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Akhund Abdul Ghaffur
Tomb Of Saidu Baba
|Resting place||Saidu Sharif|
|Known for||Ruling Swat area|
Akhūnd Abdul Ghaffūr (Pashto: اخوند عبدالغفور), commonly known as Saidū Bābā (Pashto: سيدو بابا) or the Akhund of Swat, was a prominent religious Mullah or priest, and Emir of the former Yusufzai State of Swat. Saidu Baba was a supporter of the Afghan Emir Dost Mohammad Barakzai, and opposed the Sikh and British forces.
Saidu Baba was an influential mullah and his residence in Swat was the destination for numerous pilgrimages by his disciples to consult him. He was succeeded by a notable line of other mullahs and theologians. The Saidu Sharif city in Swat District is named after him.
Saidu Baba was born at Jabrai, Matta, Upper Swat valley in 1793 AD to Safi Momand family.. The detail of his ethnicity is mentioned in Book written in 1365 by M.J. Seyal Momand on page 87 to 88 in the linked cited. He got his early education from Mian Brangola. Later, he went to Mardan, Nowshehra and Peshawar for completion of his education. In 1835, he returned to Swat and settled in Baligram (now Saidu Sharif). In 1836, when the British tried to annex Swat valley, at that time Saidu Baba united the people against them and called for Jihad of Ambela, which discouraged the British expansion to the region.
Battles against Sikh and British forces
In 1831, when the Muslim activist Syed Ahmad Barelvi was killed by the Sikhs along with hundreds of Barelvi's mujahideen in the battle of Balakot, many of his mujahideen stayed in Buner under the protection of Saidu Baba. They started a new uprising against the British Empire under Saidu Baba's leadership in 1862.:42
In 1834, Saidu Baba cooperated with the Afghan Emir Dost Mohammad Barakzai in the battle against the Sikh Empire and brought a number of Ghazis and Talib al-'Ilm to the battle of Peshawar. In return, the Afghan Emir awarded Saidu Baba with lands in Swat, Lundkhwar and Mardan among the Yusufzai Pashtuns. Eventually, when Saidu Baba was about 43 years old, he permanently settled in Saidu Sharif and gradually turned it into a thriving city.
Establishment of a united Yusufzai State of Swat
Saidu Baba conferred a scheme for a united throne of Swat. In 1849, he nominated Sayyid Akbar Shah, a descendant of Pir Baba, as the emir of the Yusufzai State of Swat. After Akbar Shah's death in 1857, Saidu Baba assumed control of the state himself till his own death in 1878.:40
Saidu Baba's greatest conflict was with Sayyid Maruf Bey Kotah Mullah, a supporter of the British-sponsored Emir Shah Shujah who had opposed the Barakzai Emir Dost Mohammad in the battle against the Sikhs. Saidu Baba referred to Kotah Mullah as a practitioner of heretical rituals, and managed to convince the Yusufzai of Buner to push Kotah Mullah out of the village where he was being hosted.:45
- Edward Lear's "The Akond of Swat"
- George T. Lanigan (1846–1886) wrote "The Ahkoond of Swat" on hearing of Saidu Baba's death in 1878.
- Ken Nordine's rendition of the Lear piece in his 'Word Jazz' radio show.
- Haroon, Sana (2011). Frontier of Faith: Islam, in the Indo-Afghan Borderland. Hurst Publishers. ISBN 1849041830. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Sabir, Muhammad Shafee (2005). "Akhund Sahib Swat". Khyber.ORG. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Anon, "The (British Raj) Indian Frontier", The Times, Issue 29100, (15 November 1877); p. 4; col D.
- Our own Correspondent, "India", (Article contains the text: "The death of the Akhoond of Swat is announced"), The Times, No.29157, (Monday 21 January 1878), p. 5; col A.