Al-Aziz Uthman

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Al-Aziz Uthman
العزيز عثمان
Al-Malik Al-Aziz
Sultan of Egypt
Reign4 March 1193 – 29 November 1198
SuccessorAl-Mansur Nasir al-Din Muhammad
Died29 November 1198 (aged 27)
Al-Malik Al-Aziz Uthman Ibn Salah Ad-Din Yusuf
ReligionSunni Islam

Al-Malik Al-Aziz Uthman ibn Salah Ad-Din Yusuf (1171 – 29 November 1198) was the second Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt. He was the second son of Saladin.[1]

Before his death, Saladin had divided his dominions amongst his kin: Al-Afdal received Palestine and Syria, al-Aziz was made ruler of Egypt, Al-Zahir received Aleppo, Al-Adil I received Karak and Shawbak, and Turan-Shah retained Yemen. Conflict soon broke out between them with Al-Adil becoming the undisputed ruler of Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Yemen.[2]

Despite Al-Aziz having specifically inherited suzerainty over the whole Ayyubid empire, soon he had to face revolts by the Zengid emirs of Mosul and by the Artuqids in southern Iraq. When Al-Afdal expelled all the ministers left by his father to support him, they came to Egypt, asking Al-Aziz to reconquer Syria. In 1194, Al-Aziz besieged Damascus. Al-Afdal asked for help from Saladin's brother, Al-Adil I, who met Al-Aziz and managed to bring about a reconciliation.

In 1195, Al-Aziz again attacked Syria, but Al-Afdal was able to persuade some of the Emirs of Al-Aziz's army to desert. Later Al-Adil allied with al-Aziz against Al-Afdal, who was besieged and captured in Damascus on 3 July 1196. Al-Afdal was exiled to Salkhad, while Al-Aziz was proclaimed supreme overlord of the Ayyubid Empire. However, most of the effective power was in the hands of Al-Adil I, who installed himself in Damascus.

During his reign, Al-Aziz tried to demolish the Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt, but had to give up because the task was too big. He succeeded in damaging Menkaure's Pyramid.[3][4] Al-Aziz also played an important role in the history of the building enterprises and construction at Banias and Subaybah.[5] He died in a hunting accident in late 1198. He was interred in the tomb of his elder brother Al-Mu'azzam.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lyons, M. C.; Jackson, D.E.P. (1982). Saladin: the Politics of the Holy War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31739-9.
  2. ^ Ali, Abdul. Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization during the Later Medieval times. New Delhi: M D Publications Pvt, 1996. Print.
  3. ^ Stewert, Desmond and editors of the Newsweek Book Division "The Pyramids and Sphinx" 1971 p. 101
  4. ^ Lehner, Mark The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames and Hudson (1997)p.41 ISBN 0-500-05084-8.
  5. ^ Sharon, Moshe (1999). Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae: B v. 1 (Handbook of Oriental Studies) (Hardcover ed.). Brill Publishers. p. 49. ISBN 90-04-11083-6.
  6. ^ Humphreys, R. Stephen. From Saladin to the Mongols: the Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260. Albany: State University of New York, 1977. Print.
Al-Aziz Uthman
Born: 1171 Died: 29 November 1198
Regnal titles
Preceded by Sultan of Egypt
1193 – 29 November 1198
Succeeded by