.5
(22.1)
2.39
(36.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44
(1.73)
40
(1.57)
38
(1.5)
60
(2.36)
78
(3.07)
91
(3.58)
56
(2.2)
52
(2.05)
52
(2.05)
59
(2.32)
54
(2.13)
56
(2.2)
680
(26.76)
Source: Climate-Data.org

[8]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Akhaltsikhe is twinned with:

People associated with Akhaltsikhe[edit]

Rabati Castle in Akhaltsikhe

Archaeology[edit]

The highland environment between Akhaltsikhe and Aspindza presents a varied and complex array of archaeological features in different locations, elevations and topographies. This includes the alluvial flood-plain of the Kura River, and all the way to the high grasslands.

Human occupation is attested already in the Early Bronze Age (4th millennium BC) and later.

The Roman and medieval periods artifacts are also strongly represented in the area.

Amiranis Gora[edit]

On the northeastern outskirts of Akhaltsikhe is an important archaeological site of Amiranis Gora.[9] It was excavated by Chubinishvili.[10] The earliest carbon date for Amiranis Gora is 3790-3373 cal BC. It was obtained from the charcoal of the metallurgical workshop which belonged to the earliest building horizon of Amiranis Gora[11] This indicates a division of the metallurgical production in the extractive and processing branches.[12]

Amiranis Gora is an important reference point for the study of the Early Bronze Age Kura-Araxes culture, also known as the Early Transcaucasian Culture. The many references include the architecture, burial practices, material culture and metallurgy.[13]

Amiranis Gora is one of the best sites with fixed stratigraphy of the Kura-Araxes culture. The carbon date for the Kura-Araxes material at Amiranis Gora is 3630-3048 cal B.C., which is very early.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population Census 2014". www.geostat.ge. National Statistics Office of Georgia. November 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  2. ^ "население грузии". Retrieved October 8, 2016. 
  3. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей.". Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016. 
  4. ^ "АХАЛЦИХСКИЙ УЕЗД (1897 г.)". Retrieved October 8, 2016. 
  5. ^ http://www.ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru/axalcixe26.html
  6. ^ http://www.ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru/axalcixe59.html
  7. ^ [1] [2]
  8. ^ "Climate: Akhaltsikhe". Retrieved 2016-02-27. 
  9. ^ Archaeological Investigations at Chobareti in Southern Georgia, the Caucasus Author(s): KAKHIANI, Kakha , SAGONA, Antonio , SAGONA, Claudia , KVAVADZE, Eliso , BEDIANASHVILI, Giorgi , MASSAGER, Erwan , MARTIN, Lucie , HERRSCHER, Estelle , MARTKOPLISHVILI, Inga , BIRKETT-REES, Jessie , LONGFORD, Catherine Journal: Ancient Near Eastern Studies Volume: 50 Date: 2013 Pages: 1-138 doi:10.2143/ANES.50.0.2975510
  10. ^ Chubinishvili, T., 1963: Amiranis Gora, Tbilisi: Sabchota Saqartvelo
  11. ^ Kushnareva & Chubinishvili 1970: 114, Fig. 5.1
  12. ^ THE BEGINNINGS OF METALLURGY Proceedings of the International Conference, Bochum 1995
  13. ^ Palumbi 2008; Kiguradze and Sagona 2003; Burney and Lang 1971
  14. ^ THE BEGINNINGS OF METALLURGY Proceedings of the International Conference, Bochum 1995

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°38′20″N 42°59′10″E / 41.63889°N 42.98611°E / 41.63889; 42.98611