Akiyuki Shinbo

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Akiyuki Shinbo
新房 昭之
Born (1961-09-27) September 27, 1961 (age 60)
Other namesJūhachi Minamizawa (南澤十八)
Futoshi Shiiya (椎谷太志)[a]
Sōji Homura (帆村壮二)[b]
OccupationAnimator, director, storyboard artist, writer
Years active1983–present
EmployerStudio One Pattern (Mid-to-late 1980s)
Shaft (2004–present)
Awards2011 Newtype Anime Awards—Director Prize
11th Tokyo Anime Award for Best Director

Akiyuki Shinbo[c] (Japanese: 新房 昭之, Hepburn: Shinbō Akiyuki, born September 27, 1961) is a Japanese animator, director, writer, and storyboard artist. Best known for his works with Shaft, he has attained international recognition with the studio for his unique visual style and storytelling methods.

Born in Koori, Fukushima Prefecture, Shinbo began his career in 1980s as an animator, and became known while at Studio One Pattern in the mid-to-late 1980s, which worked extensively as a subcontractor for Pierrot and Madhouse. In the early 1990s, Shinbo became a freelance creator and worked across multiple series at both studios as an episode director. He debuted as a series director with the J.C.Staff television series Metal Fighter Miku (1994), and over the next several years, Shinbo would develop his artistic directorial style and work with various industry creators as a freelance director and storyboard artist; his works from this time include The SoulTaker (2001), Le Portrait de Petit Cossette (2004), and Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha (2004).

In 2004, Shinbo was invited by newly appointed Shaft president Mitsutoshi Kubota to join the animation studio as a director. Since his debut with Tsukuyomi: Moon Phase (2004), he has mentored various directors and won numerous awards for his productions with the studio. His notable directorial works with Shaft include the Monogatari series (2009–2018), Puella Magi Madoka Magica (2011), and March Comes In like a Lion (2016–2018).

Early life[edit]

Shinbo was born on September 27, 1961, in Koori, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, to Akio Shinbo.[3] After high school, he attended Tokyo Designer Gakuin College [ja].[4]

Career[edit]

Early career[edit]

After graduating from college, Shinbo entered the industry as an animator in the early-to-mid 1980s, and then joined sub-contracting company Studio One Pattern in the mid-to-late 80s.[5] In 1990, he debuted as an episode director on Pierrot's Musashi, the Samurai Lord television series after Studio One Pattern colleague (and mentor) Masahito Yamashita had heard that Pierrot was looking for directors on the series and had recommended Shinbo.[5] Around that time, he began to work primarily with Pierrot, and two years later joined the studio's production team for Yu Yu Hakusho (1992–1994). Shinbo directed 19 episodes of the series and storyboarded 13 (some of which he did both for) under the series direction of Noriyuki Abe, who had served as an episode director on Musashi, the Samurai Lord. In particular, Shinbo's involvement with the series is noted for his work on the Dark Tournament arc, which is sometimes regarded as the first appearance of his unique visual directorial style.[6] Speaking of his motivations in producing the series, Shinbo spoke highly of animation director Atsushi Wakabayashi, whom he said was the driving force behind his work, and storyboard artist Motosuke Takahashi, whom Shinbo called a "mentor" figure who had taught him much about directing.[5]

Shinbo's involvement with Yu Yu Hakusho lessened over time. In 1994, in the middle of the series' production, he was hired to direct J.C.Staff's anime-original television series Metal Fighter Miku. He was chosen after an executive producer watched the 74th episode of Yu Yu Hakusho, which Shinbo had storyboarded and directed, and after the original Metal Fighter Miku director had left the project during pre-production.[5][7]

In 1995, Shinbo directed the sixth and final episode of Madhouse's Devil Hunter Yohko, which he later cited as a major point in his development as a director.[5] The episode received a mixed critical reception.[8] From 1996 to 1999, he directed original video animations (OVAs) at several studios. The first of these OVAs, Starship Girl Yamamoto Yohko I (1996), spawned its own animated franchise consisting of a sequel OVA series in 1997 and a 26-episode television series in 1999, all of which received mixed to positive critical reception.[9][10][11][12] Also in 1996 he directed Debutante Detective Corps at Daume, initiating his first of two projects with the company; as an initial project with Daume, however, the OVA was panned by reviewers.[13] In 1997, he directed his first project with Tatsunoko Production: a reboot of the 1974 superhero series Hurricane Polymar titled New Hurricane Polymar; Shinbo later noted the series as where he learned the composition techniques of "smacking" and "dabbing".[5] He then returned to J.C.Staff to produce Galaxy Fräulein Yuna Returns (1996), a sequel series to the 1995 OVA directed by Yorifusa Yamaguchi,[14] where Shinbo had served as storyboard artist.[15]

Shinbo again worked with Madhouse on an OVA adaptation of Saki Okuse's Twilight of the Dark Master manga in 1997,[16] and again with J.C.Staff and T-Up to produce a 3-episode OVA adaptation of Hitoshi Okuda's Detatoko Princess manga series.[17] During production of Detatoko Princess, he decided that he wanted to direct with a "simple and frivolous" philosophy and said he "hate[d] making ordinary stuff."[5] He worked for the final time with Pierrot in 1999 with the 4-episode original series Tenamonya Voyagers.[18]

Early 2000s[edit]

In 2001, Shinbo returned to Tatsunoko Production (aided by Tatsunoko VCR, Tatsunoko's digital subdivision) with OVA series The SoulTaker. Shinbo admitted that, while working on the series, he to focused more on making unique shot compositions and imagery than working on the story, and instead left all organization of the story to writer Mayori Sekijima, who had worked with Shinbo on three separate series prior to The SoulTaker. The series also marked his second collaboration with character designer Akio Watanabe.[5] The SoulTaker received both praise and criticism for his direction and the series' art design by reviewers;[19][20] despite the criticisms, Mike Toole of ANN said that the series was important for being "the start of Akiyuki Shinbo's long transformation" as a director.[21]

With The SoulTaker complete, Shinbo took a brief hiatus from the mainstream anime industry; in 2001, he directed a short music video spin-off of the Triangle Hearts series, which started his relationship with Seven Arcs.[5] For the next 3 years, he mainly focused on producing adult hentai series under the pseudonym Jūhachi Minamizawa (南澤 十八, Minamizawa Jūhachi) with AT-2 (the adult video brand of studio Arcturus, at the time a subsidiary of Seven Arcs).[22][23] Shinbo's hentai OVAs during this time have also been lauded for their visual aesthetics, with one blogger referring to them as "unhinged and downright batshit crazy."[24]

Along with the various hentai series produced by Arcturus, Shinbo was hired to direct the Seven Arcs series Triangle Heart: Sweet Songs Forever (2003), which Masaki Tsuzuki had created.[5] The series served as a starting point for the creation of Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha the following year, which featured the return of Seven Arcs, Shinbo, and Masaki Tsuzuki.[25][5] Nanoha received praise for its atmosphere, themes, and uniqueness from reviewers. Tim Jones from T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews noted that the series tended to focus more on physical fighting, rather than the usual magical girl trope of fighting with long-range magic attacks, despite having many of the genre's usual tropes.[26] While Carl Kimlinger of Anime News Network criticized the series for having a more mature tone than its characters ages should have represented,[27] online magazine ICv2, conversely, stated that the series had become immensely popular in the United States among "hardcore" fans due to the characters' adversaries containing more realistic social issues not found in other series of the same genre.[28] Despite his criticisms of the series, Kimlinger praised the series' usage of multiple animation directors and multiple art-styles, which he found gave the series an "undeniably appealing" look.[26] The success of the series spawned a franchise that consists of four television series and four theatrical films, albeit all other entries in the franchise did not involve Shinbo.[29][30]

Around the same time, SME Visual Works producer Masaotoshi Fujimoto and Shinbo had concepted Le Portrait de Petit Cossette (2004), which once again incorporated Shinbo's direction with writer Mayori Sekijima, character designer Akio Watanabe, animation studio Daume, and art director Junichi Higashi (the latter of whom Shinbo had worked with on Tenamonya Voyagers).[31] The series also marked the first time Shinbo worked with composer Yuki Kajiura.[32] Fujimoto discovered Shinbo while he was looking for "unusual" directors, and had found out about Shinbo while watching various series; Cossette was intended to be a project that "showcased Shinbo as an auteur", according to Fujimoto, and it was the first time Shinbo himself had directed and storyboarded every episode.[4] Animestyle magazine editor-in-chief Yūichirō Oguro, in his interview with Shinbo, likened the series to The SoulTaker, calling the atmosphere of the two series "exactly the same."[5] Viewers praised the series' style,[33] with admiration emphasized on the color design and "inventive imagery and camera tricks."[34][35]

Shaft[edit]

Team Shinbo (2004–2010)[edit]

In 2004, Shaft underwent a change in ownership: Hiroshi Wakao, the company's founder, retired, and Mitsutoshi Kubota replaced him as president. Having seen Shinbo's work on Le Portrait de Petit Cossette and The SoulTaker, and even being outsourced to for The SoulTaker,[36] Kubota became interested in working with him.[6] Kubota wanted to transform Shaft into a studio with recognizable characteristics and visual flairs in their works, and Shinbo was a director he believed could work towards that goal.[37]

Shinbo's first project as series director with Shaft was Tsukuyomi: Moon Phase, an adaptation of Keitarō Arima's manga.[38] In terms of genre, he had little experience with a series like Tsukuyomi, due to the fact that it was considered a "moe" work, which contrasts with his most well-known works from the time: The SoulTaker and Le Portrait de Petit Cossette, both of which had dark, gothic atmospheres and themes. For this reason, Shinbo believed he shouldn't add much of his signature style, and that he should instead focus on "making things properly", but was asked by the series' sponsors to add some of his aesthetics anyway.[5]

Shaft's logo since 2017.

In 2005, Shinbo and Shin Oonuma worked together as series co-directors for the first time with Pani Poni Dash!.[39] Oonuma and Shinbo, together with Tatsuya Oishi, became known as "Team Shinbo" for their work with the studio during this era of the company's history.[6] Between 2006 and 2009, Shinbo directed several more television series and OVAs with various in-house and freelance directors. In 2006: Negima!? with Oonuma;[40] in 2007: Hidamari Sketch with Ryouki Kamitsubo,[41] Sayonara, Zetsubou-Sensei by himself,[42] as well as serving as a supervisor on Oonuma's own series Ef: A Tale of Memories and its sequel Ef: A Tale of Melodies; in 2008: (Zoku) Sayonara, Zetsubou-Sensei and its sequel (Zan) Sayonara, Zetsubou-Sensei with Yukihiro Miyamoto,[43][44] and Hidamari Sketch x 365 by himself;[45] and in 2009: Maria Holic with Miyamoto,[46] Natsu no Arashi! with Oonuma and its sequel Natsu no Arashi! Akinai-chū with Oonuma and Kenichi Ishikura.[47][48] Between 2008 and 2010, the studio also produced a series of Negima! Magister Negi Magi OVAs with several guest directors working under Shinbo including Miyamoto, Tomoyuki Itamura, Hiroaki Tomita, Kōbun Shizuno, Tomokazu Tokoro, and Tatsufumi Itō,[49][50] and a series of Sayonara, Zetsubou-Sensei OVAs directed by Shinbo and Miyamoto.[43][51]

In April 2008, an anime adaptation of Nisio Isin's novel Bakemonogatari was announced.[52] Shinbo served as director with Tatsuya Oishi, who made his series directorial debut, and aired 15 episodes from 2009 to 2010. Akio Watanabe, with whom Shinbo had worked with on Starship Girl Yamamoto Yohko and Le Portrait de Petit Cossette, was brought onto the project as character designer and chief animation director.[53] Bakemonogatari received cult fame and was widely praised for its aesthetics upon its initial release, and is regarded by some critics as the series that pushed Shaft "into fame", with writers from Funimation describing it as a "hit."[22][54] Whereas most of the studio's works prior to Bakemonogatatari have been described as being light-hearted comedies (such as the Hidamari Sketch franchise, Pani Poni Dash, and Tsukuyomi: Moon Phase), the series was described as being more "episodic" and darker in nature.[55] Stylistically, Bakemonogatari was praised and is considered to be a "visually striking" production by various critics,[56][57] and in 2017, the Tokyo Anime Award Festival selected Bakemonogatari as the best anime of 2009.[58] The series was also an immediate financial success, as indicated by the 6th BD release breaking records for the number of copies sold on its first day.[59]

Madoka Magica era (2010–2013)[edit]

Around the time when Bakemonogatari was announced, Shinbo had expressed his desire to produce a magical girl series to Aniplex producer Atsuhiro Iwakami, which spawned the initial development of Puella Magi Madoka Magica. During the early planning stage, Iwakami decided on an original project to give Shinbo more freedom with his direction,[60] and to develop an anime that could appeal to a wider audience than the usual demographic that the magical girl genre was aimed towards; in other words, Shinbo and Iwakami intended for the series to be accessible to "the general anime fan."[61] Gen Urobuchi and Ume Aoki were contacted to work on the project as the scriptwriter and original character designer, respectively, and the four – Shinbo, Iwakami, Urobuchi, and Aoki– became collectively known as the "Magica Quartet."[60][62] The team agreed that the work would have a copious amount of blood and a "heavy" storyline that was unique in comparison to other magical girl series.[63][64] Yukihiro Miyamoto, who had been serving as a director with Shaft since 2008, primarily on the Sayonara, Zetsubou-Sensei series, was put on the project as series director alongside Shinbo,[65] and animation troupe Gekidan Inu Curry, who had also been working on Sayonara, Zetsubou-Sensei, were brought on to design the "Alternate Space" world.[66]

Released in 2011 to critical acclaim,[67] Madoka Magica has been cited by several critics as one of the greatest anime series of the 2010s,[68][69][70][71][72][73] and one of the greatest anime series of all time.[74][75][76] Shinbo won the best director awards at the 11th Tokyo Anime Award,[77] and the 2011 Newtype Anime Award for his work on Madoka Magica.[78] In 2017, Shinbo was also chosen by Japanese critics as one of the greatest anime directors of all time for his work on Madoka Magica.[79][80] The series was also a financial success and broke the record for the number of BD volumes sold on the first day (a record previously held by Shinbo's Bakemonogatari) with its 1st BD release,[59] which the series broke again with the following release,[81] and ultimately garnered over ¥40 billion ($400 million) from the sales of related goods by 2013.[82]

While producing the Madoka Magica franchise, Shinbo and Shaft continued production on a number of other series concurrently. In 2010: Hidamari Sketch x Hoshimittsu with Ishikura,[83] Dance in the Vampire Bund with Masahiro Sonoda,[84] Arakawa Under the Bridge and its sequel Arakawa Under the Bridge x Bridge with Miyamoto,[85] Katte ni Kaizō with Naoyuki Tatsuwa,[86] and And Yet the Town Moves by himself. In 2011, he co-directed Ground Control to Psychoelectric Girl with Miyamoto,[87] the sequel to Maria Holic, Maria Holic Alive, with Tomokazu Tokoro,[88] and he directed Hidamari Sketch x SP and Mahou Sensei Negima! Anime Finale by himself.[89][90] In 2012, he directed Hidamari Sketch x Honeycomb with Yuki Yase,[91] and this year marked the continuation of the Monogatari series with Nisemonogatari and Nekomonogatari: Black, with director Tomoyuki Itamura replacing Tatsuya Oishi as Shinbo's co-director.[92][93] In 2013, Itamura returned for Monogatari Series Second Season, with Yase and Tatsuwa being featured as series directors for the Kabukimonogatari and Onimonogatari arcs;[94] Yase also co-directed the final OVA series in the Hidamari Sketch anime franchise,[95] and Shinbo solo-directed Sasami-san@Ganbaranai as well.[96]

Mid-to-late 2010s (2014–2018)[edit]

In 2014, Shinbo directed Nisekoi with Tatsuwa,[97] Mekakucity Actors with Yase,[98] and the final arc to Monogatari Series Second Season, Hanamonogatari, with Itamura.[99] Five months later, at the end of 2014, Tsukimonogatari, the first arc in Monogatari Series Final Season, was released.[100] Throughout the next several years, Shinbo continued to direct series with Shaft's other directors, including Gourmet Girl Graffiti (2015) with Tatsuwa,[101] Nisekoi: (2015) with Miyamoto,[102] The Beheading Cycle: The Blue Savant and the Nonsense Bearer (2016–17) with Yase,[103] March Comes In like a Lion (2016–18) with Kenjirou Okada,[104] the film Fireworks (2017) with Nobuyuki Takeuchi, and Fate/Extra: Last Encore (2018) with Miyamoto.[105]

The second arc to Monogatari Series Final Season, Owarimonogatari I,[106] was released in 2015, adapting the first two of three volumes of the original Owarimonogatari novel. Every year thereafter, new series in the franchise were produced, with Koyomimonogatari being released in 2016,[107] and Owarimonogatari II being released in 2017,[108] all of which were co-directed with Itamura. At the same time, however, Tatsuya Oishi had been busy working on the Kizumonogatari trilogy, which had started 4 to 6 years prior, and also involved Shinbo as chief director.[109][110][111] The same year as Kizumonogatari III and Owarimonogatari II's release, however, Itamura left the studio, and Oishi seemingly disappeared from the anime industry. Both director's absence as co-directors led to Shinbo directing Zoku Owarimonogatari, the final novel in Final Season, by himself.[112] The series, initially released as a film in 2018, is the only arc in the Monogatari series directed solely by Shinbo, solely by one director, and the first time he had solo-directed a project since 2013 (Sasami-san@Ganbaranai). In 2019, he stated that the Monogatari series was his life's work, and that he intended to continue adapting the series and Nisio Isin's other novels.[113]

Hiatus and return (2019–present)[edit]

Shinbo and studio Shaft took a hiatus from major animation works in 2019. The only major product from the team that year was the televised release of Zoku Owarimonogatari.[114] The following year, they returned for the adaptation of the spin-off Madoka Magica series Magia Record: Puella Magi Madoka Magica Side Story. Despite the return of Shaft, the series was not directed by Shinbo; instead, Doroinu (one of the two members of Gekidan Inu Curry), who was partially responsible for the original Madoka Magica's alternate space design, served as chief director, and Shinbo served as animation supervisor.[115] Shaft directors Yukihiro Miyamoto (who directed the original series and film trilogy with Shinbo), Kenjirou Okada, and Midori Yoshizawa all served as directors under Doroinu.

Shaft's next work, Assault Lily Bouquet, however, did not feature any involvement from Shinbo whatsoever, the first time since 2007 (Kino's Journey: Country of Illness -For You-) that he was not involved with one of the studio's large projects. In 2021, he returned to the director's chair with an adaptation of Nisio Isin's Pretty Boy Detective Club, which he co-directed with Hajime Ootani.[116] In April of the same year, it was announced that Puella Magi Madoka Magica: Rebellion (2013), the final film in the Madoka Magica trilogy remake, would receive a sequel with Shinbo returning as chief director,[117] and the 2nd season to Magia Record was announced to be airing in July, again with Doroinu chief directing and Shinbo supervising the animation.[118]

Works[edit]

Inspirations, style, and influence[edit]

Shinbo has listed Hiroshi Motomiya and Ikki Kajiwara among his favorite mangaka authors, and that their works have been a large inspiration for him.[5] Several aspects of the style he presents in his series have been directly inspired by other medias, such as television series and various novels; for example, The SoulTaker was heavily influenced by the style of novelist Hiroshi Motohiro, and the set designs for Tsukuyomi: Moon Phase were inspired by the television series Kitaro Tareuchi Family and It's Time.[5] The mystery elements in The SoulTaker and Le Portrait de Petit Cossette were influenced by the works of Edogawa Ranpo, whom Shinbo had started reading from in elementary school.[5]

Shinbo focuses more on visual representation, style, and "good pictures" in his works rather than traditional storytelling or strong narratives, and has said that he "hates making ordinary stuff."[5] As a director, his style isn't entirely the product of his own innovation, but rather a mix of his own experimentations as well as techniques and ideas from those he has worked with throughout his career.[5] On Yu Yu Hakusho, Shinbo worked with Motosuke Takahashi (who was a storyboard artist on the series) and to whom Shinbo attributes as being a "mentor" to his directing. The realistic qualities in his characters have been attributed to influence by Yoshimitsu Ōhashi, whom Shinbo worked with during production of the 6th episode of Devil Hunter Yohko.[5] Later on in his career, Shinbo's employment of "dabbing" and "smacking", visual techniques that place an object in front of the subject for composition, became a recognizable part of his style; he thought it was cool and learned this technique from Mamoru Sasaki while working on New Hurricane Polymar.[5]

Many of the techniques Shinbo began employing at Shaft weren't just his own, however, as much of his own style comes from animators, producers, and other directors. Shinbo's own style is largely the basis for Shaft's signature style, but Shinbo's style itself is not the sole foundation for the studio's productions, as it's more of a "collaboration between Shaft and SIMBO [sic]".[37] This style has been described as including pictures taken from real life cut into scenes, art shifts, beat panels (despite working in the animation medium), kabuki sound effects, textures that remain stationary when the textured object moves, showing symbols or defining parts of a character (ahoge, hair decorations, foreheads, or other symbols) in place of character shots during dialogue, written text in place, precise use of fan service, and head-turning cinematography (head-tilting).[6] Shaft was very open to Shinbo's experimentation, to which he stated that they "put up with my requests wonderfully", which gave him and the staff newfound creative control and availability for artistic expression over their projects. Prior to working at Shaft, Shinbo already had a philosophy of "mix[ing] participating staffer’s feelings, not only mine", so the studio's work ethic matched well with his ideas.[5] Even so, Masahiro Mukai, who worked under Shinbo on Puella Magi Madoka Magica and Arakawa Under the Bridge, noted that many of the decisions Shinbo made as a director would be based solely on whether or not he thought certain ideas were cool or whether or not he had grown tired of certain them, and that "He was an interesting mentor."[119]

Shinbo brought to Shaft various other creators he had met throughout his career with the industry from the 90s and early 2000s. Shin Oonuma and Tatsuya Oishi joined the studio with him, and the three created what was called "Team Shinbo."[6] Throughout the following years of his career, Shinbo mentored several directors from the studio, including Nobuyuki Takeuchi, Kenichi Ishikura, Ryouki Kamitsubo, Shinichi Omata, Doroinu from Gekidan Inu Curry, Masahiro Mukai, Yuki Yase, Naoyuki Tatsuwa, Tomoyuki Itamura, Yukihiro Miyamoto, Hajime Ootani, Kenjirou Okada, and Midori Yoshizawa.

Notes[edit]

General notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternatively romanized as Hitoshi Shiiya, the name was originally used as a pseudonym by the staff of Shaft, but was used for Shinbo's storyboards on the Hidamari Sketch series.
  2. ^ Sōji Homura's storyboards were named as "Shinbo's" storyboards by Shaft.[1]
  3. ^ Stylized by Shinbo himself as Akiyuki Simbo.[2]

Works cited[edit]

  • Rubin, Lucy Paige (2017). Between Comedy and Despair: The House Style of Studio Shaft (Bachelor of the Arts). Wesleyan University. Retrieved May 24, 2021.

References[edit]

  1. ^ @shaft_official (September 19, 2015). "【京まふ2015】「ef - a tale of memories.」第2話の新房氏の絵コンテ。屋上での紘とみやこのシーンです。" [[Kyo Mafu 2015] Shinbo's storyboard in the second episode of "ef - a tale of memories." This is the scene with Miyako Miyamura on the roof.] (Tweet) (in Japanese). Retrieved October 1, 2020 – via Twitter.
  2. ^ "Akiyuki Simbo". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020. Although Akiyuki Simbo's name is read & pronounced "Shinbo" in Japanese, Simbo is his chosen romanization and ANN has been asked to use Simbo.
  3. ^ "まちかどリポート" [Machikado Report] (pdf). Koori, Fukushima (in Japanese). Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Interview: Akiyuki Shinbo (WEB Anime Style 2/14/2005) Part 1". Wave Motion Cannon. Translated by Morissy, Kim. October 30, 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Interview: Akiyuki Shinbo (Animage February 2005/Vol 320)". Wave Motion Cannon. Translated by Park, Hyun. November 15, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e Creamer, Nick (January 18, 2017). "The Secret of Studio SHAFT". AnimeNewsNetwork. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  7. ^ "Saturn - Metal Fighter Miku - Staff Credits" (in Japanese). Raido. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  8. ^ Ross, Carlos. "Devil Hunter Yohko". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  9. ^ Shepard, Chris (April 12, 2002). "Review - Yamamoto Yohko, Starship Girl - DVD". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  10. ^ "Yamamoto Yohko, Starship Girl". AnimeWorld. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  11. ^ Beard, Jeremy A. "Starship Girl Yamamoto Yohko". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  12. ^ Ross, Carlos. "Starship Girl Yamamoto Yohko TV". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  13. ^ "Review - Debutante Detective Corps (new dub)". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  14. ^ "Review - Galaxy Fraulein Yuna Returns - VHS". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  15. ^ Galaxy Fräulein Yuna (in Japanese). Event occurs at ending credits. Escript-quote=ja:絵コンテ - 新房昭之 [Storyboard artist - Akiyuki Shinbo]
  16. ^ Sevakis, Justin (March 13, 2008). "Buried Treasure - Twilight of the Dark Master". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  17. ^ Dong, Bamboo (June 7, 2004). "Shelf Life". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  18. ^ Macdonald, Christopher. "Review - Tenamonya Voyagers DVD". AnimeNewsNetwork. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  19. ^ Crandol, Mike (April 19, 2002). "Review - SoulTaker DVD 1: The Monster Within". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  20. ^ Beard, Jeremy A. "The Soul Taker". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  21. ^ Toole, Michael (June 2, 2013). "The Mike Toole Show - Tatsunoko Time". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  22. ^ a b Inoa, Christopher (August 27, 2019). "Bakemonogatari pushed studio Shaft into the spotlight". Polygon. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  23. ^ Takase, Kōji. "エロ年代の想像力 #10 南澤十八/新房昭之試論のための覚書". vobo.jp (in Japanese). Core Magazine. Retrieved April 25, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. ^ Rubin 2017, p. 20.
  25. ^ "Drama Data Entry - Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha (1)" (in Japanese). Furusaki Yasunari. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  26. ^ a b Jones, Tim. "Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  27. ^ Kimlinger, Carl (December 15, 2008). "Review - Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha DVD - Box Set". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  28. ^ "'Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha'". ICv2. July 2, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  29. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn. "Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha Creator Launches ViVid Strike! TVV Anime Series in October (Updated)". Anime News Network. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  30. ^ Hodgkins, Crystalyn (September 13, 2018). "Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha Detonation Anime Film Reveals New Visual, 3 More Cast Members". Anime News Network. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  31. ^ "Interview: Akiyuki Shinbo (WEB Anime Style 2/14/2005) Part 2". Wave Motion Cannon. July 11, 2017.
  32. ^ Tiu, Diane. "Le Portrait de Petit Cossette". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  33. ^ Morton, Bryan (February 5, 2007). "Le Portrait de Petite Cossette". Mania Entertainment. Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  34. ^ Martin, Theron (September 15, 2005). "Petit Cossette DVD 1 - Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  35. ^ Beveridge, Chris (April 25, 2010). "Le Portraite Petite Cossette". Mania Entertainment. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  36. ^ The SoulTaker (in Japanese). Event occurs at ending credits; episode 10. 制作協力 - シャフト [Production assistance - Shaft]
  37. ^ a b Jones, Evan (November 8, 2016). "Interview: Studio SHAFT president Mitsutoshi Kubota". AnimeNewsNetwork. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
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Further reading[edit]

  • "Negima!?" (November 2006). Newtype USA. p. 10.

External links[edit]