Abu Kamal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Al-Bukamal)
Jump to: navigation, search
Abu Kamal
البوكمال
The entrance to Al Bukamal from the town of Al-Salihiyah
The entrance to Al Bukamal from the town of Al-Salihiyah
Abu Kamal is located in Syria
Abu Kamal
Abu Kamal
Location in Syria
Coordinates: 34°27′13″N 40°56′12″E / 34.45361°N 40.93667°E / 34.45361; 40.93667Coordinates: 34°27′13″N 40°56′12″E / 34.45361°N 40.93667°E / 34.45361; 40.93667
Country  Syria
Governorate Deir ez-Zor
District Abu Kamal
Occupation Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Elevation 175 m (574 ft)
Population (2004 census)[1]
 • Total 42,510
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) +3 (UTC)

Abu Kamal or Al-Bukamal (Arabic: البوكمال‎‎) is a city on the Euphrates river in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate of eastern Syria near the border with Iraq. It is the administrative centre of the Abu Kamal District and the local subdistrict (Abu Kamal Subdistrict). Just to the south-east is the Al-Qa'im border crossing to the town of Husaybah in the Al-Qa'im District of Iraq's Al Anbar Governorate.

Abu Kamal is the administrative center of Abu Kamal Subdistrict and the Abu Kamal District.

Etymology[edit]

During the Ottoman time, Abu Kamal was called kışla, pronounced locally as "qashla", which is a Turkish word for "military barracks". This name "Qashla" is still used by some inhabitants of the area, especially by elderly villagers.[citation needed] The name "Al-Bukamal" (Arabic: البوكمال‎‎) means "the family of Kamal", Kamal being the tribe that lives there, whereas the name "Abu Kamal" means "the father of Kamal".

History[edit]

In the 17th century, Abu Kamal was the seat of an Ottoman sanjak in the Eyalet of Ar Ruha, modern Şanlıurfa. It was a kaza (subdistrict) center within Zor Mutasarrıflığı (District of Zor) until the end of Ottoman rule in 1918.[2] In 1896, the old mud village was relocated a mile upstream because it was in danger of being ruined by flooding. The new village was built from stone and had wide streets.[3] The village and its subdistrict formed the center of the Arab Uqaydat tribe and was largely Sunni Muslim, with the exception of a small Christian community from Deir ez-Zor and Mosul.[3] At the beginning of the 20th century, it contained eighty houses, the residence of the kaymakam (kaza governor), a police station, a ferry, and had a population of about 500. The kaza of Abu Kamal in 1890 a population of 15,000.[3]

France occupied Abu Kamal together with Deir ez-Zor in 1921 and made it the seat of a large garrison. In 1946 it became part of independent Syria. The region's position at the border of Syria and Iraq, especially after the US invasion of Iraq, has made it an important commercial as well as political center.

On 27 October 2008, four US helicopters carried out a raid on the village of Sukkariyeh in Abu Kamal district. It was the first known raid inside Syria by the US. News reports indicate that at least seven people were killed, four of them children.[4][5][6] Abu Kamal is located near to Al-Qa'im, a crossing point for the Iraqi insurgency and the location of Operation Steel Curtain in November, 2005. The Syrian Foreign Minister Walid Muallem stated that "Killing civilians in international law means a terrorist aggression." [7]

Civil war[edit]

During the Syrian civil war, in late July 2012, FSA took it over along with its associated border post with Iraq. In early September 2012, France 24 reported that the Hamdan military airport was under attack by FSA.[citation needed] On 16 November 2012, FSA took over the nearby Hamdan military airport, which was once used to transport farm produce, but was converted to a base for helicopters and military tanks. The capture of Hamdan meant that the Syrian Army forces now only held one air base in the province - the main military airport in Deir ez-Zor city.[8] As of 2014, the ISIL was in control of the city.[9] On 3 July, SOHR said that city of Mayadin, the second biggest town in Deir Ezzor province, was also "now under IS control, after Al-Nusra Front evacuated its headquarters there, and IS raised its banner". On 3 July, SOHR said that all towns and villages on the route from Abu Kamal to Al-Bab, passing through the Raqqa province, were under IS control,""[10][11] It was also the target of a Syrian opposition attack during the 2016 Abu Kamal offensive.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Abu Kamal (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
16.4
(61.5)
20.8
(69.4)
26.5
(79.7)
32.8
(91)
37.7
(99.9)
40.6
(105.1)
39.9
(103.8)
36.5
(97.7)
29.7
(85.5)
21.5
(70.7)
15.1
(59.2)
27.6
(81.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
9.9
(49.8)
14.0
(57.2)
19.6
(67.3)
25.2
(77.4)
29.2
(84.6)
32.6
(90.7)
31.6
(88.9)
27.8
(82)
21.6
(70.9)
14.0
(57.2)
8.8
(47.8)
20.1
(68.2)
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
3.9
(39)
7.2
(45)
12.0
(53.6)
16.7
(62.1)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
23.2
(73.8)
19.0
(66.2)
13.8
(56.8)
7.2
(45)
3.4
(38.1)
12.8
(55)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 23.2
(0.913)
17.7
(0.697)
24.3
(0.957)
22.0
(0.866)
7.5
(0.295)
0.7
(0.028)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.012)
7.2
(0.283)
10.3
(0.406)
21.9
(0.862)
135.1
(5.319)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.3 3.2 3.5 2.7 1.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.4 1.8 3.5 22.0
Source: NOAA[12]


Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "General Census of Population and Housing 2004" (PDF) (in Arabic). Syrian Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 15 October 2015.  Also available in English: "2004 Census Data". UN OCHA. Retrieved 15 October 2015. 
  2. ^ http://tarihvemedeniyet.org/ekutuphane107
  3. ^ a b c A Handbook of Mesopotamia, Volume III: Central Mesopotamia with Southern Kurdistan and the Syrian Desert. Admirality and War Office, Division of Intelligence. January 1917. p. 120. 
  4. ^ "BBC NEWS - Middle East - 'US helicopter raid' inside Syria". Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  5. ^ Al-Jazeera(Arabic)
  6. ^ The Associated Press Archived October 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Syria hits out at 'terrorist' US". Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  8. ^ Solomon, Erika (Nov 17, 2012). "Syria rebels say seize airport near Iraqi border". Reuters. Retrieved Nov 17, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Profile: Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIS)". BBC News. Jan 6, 2014. Retrieved Jan 13, 2014. 
  10. ^ "IS Takes Over Towns, Countryside in Oil-Rich Syria Province: NGO". NDTV.com. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  11. ^ "Syria Iraq: The Islamic State militant group". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  12. ^ "Abu Kamal Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 26, 2017. 

External links[edit]