Axel Waldemar Gallén
26 April 1865
|Died||7 March 1931 (aged 65)|
|Movement||Romantic nationalism, Realism, Symbolism|
Akseli Gallen-Kallela (26 April 1865 – 7 March 1931) was a Finnish painter who is best known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, below). His work is considered very important for the Finnish national identity. He changed his name from Gallén to Gallen-Kallela in 1907.
Gallen-Kallela was born Axel Waldemar Gallén in Pori, Finland in a Swedish-speaking family. His father Peter Gallén worked as police chief and lawyer. Gallen-Kallela was raised in Tyrvää. At the age of 11 he was sent to Helsinki to study at a grammar school, because his father opposed his ambition to become a painter. After his father's death in 1879, Gallen-Kallela attended drawing classes at the Finnish Art Society (1881–1884) and studied privately under Adolf von Becker.
In 1884 he moved to Paris, to study at the Académie Julian. In Paris he became friends with the Finnish painter Albert Edelfelt, the Norwegian painter Carl Dörnberger, and the Swedish writer August Strindberg.
He married Mary Slöör in 1890. The couple had three children, Impi Marjatta, Kirsti and Jorma. On their honeymoon to East Karelia, Gallen-Kallela started collecting material for his depictions of the Kalevala. This period is characterized by romantic paintings of the Kalevala, like the Aino Myth, and by several landscape paintings.
In March 1895, he received a telegram that his daughter Impi Marjatta had died from diphtheria. This would prove to be a turning point in his work. While his works had previously been romantic, after his daughter's death Gallen-Kallela painted more aggressive works like the Defense of the Sampo, Joukahainen's Revenge, Kullervo Cursing and Lemminkäinen's Mother.
On his return from Germany, Gallen studied print-making and visited London to deepen his knowledge, and in 1898 studied fresco-painting in Italy.
For the Paris World Fair in 1900, Gallen-Kallela painted frescoes for the Finnish Pavilion. In these frescoes, his political ideas became most apparent. One of the vipers in the fresco Ilmarinen Plowing the Field of Vipers is wearing the Romanov crown, and the process of removing the vipers from the field was a clear reference to his wish for an independent Finland.
The Paris Exposition secured Gallen-Kallela's stature as the leading Finnish artist. In 1901 he was commissioned to paint the fresco, Kullervo Goes to War, for the concert hall of the Helsinki Student's Union. Between 1901 and 1903 he painted the frescoes for the Jusélius Mausoleum in Pori, memorializing the 11-year-old daughter of the industrialist F.A. Jusélius. (The frescoes were soon damaged by dampness, and were completely destroyed by fire in December 1931. Jusélius assigned the artist's son Jorma to repaint them from the original sketches. The reconstruction was completed just before Jorma's death in 1939.)
Gallen-Kallela officially finnicized his name to the more Finnish-sounding Akseli Gallen-Kallela in 1907.
In 1909, Gallen-Kallela moved to Nairobi in Kenya with his family, he was the first Finnish artist to travel south of the Sahara, and there he painted over 150 expressionist oil paintings and bought many east African artefacts. But he returned to Finland after a couple of years, because he realized Finland was his main inspiration. Between 1911 and 1913 he designed and built a studio and house at Tarvaspää, about 10 km northwest of the centre of Helsinki.
In 1918, Gallen-Kallela and his son Jorma took part in the fighting at the front of the Finnish Civil War. When the regent, General Mannerheim, later heard about this, he invited Gallen-Kallela to design the flags, official decorations and uniforms for the newly independent Finland. For the flag, Gallen-Kallela proposed a white-blue cross flag, with colors inverted (white cross on blue), but this was considered too similar to the Swedish flag and particularly the Greek flag of the time. In 1919 he was appointed aide-de-camp to Mannerheim.
From December 1923 to May 1926, Gallen-Kallela lived in the United States, where an exhibition of his work toured several cities, and where he visited the Taos art-colony in New Mexico to study indigenous American art. In 1925 he began the illustrations for his "Great Kalevala". This was still unfinished when he died of pneumonia in Stockholm on 7 March 1931, while returning from a lecture in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Boy with a Crow (Poika ja varis) (1884), at the Ateneum in Helsinki
- The Old Woman and the Cat (Akka ja kissa) (1885), at the Ateneum in Helsinki
- Démasquée (1888)
- In the Sauna (Saunassa) (1889)
- Ahlström family (1890)
- The Aino Myth, triptych (Aino-taru) (1891), at the Ateneum in Helsinki
- Mäntykoski Waterfall (1892)
- A Winter Scene From Imatra (1893)
- The Forging of the Sampo (Sammon taonta) (1893)
- Symposion (1894)
- Jean Sibelius (1894)
- Lake Ruovesi (1896), at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow
- The Defense of the Sampo (Sammon puolustus) (1896)
- Lemminkäinen's Mother (Lemminkäisen äiti) (1897)
- Moonlit Night (1897), at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow
- The Fratricide (Velisurmaaja) (1897), at the Ateneum in Helsinki
- Joukahainen's Revenge (Joukahaisen kosto) (1897)
- Kullervo's Curse (Kullervon kirous) (1899)
- Kullervo Rides to War (Kullervon sotaanlähtö|Kullervon sotaanlähtö) (1901)
- Lake Keitele (1905), at the National Gallery in London
- Ad Astra (1907)
- Väinämöinen's Boat Journey (1909)
- Martin, T. & Pusa, E. 1985, p. 5.
- "Akseli Gallen-Kallela (1865-1931). A Passion for Finland". Musée d'Orsay. 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- Martin, T. & Pusa, E. 1985, p. 6.
- Reitala, Aimo (1997). "Gallen-Kallela, Akseli (1865–1931)". 100 Faces from Finland – a Biographical Kaleidoscope. Biographical Centre of the Finnish Literature Society. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Martin, T. & Pusa, E. 1985, p. 12.
- Martin, T. & Pusa, E. 1985, p. 37.
- Martin, T. & Pusa, E. 1985, p. 38
- Martin, T. & Pusa, E. 1985, p. 39.
- "Gallen-Kallela 150 years". Gallen-Kallela Museum. Gallen-Kallela Museum. 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
- Ringbom, Sixten (1996). "Gallen-Kallela, Akseli (1865–1931), painter, graphic artist, designer". Grove Art Online. Oxford Index. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Akseli Gallen-Kallela, De magie van Finland, Groninger Museum, NAI Uitgevers, 2006, ISBN 90-5662-524-1
- Martin, T. & Pusa, E., Akseli Gallen-Kallela, 1865-1931 / Erja Pusa [translation: John Derome]. Tarvaspää: Gallen-Kallela Museum, 1985. OCLC 29071282
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