The Exile, The Banishment
|Other names||Banishment, Exodus, The Mustering, The Gathering|
|No. of Rukus||3|
|No. of verses||24|
Surah al-Hashr (Arabic: سورة الحشر, "The Exile") is the 59th chapter (surah) of the Qur'an and has 24 verses. The chapter is named al-hashr because the word hashr, meaning 'exile' or 'banishment', appears in verse 2, describing the expulsion of Jewish Banu Nadir tribe from their settlements. The surah features 15 attributes of God in the last three verses. A similitude is given in verse 21. Verse 6 may be related to the controversies of the land of Fadak.
In the opening Ayah (verse) of Surah Al-Hashr Allah proclaims: “Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.”
In Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir explained the significance of the Ayah. He wrote: “Everything glorifies Allah in its own way. Allah states that everything that exists in the heavens and on the earth praises, glorifies, reveres and prays to Him and affirms His Oneness.
“Allah said in another Ayah: ‘The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise. But you understand not their glorification.’ (17:44)”
The last four Ayat of Surah Al-Hashr read:
21. Had We sent down this Qur’an on a mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and rent asunder by the fear of Allah. Such are the parables which We put forward to mankind that they may reflect. 22. He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. 23. He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, Al-Malik, Al-Quddus, As-Salam, Al-Mu’min, Al-Muhaymin, Al-Aziz, Al-Jabbar, Al-Mutakabbir. Glory be to Allah! Above all that they associate as partners with Him. 24. He is Allah, Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir. To Him belong the Best Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.”
La ilaha illa Huwa means (there is) no god but He.
Commenting on Ayah 21, Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir wrote: “Allah the Exalted emphasizes the greatness of the Qur’an, its high status and of being worthy of making hearts humble and rent asunder upon hearing it, because of the true promises and sure threats that it contains
“ ‘Had We sent down this Qur’an on a mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and rent asunder by the fear of Allah.’
“If this is the case with a mountain which is hard and huge, that if it was made able to comprehend and understand this Qur’an, [it] will feel humble and crumble from fear of Allah the Exalted, then what about you – O mankind? Why do your hearts not feel softness and humbleness from the fear of Allah, even though you understand Allah’s command and comprehend His Book? This is why Allah said,
“ ‘Such are the parables which We put forward to mankind that they may reflect.’ "
Commenting on Ayah 22, Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir wrote: “Allah states that He Alone is worthy of worship, there is no Lord or God for the existence, except Him. All that is being worshipped instead of Allah are false deities. Allah is the All-Knower in the unseen and the seen, He knows all that pertains to the creations that we see, and those we cannot see. Nothing in heaven or on earth ever escapes His knowledge, no matter how great or insignificant, big or small, including ants in darkness.
“Allah’s statement, ‘He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful’ . . . asserts that Allah is the Owner of the wide encompassing mercy that entails all of His creation. He is Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim of this life and the Hereafter.”
Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir then set out the meaning of Allah’s Names that are listed in Ayah 23. He wrote that Al Malik means "The Owner and King of all things, Who has full power over them without resistance or hindrance".
He explained that Al-Quddus, means "‘The Pure’, according to Wahb bin Munabbih, while Mujahid and Qatadah said that Al-Quddus means ‘The Blessed’. Ibn Jurayj said that Al-Quddus means ‘He whom the honourable angels glorify'."
As-Salam, means "Free from any defects or shortcomings that lessen or decrease His perfect attributes and actions" while Al-Mu’min means one "Who has granted safety to His servants by promising that He will never be unjust to them.
"According to Ad-Dahhak who reported it from Ibn ‘Abbas. Qatadah said that Al-Mu’min means that ‘Allah affirms that His statements are true’, while Ibn Zayd said that it means, ‘He attested to His faithful servants’ having faith in Him."
“Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir noted that Al-Muhaymin meant "according to Ibn ‘Abbas and others, ‘The Witness for His servants actions’, that is the Ever-Watcher over them."
Al-Aziz means "He is the Almighty, Dominant over all things. Therefore, His majesty is never violated, due to His might, greatness, irresistible power and pride".
Al-Jabbar, Al-Mutakabbir means "The Only One worthy of being the Compeller and Supreme. There is a Hadith in the Sahih Collection in which Allah said: ‘Might is my Izar and pride is My Rida; if anyone disputes any one of them with Me, then I will punish him.’”
Commenting on Ayah 24 Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir wrote:
“ ‘He is Allah, Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir.’
“Al-Khaliq refers to measuring and proportioning, Al-Bari refers to inventing and bringing into existence What he has created and measured. Surely, none except Allah is able to measure, bring forth and create whatever He wills to come to existence.
- Ibn Kathir, Al-Hafiz. Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Vol 9 Abridged English July 2003 2nd ed.). Riyadh: Darussalam. pp. 542–543.
- Ibn Kathir, Al-Hafiz. Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Vol 9 Abridged English July 2003 2nd ed.). Riyadh: Darussalam. pp. 575–581.
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