|Other names||Akita Inu
Great Japanese Dog
|Notes||National dog of Japan,
Prefecture animal of Akita
|Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Akita (秋田犬 Akita-inu, Japanese pronunciation: [akʲita.inɯ]) is a large breed of dog originating from the mountainous northern regions of Japan. There are two separate varieties of Akita: a Japanese strain, commonly called "Akita Inu" ("inu" means "dog" in Japanese), or "Japanese Akita"; and an American strain, known as the "Akita" or "American Akita". The Japanese strain called the Akita Inu comes in a narrow palette of colors, with all other colors considered atypical of the breed, while the American strain known simply as the Akita comes in all dog colors. The Akita has a short double-coat similar to that of many other northern spitz breeds such as the Siberian Husky, but long-coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessive gene.
The Akita is a powerful, independent and dominant breed, commonly aloof with strangers but affectionate with family members. As a breed, Akitas are generally hardy, but they have been known to be susceptible to various genetic conditions and can be sensitive to certain drugs.
In all countries (except the United States and Canada) the Japanese and American strains of Akita are considered two separate breeds. In the United States and Canada, however, the two strains are considered a single breed with differences in type. For a while, the American strain of Akita was known in some countries as the "Great Japanese Dog". Both forms of Akita are probably best known worldwide from the true story of Hachikō, a loyal Akita who lived in Japan before World War II.
- 1 Breed name
- 2 History
- 3 Description
- 4 Temperament
- 5 Training
- 6 Health
- 7 Working life
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
There is debate among fanciers whether there are two separate breeds of Akita. To date, only the American Kennel Club, and the Canadian Kennel Club consider American and Japanese Akitas to be two varieties of the same breed, allowing free breeding between the two. The United Kennel Club, The Federation Cynologique Internationale, The Kennel Club, the Australian National Kennel Council, the New Zealand Kennel Club, and the Japan Kennel Club consider Japanese and American Akitas as separate breeds. Some countries refer to the American Akita as simply the "Akita" and not the American Akita. The issue is especially controversial in Japan. For the FCI's 84 countries, the breed split formally occurred June 1999, when the FCI decided that the American type would be called the Great Japanese Dog, later renamed the American Akita in January 2006.
Japanese history, both verbal and written, describe the ancestors of the Akita, the Matagi dog （Japanese:マタギ犬）(hunting dog, Bear hunting dog, Deer hunting dog), as one of the oldest of the native dogs. Today's Akita developed primarily from dogs in the northernmost region of the island of Honshū in the Akita prefecture, thus providing the breed's name. The Matagi's quarry included wild boar, Sika deer, and Asian black bear. This precursor dog tracked large game, holding it at bay until hunters arrived to make the kill. The breed is also influenced by crosses with larger breeds from Asia and Europe, including English Mastiffs, Great Danes, St. Bernards, and the Tosa Inu, in the desire to develop a fighting dog for the burgeoning dog fighting industry in Odate in the early 20th century. During World War II the Akita was also crossed with German Shepherds in an attempt to save them from the wartime government order for all non-military dogs to be culled. The ancestors of the American Akita were originally a variety of the Japanese Akita, a form that was not desired in Japan due to the markings, and which is not eligible for show competition.
The story of Hachikō, the most revered Akita of all time, helped push the Akita into the international dog world. Hachiko was born in 1923 and owned by Professor Hidesaburō Ueno of Tokyo. Professor Ueno lived near the Shibuya Train Station in a suburb of the city and commuted to work every day on the train. Hachikō accompanied his master to and from the station each day. On May 25, 1925, when the dog was 18 months old, he waited for his master's arrival on the four o'clock train, but Professor Ueno had a fatal brain haemorrhage at work. Hachikō continued to wait for his master's return. He travelled to and from the station each day for the next nine years. He allowed the professor's relatives to care for him, but he never gave up the vigil at the station for his master. His vigil became world-renowned when, in 1934, shortly before his death, a bronze statue was erected at the Shibuya train station in his honor. This statue was melted down for munitions during the war, but a new one was commissioned after the war. Each year on April 8 since 1936, Hachikō's devotion has been honoured with a solemn ceremony of remembrance at Tokyo's Shibuya railroad station. Eventually, Hachikō's legendary faithfulness became a national symbol of loyalty, particularly to the person and institution of the Emperor.
In 1931, the Akita was officially declared a Japanese Natural Monument. The Mayor of Odate City in Akita Prefecture organized the Akita Inu Hozonkai to preserve the original Akita as a Japanese natural treasure through careful breeding. In 1934 the first Japanese breed standard for the Akita Inu was listed, following the breed's declaration as a natural monument of Japan. In 1967, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Akita Dog Preservation Society, the Akita Dog Museum was built to house information, documents and photos. There is a tradition in Japan, that when a child is born they receive a statue of an Akita. This statue symbolizes health, happiness, and a long life.
In 1937, Helen Keller travelled to Japan. She expressed a keen interest in the breed and was presented with the first two Akitas to enter the US. The first dog, presented to her by Mr. Ogasawara and named Kamikaze-go, died at 7 1/2 months of age from distemper, one month after her return to the States. A second Akita was arranged to be sent to Miss Keller: Kamikaze's litter brother, Kenzan-go. Kenzan-go died in the mid-1940s. By 1939 a breed standard had been established and dog shows had been held, but such activities stopped after World War II began. Keller wrote in the Akita Journal:
|“||If ever there was an angel in fur, it was Kamikaze. I know I shall never feel quite the same tenderness for any other pet. The Akita dog has all the qualities that appeal to me — he is gentle, companionable and trusty.||”|
Just as the breed was stabilizing in its native land, World War II pushed the Akita to the brink of extinction. Early in the war the dogs had a lack of nutritious food. Then many were killed to be eaten by the starving populace, and their pelts were used as clothing. Finally, the government ordered all remaining dogs to be killed on sight to prevent the spread of disease. The only way concerned owners could save their beloved Akitas was to turn them loose in remote mountain areas, where they bred back with their ancestor dogs, the Matagi, or conceal them from authorities by means of crossing with German Shepherds, and naming them in the style of German Shepherds of the time. Morie Sawataishi and his efforts to breed the Akita is a major reason this breed exists today.
During the occupation years following the war, the breed began to thrive again through the efforts of Sawataishi and others. For the first time, Akitas were bred for a standardized appearance. Akita fanciers in Japan began gathering and exhibiting the remaining Akitas and producing litters in order to restore the breed to sustainable numbers and to accentuate the original characteristics of the breed muddied by crosses to other breeds. U.S. servicemen fell in love with the Akita and imported many with them upon their return.
The Japanese Akita and American Akita began to diverge in type during the Post–World War II era. Helen Keller is credited with bringing the Akita to America after being gifted two Akitas by the Japanese government in 1938. A breed standard by 1939 and dog shows began to be held but then World War 2 began. It was during this time, that US servicemen serving as part of the occupation force in Japan first came into contact with the Akita, the breed so impressed them that many servicemembers chose to bring an Akita back home with them upon completion of their tour. American servicemembers were typically more impressed with the larger more bear-like fighting Akita or German Shepherd type than they were with the smaller framed and fox-like Akita-Inu; the types of dogs they brought back with them to the US reflected this sentiment. Japanese Akita fanciers focused on restoring the breed as a work of Japanese art or to 'Natural Monument' status. American Akita fanciers chose to breed larger, heavier-boned and more intimidating dogs. Although, both types derive from a common ancestry, there are marked differences between the two. First, while American Akitas are acceptable in all colors, Japanese Akitas are only permitted to be red, fawn, sesame, white, or brindle. Additionally, American Akitas may be pinto and/or have black masks, unlike Japanese Akitas where it is considered a disqualification and not permitted in the breed standards. American Akitas generally are heavier boned and larger, with a more bear-like head, whereas Japanese Akitas tend to be lighter and more finely featured with a fox-like head.
Recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1955, it was placed in the Miscellaneous class. It was not until the end of 1972 that the AKC approved the Akita standard and it was moved to the Working dog class, as such, the Akita is a rather new breed in the United States. Foundation stock in America continued to be imported from Japan until 1974 when the AKC cut off registration to any further Japanese imports until 1992 when it recognized the Japan Kennel Club. The decision by the AKC to disallow the registration of any further imported dogs in 1974, set the stage for the divergence in type between the American Akita and Japanese Akita Inu that is present today.
Elsewhere in the world, the American Akita was first introduced to the UK in 1937, he was a Canadian import, owned by a Mrs. Jenson, however the breed was not widely known until the early 1980s. The breed was introduced in Australia in 1982 with an American Import and to New Zealand in 1986 with an import from the U.K.
As a spitz breed, the appearance of the Akita reflects cold weather adaptations essential to their original function. The Akita is a substantial breed for its height with heavy bones. Characteristic physical traits of the breed include a large, bear-like head with erect, triangular ears set at a slight angle following the arch of the neck. Additionally, the eyes of the Akita are small, dark, deeply set and triangular in shape. Akitas have thick double coats, and tight, well knuckled cat-like feet. Their tails are carried over the top of the back in a gentle or double curl down the loin.
Mature American type males measure typically 26–28 inches (66–71 cm) at the withers and weigh between 100–130 lb (45–59 kg). Mature females typically measure 24–26 inches (61–66 cm) and weigh between 70–100 lb (32–45 kg). The Japanese type, as stated in the breed standards, are a little smaller and lighter.
Breed standards state that all dog breed coat colors are allowable in the American Akita, including pinto, all types of brindle, solid white, black mask, white mask, self-colored mask, even differing colors of under coat and overlay (guard hairs). This includes the common Shiba Inu coloring pattern known as Urajiro. The Japanese Akitas, as per the breed standards, are restricted to red, fawn, sesame, brindle, pure white, all with "Urajiro" markings i.e., whitish coat on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, on the underside of jaw, neck, chest, body and tail and on the inside of the legs.
There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat. The long coat is considered a fault in the show ring, however. The long coat, also known as 'Moku' is the result of an autosomal recessive gene and may only occur phenotypically if both sire and dam are carriers. They have longer (about 3–4 inches in length) and softer coats and are known to have sweeter temperaments. It is believed that this gene comes from the now extinct Karafuto-Ken 樺太犬. Unlike their short coat cousins, the long coats are less highly prized and thus more affordable.
American Akitas are a low maintenance dog breed. Grooming them should be an easy process. They are fairly heavy shedders and can go heavier than normal two to three times per year. Daily brushing could be a good way to reduce this problem. This breed needs to bathe every few months, although it can be more often, depending on the needs of each owner. Toenails should be trimmed every month, and their ears should be cleaned once a week.
The Akita is generally seen as territorial about its property, and can be reserved with strangers. It is sometimes described as feline in its actions; it is not unusual for an Akita to clean its face after eating, to preen its kennel mate, and to be fastidious in the house. They are known to be intolerant of other dogs of the same sex, as stated in the AKC breed standard.
Since it is a large, powerful dog, the Akita is not considered a breed for a first time dog owner. The breed has been targeted by some countries' breed-specific legislation as a dangerous dog. The Akita is a large, strong, independent and dominant dog. A well-trained Akita should be accepting of non-threatening strangers, otherwise they will treat all strangers in an aggressive manner. As a breed they should be good with children; it is said that the breed has an affinity for children. Not all Akitas will necessarily have the same temperament. An akita fatally injured an Arizona woman who was trying to rehabilitate it.
Akitas tend to take a socially dominant role with other dogs, and thus caution must be used in situations when Akitas are likely to be around other dogs, especially unfamiliar ones. In particular, Akitas tend to be less tolerant of dogs of the same sex. For this reason, Akitas, unless highly socialized, are not generally well-suited for off-leash dog parks. Sometimes spontaneous, it needs a confident, consistent handler, without which the dog will be very wilful and may become very aggressive to other dogs and animals.
The Akita Inu is one of the most dominant dog breeds. Therefore, training should start in an early age of 7 – 8 weeks.
There are many autoimmune diseases that are known to sometimes occur in the Akita. These include, but are not limited to:
- Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, also known as Uveo-Dermatologic Syndrome is an auto-immune condition which affects the skin and eyes.
- Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, which is an autoimmune blood disorder.
- Sebaceous adenitis is an autoimmune skin disorder believed to be of autosomal recessive inheritance.
- Pemphigus foliaceus is an autoimmune skin disorder, believed to be genetic.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or lupus, is a systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that can affect any part of the body.
Immune-mediated endocrine diseases
- Hypoadrenocorticism also known as Addison's disease, it affects the adrenal glands and is essentially the opposite to Cushing's syndrome.
- Diabetes mellitus, also known as type 1 diabetes. It affects the pancreas.
- Hypothyroidism, also known as autoimmune hypothyroidism. This is an autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid gland.
Non-immune specific conditions
Other non-immune specific conditions known to have occurred in the Akita include:
- Gastric dilation is also known as bloat; may progressive to gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), in which the stomach twists on itself.
- Microphthalmia, meaning "small eyes", is a developmental disorder of the eye, believed to be an autosomal recessive genetic condition.
- Primary glaucoma, Increased pressure in the eye.
- Progressive retinal atrophy progressive degeneration of the retina (portion of the eye that senses light and allows sight).
- Hip dysplasia a skeletal condition where the head of the femur does not fit properly into the hip socket. Leads to osteoarthritis and pain.
- Elbow dysplasia a skeletal condition in which the components of the elbow joint (the humerus, radius, and ulna) do not line up properly, leading to osteoarthritis and pain.
- Von Willebrands disease, a genetic bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in Von Willebrand factor.
- Cushing’s Syndrome also known as hyperadrenocorticism, it affects the adrenal glands and is caused by long-term exposure to high levels of glucocorticosteroids, either manufactured by the body or given as medications.
Breed specific conditions
There are two breed specific conditions mentioned in veterinary literature:
- Immune sensitivity to vaccines, drugs, insecticides, anesthetics and tranquilizers
- Pseudohyperkalemia, a rise in the amount of potassium that occurs due to its excessive leakage from red blood cells (RBCs) when blood is drawn. This can give a false indication of hyperkalemia on lab tests, hence the prefix pseudo, meaning false. This occurs because many eastern Asian breeds, including Akitas and Shiba Inus, have a higher level of potassium in their RBCs than other dogs.
Predecessors of the modern Akita were used for hunting bear, wild boar and deer in Japan as late as 1957. They would be used to flush out the bear and keep it at bay until the hunter could come and kill it. Today, the breed is used primarily as a companion dog. However, the breed is currently also known to be used as therapy dogs, and compete in all dog competitions including: conformation showing, obedience trials, canine good citizen program, tracking trials and agility competition, as well as weight pulling, hunting and schutzhund (i.e., personal protection dogs).
- Ginga: Nagareboshi Gin
- Hachi: A Dog's Tale
- Hokkaido (dog)
- Kai Ken
- Lovely Muco
- Nihon Ken Hozonkai
- Shikoku (dog)
- Cassidy, Kelly M. (February 2008). "Breed Longevity Data". Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- "おすすめ酵素ドリンク比較ランキング". akitanodog.info.
- "dog colors". AKITA no DOG. May 2, 2013. Archived from the original on 2016-10-03. Retrieved Dec 22, 2016.
- "Akita Breed Standard" (website). American Kennel Club. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "Breed Standards" (website). United Kennel Club. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "FCI standard #344, American Akita" (document). Federation Cynologique Internationale. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "UK Breed Standard for Japanese Style" (website). The Kennel Club. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "UK Breed Standard for American Style" (website). The Kennel Club. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Australian Breed Standard". Australian National Kennel Council. Archived from the original (website) on 2015-02-28. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
- "NZ Standard for American Style". New Zealand Kennel Club. Archived from the original (website) on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "NZ Standard for Japanese Style". New Zealand Kennel Club. Archived from the original (website) on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Kaluzniacki, DVM, Sophia. "The Akita Dilemma – One Breed or Two? : a historical perspective" (website). Tamarlane. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- Itagaki, Dr. Shiro. "The Preservation and Development of Japanese Dogs" (pdf). Akita Learning Center. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Akita Inu Breed History". Japanese Akita Inu Club Great Britain. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Killilea, David; Jenny Killilea (1988). The Akita Today. Glouchestershire, UK: Ringpress Books Ltd. pp. 15–16. ISBN 1-86054-099-6.
- Chida, Hiroshi (27 November 2003). "Odate museum honors national dog, the Akita". Stripes Pacific Travel. Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Andrews, Barbara J. (1996). Akitas. N.J. USA: T.F.H Publications Inc. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0-7938-2760-4.
- American Kennel Club (listed author): The Complete Dog Book: The Photograph, History, and Official Standard of Every Breed Admitted to AKC Registration, and the Selection, Training, Breeding, Care, and Feeding of Pure-bred Dogs, Howell Book House, 1985, page 269. ISBN 0-87605-463-7.
- Ruthven Tremain, The Animals' Who's Who: 1,146 Celebrated Animals in History, Popular Culture, Literature, & Lore, Scribner, 1984, page 105. ISBN 0-684-17621-1. Accessed via Google Books August 21, 2008.
- Skabelund, Aaron Herald (23 September 2011). "Canine Imperialism". Berfrois. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Andrews, Barbara J. (1996). Akitas. N.J. USA: T.F.H. Publications Inc. p. 17. ISBN 0-7938-2760-4.
- Club, American Kennel. "Akita History & Training/Temperament". www.akc.org. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- "Morie Sawataishi: Saviour of Japan's Akita Samurai dog" (website). Japan: Daily Telegraph. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Helen Keller: First Akitas in the USA". Natural-akita.com. June 14, 1937. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- Ogasawara, Ichiro. "Helen Keller and Akitas". Akita Learning Center. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Killilea, David & Jenny (1998). The Akita Today. Glouchester, U.K.: Ringpress. ISBN 1-86054-099-6.
- Rick Beauchamp. "The Akita Inu: The Voice of Japan". Dog & Kennel. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- "Helen Keller: First Akitas in the USA". Natural-akita.com. 14 June 1937. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- Sherrill, Martha (28 February 2008). Dog Man: An Uncommon Life on a Faraway Mountain. City: Penguin Press USA. p. 256. ISBN 1-59420-124-2. ISBN 978-1-59420-124-0
- "AKIKO". www.clubakita.ro. Retrieved 2018-02-07.
- Kimura, Tatsuo. "A History Of The Akita Dog" (website). Akita Learning Center. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Helen Keller". Akita Club of America. Retrieved 2018-02-25.
- "The Two Akitas". DogChannel.com.
- "Akita: Physical Characteristics". Pet MD.
- Wallis, Sherry (20 January 2011). "Akita proportions". Dogs in Canada. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- "American Kennel Club – Akita" (website). American Kennel Club. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Akita – Canada's Guide to Dogs" (website). Canada's Guide to Dogs. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Akita Colors" (website). Tarmalane. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- Taylor, Jason (1996). Guide to Owning an Akita. United States: TFH Publications. p. 21. ISBN 0-7938-1878-8.
- "Long Coat Akitas" (website). DoubleTake. Retrieved 17 April 2011.[unreliable source?]
- Andrews, Barbara J. (1996). Akitas. NJ, United States of America: TFH Publications Inc. p. 16. ISBN 0-7938-2760-4.
- "Long Coat Akita Inu". Akitainu.com. 2017-05-29. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
- "Japanese Akita temperament and training | Pets4Homes". Pets4Homes. Retrieved 2018-02-23.
- "The Akita: Is The Akita the Right Dog For You?" (website). Akita Club of America Inc. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "Anti-Canine Legislation Information" (website). Akita Club of America. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- "Changes to NYCHA's Pet Policy" (PDF). New York City Housing Authority Journal. New York City Government. 39 (4). April 2009. Archived from the original (pdf) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- "Restricted Dog Breeds" (website). Bermuda Minister of the Environment. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- "Dangerous Dogs" (website). Department of Environment, Heritage, and Local Government. 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- "Akita Inu Dog Breed - Temperament & Personality". 3 August 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
- Wallis, Sherry E. "Akita Temperament" (website). Tarmalane. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
an Akita should like children. Just as retrievers like sticks and balls, this breed should have an affinity for children.[unreliable source?]
- Wallis, Sherry E. "Akita Behavior & Temperament" (website). Tarmalane. Retrieved 4 October 2011.[unreliable source?]
- "Dog that mauled volunteer will be euthanized, tested for rabies". www.azcentral.com. 2017-12-21.
Akita Advocates identified the fatally wounded woman as Carol Harris, a volunteer, and said she was attacked Wednesday 'while helping to rehab an orphaned Akita in the hopes of him becoming adoptable.'
- "Woman working to rehabilitate orphaned dog mauled to death". www.kcra.com. KCRA. 2017-12-22.
'[Carol Harris] passed away while helping rehab an orphaned Akita in the hopes of him becoming adoptable,' Akita Advocates wrote on their Facebook page.
- "Akita Inu Puppies training - Akitainu.com". Akitainu.com. 2017-06-06. Retrieved 2017-06-06.
- Angles, J. M.; Famula, T. R.; Pedersen, N. C. (2005). "Uveodermatologic (VKH-like) syndrome in American Akita dogs is associated with an increased frequency of DQA1*00201". Tissue Antigens. 66 (6): 656–65. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00508.x. PMID 16305682.
- Cottelll, Beverley D.; Barnett, K. C. (1987). "Harada's disease in the Japanese Akita". Journal of Small Animal Practice. 28 (6): 517–21. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.1987.tb01445.x.
- Monaco, Marie. "Uveodermatologic Syndrome (UDS, VKH)". Samoyed Club of America. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Diseases of The Japanese Akita-Inu". Japanese Akita Club of America. Archived from the original on 2014-12-29. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
- Day, M.J (1999). "Antigen specificity in canine autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 69 (2–4): 215–24. doi:10.1016/S0165-2427(99)00055-0. PMID 10507306.
- Reichler, Iris M.; Hauser, Beat; Schiller, Irene; Dunstan, Robert W.; Credille, Kelly M.; Binder, Heinrich; Glaus, Toni; Arnold, Susi (2001). "Sebaceous adenitis in the Akita: Clinical observations, histopathology and heredity". Veterinary Dermatology. 12 (5): 243–53. doi:10.1046/j.0959-4493.2001.00251.x. PMID 11906649.
- Spaterna, A.; Antognoni, M.T.; Cappuccini, S.; Tesei, B. (2003). "Sebaceous Adenitis in the Dog: Three Cases". Veterinary Research Communications. 27: 441–3. doi:10.1023/B:VERC.0000014199.39879.bb. PMID 14535449.
- Pedersen, Niels C. "Determining whether risk for sebaceous adenitis of Standard Poodles is associated with a specific DLA class II genotype" (pdf). Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- Kuhl, K. A.; Shofer, F. S.; Goldschmidt, M. H. (1994). "Comparative Histopathology of Pemphigus Foliaceus and Superficial Folliculitis in the Dog". Veterinary Pathology. 31 (1): 19–27. doi:10.1177/030098589403100103. PMID 8140722.
- "Pemphigus" (website). The Akita Association (UK). Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- "Diseases in the American Akita" (pdf). Akita Rescue Mid-Atlantic Coast (USA). Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- Bouyet, Barbara; Meyers, Alicia; Eltinge, Steve; Dodds, Jean (2002). Akita, Treasure of Japan. 2. Thousand Oaks, California, USA: Magnum Publishing. pp. 268–269. ISBN 0-9716146-0-1. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Kennedy, L. J.; Quarmby, S.; Happ, G. M.; Barnes, A.; Ramsey, I. K.; Dixon, R. M.; Catchpole, B.; Rusbridge, C.; Graham, P. A.; Hillbertz, N. S.; Roethel, C.; Dodds, W. J.; Carmichael, N. G.; Ollier, W. E. R. (2006). "Association of canine hypothyroidism with a common major histocompatibility complex DLA class II allele". Tissue Antigens. 68 (1): 82–6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00614.x. PMID 16774545.
- "The Akita – Diseases" (website). Akita Alumni Dog Club. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Bell, Jerold S. "Risk Factors for Canine Bloat" (website). malamute health. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- "Microphthalmia" (website). Canine Inherited Disorders Database. 1998. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Startup, F. (1986). "Hereditary eye problems in the Japanese akita". Veterinary Record. 118 (9): 251. doi:10.1136/vr.118.9.251-b.
- Turner, Andrew; Hurn, Simon. "Eye Diseases and Information". All Animal Eye Services. Archived from the original (website) on August 5, 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Clements, P. J. M.; Sargan, D. R.; Gould, D. J.; Petersen-Jones, S. M. (1996). "Recent advances in understanding the spectrum of canine generalised progressive retinal atrophy". Journal of Small Animal Practice. 37 (4): 155–62. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.1996.tb01950.x. PMID 8731401.
- "Treatment Options for Mature Canine Hip Dysplasia (Osteoarthritis stage)" (PDF). Colorado State University. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- "Dog Joint Problems" (website). JointPainInDogs.com. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- Dodds, Jean (2005). "Bleeding Disorders" (website). World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- "Von Willebrand Disease" (pdf). The Furry Critter Network. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- Brooks, M. (1999). "A review of canine inherited bleeding disorders: Biochemical and molecular strategies for disease characterization and carrier detection" (PDF). Journal of Heredity. 90 (1): 112–8. doi: . PMID 9987916.
- Anderson, Julie B.; Latimer, Kenneth S.; Bain, Perry J.; Tarpley, Heather L. "Von Willebrand's Disease" (website). Veterinary Clinical Pathology Clerkship Program. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- Battison, Andrea (2007). "Apparent pseudohyperkalemia in a Chinese Shar Pei dog". Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 36 (1): 89–93. doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2007.tb00188.x. PMID 17311201.
- "Bear hunting in Japan 1957" (website). Raritan River Akita Club inc. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- "Working Akitas" (website). Akita Network. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- Andrews, Barbara J. (1996). "6 – Sport of purebred dogs". Akitas. N.J. USA: TFH Publications Inc. pp. 74–99. ISBN 0-7938-2760-4.
- Taylor, Jason (1996). Guide to Owning an Akita. N.J. USA: T.F.H. Publications Inc. p. 54. ISBN 0-7938-1878-8.
- Skabelund, Aaron Herald (2011). Empire of Dogs: Canines, Japan, and the Making of the Modern Imperial World (A Study of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute (print). Ithaca, NY: Columbia University. ISBN 978-0-8014-5025-9. ISBN 080145025X
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Akita Inu.|