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Names of God in Islam

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Names of God in Islam (Arabic: أَسْمَاءُ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā, "Allah's Beautiful Names") are names attributed to God in Islam by Muslims. These names usually denote his praise, gratitude, commendation, glorification, magnification, perfect attributes, majestic qualities, and acts of wisdom, mercy, benefit, and justice from Allah, as believed by Muslims. These names are commonly called upon by Muslims during prayers, supplications, and remembrance, as they hold significant spiritual and theological importance, serving as a means for Muslims to connect with God. Each name reflects a specific attribute of Allah and serves as a means for believers to understand and relate to the Divine.

Some names are known from either the Qur’an or the hadith, while others can be found in both sources, although most are found in the Qur’an.[1] Additionally, Muslims also believe that there are more names of God besides those found in the Qur'an and hadith, and that God has kept knowledge of these names hidden with himself, and no one else knows them completely and fully except him.

List of names[edit]

There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what exactly counts as a name of God, and what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, and others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both. Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.

The following list is based on the one found in the Jamiʿ at-Tirmidhi (9th century), which is the most commonly known.[citation needed] Other hadiths, such as those of al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi or Ibn ʿAsākir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.[citation needed] al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This (version of the) hadith is gharib [unusual]; it has been narrated from various routes on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the mention of the Names in the numerous narrations, except this one."

Various early Muslim exegetes, including Jaʿfar al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.

Pronunciation Classical Arabic

(Quranic/ classical written forms)[2]

Romanization Translation Reference

1
اَلرَّحْمَـٰنِ ar-Raḥmān The Beneficent/ All-Compassionate/ Most Gracious/ Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. The first Ayah (verse) of Surah ar-Raḥman (Surah 55) consists only of this name.
2 اَلرَّحِيْمُ ar-Raḥīm The Most Merciful/ Ever-Merciful/ Merciful/ Most Clement Quran: Beginning of every Surah except one, and numerous other places.
3 اَلْمَلِكُ al-Malik The King/ Lord/ Sovereign/ Dominion/ Master

[also means "the God/ Lord, the One and Only", "Possessor of Supreme Power or Authority"]

59:23, 20:114, 23:116
4 اَلْقُدُّوسُ al-Quddūs The Holy/ All-Holy/ All-Pure/ Sacred/ All-Sacred 59:23, 62:1
5 ٱلسَّلَامُ as-Salām The Giver of Peace/ Peace/ All-Calm/ Ever-Tranquil 59:23
6 ٱلْمُؤْمِنُ al-Muʾmin The Granter of Security/ the Giver/ Faith/ Supreme Believer (of Belief)/ Giver of Belief/ All-Assurer 59:23
7 ٱلْمُهَيْمِنُ al-Muhaymin The Controller/ Absolute Authority Over All/ Guardian Over All/ Absolute Master/ Eternal Dominating 59:23
8 ٱلْعَزِيزُ al-ʿAzīz The Exalted in Might and Power/ Exalted/ Powerful/ Almighty/ Mighty 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23
9 ٱلْجَبَّارُ al-Jabbār The Omnipotent/ Supreme Power/ Possessor of Having All Power/ Strong [https://59:23
10 ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرُ al-Mutakabbir The Possessor of Greatness/ Supreme/ Justly Proud 59:23
11 ٱلْخَالِقُ al-Khāliq The Creator/ Creator of the Universe/ Maker/ True Originator/ Absolute Author 6:102, 13:16,[3] 36:81, [https:39:62, 40:62, 59:24
12 ٱلْبَارِئُ al-Bāriʾ The Initiator/ Evolver/ Eternal Spirit Worshipped By All, Have Absolute Power Over All Matters, Nature and Events 59:24
13 ٱلْمُصَوِّرُ al-Muṣawwir The Fashioner/ Shaper/ Designer/ Artist 59:24
14 ٱلْغَفَّارُ al-Ghaffār The Repeatedly Forgiving/ Absolute Forgiver/ Pardoner/ Condoner

[He Who is Ready to Pardon and Forgive]

20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10
15 ٱلْقَهَّارُ al-Qahhār The Subduer/ Overcomer/ Conqueror/ Absolute Vanquisher

[Possessor of Who Subdues Evil and Oppression]

12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16
16 ٱلْوَهَّابُ al-Wahhāb The Absolute Bestower/ Giver/ Grantor/ Great Donor 38:9, 38:35
17 ٱلرَّزَّاقُ ar-Razzāq The Provider/ Sustainer/ Bestower of Sustenance/ All-Provider 51:58
18 ٱلْفَتَّاحُ al-Fattāḥ The Opener/ Opener of the Gates of Profits/ Reliever/ The Victory Giver 34:26
19 ٱلْعَلِيمُ al-ʿAlīm The Knowing/ All-Knower/ Omniscient/ All-Knowledgeable/ Possessor of Knowing Much of Ever Thing/ All-Knowing 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40
20 ٱلْقَابِضُ al-Qābiḍ The Restrainer/ Withholder/ Straightener/ Absolute Seizer 2:245
21 ٱلْبَاسِطُ al-Bāsiṭ The Extender/ Expander/ Generous Provider 2:245
22 ٱلْخَافِضُ al-Khāfiḍ The Abaser/ Humiliator/ Downgrader [Possessor of Giving Comfort, Free from Pain Anxiety or Troubles] 56:3; al-Kafʿamī (1992:38)
23 ٱلرَّافِعُ ar-Rāfiʿ The Exalter/ Upgrader [of Ranks] 58:11, 6:83
24 ٱلْمُعِزُّ al-Muʿizz The Giver of Honor/ Bestower of Honor/ Empowerer 3:26
25 ٱلْمُذِلُّ al-Muḏill The Giver of Dishonor/ the Giver of Disgrace 3:26
26 ٱلسَّمِيعُ as-Samīʿ The Hearing/ All-Hearing/ Hearer of Invocation 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1
27 ٱلْبَصِيرُ al-Baṣīr The All-Seeing/ All-Seer/ Ever-Clairvoyant/ Clear-Sighted/ Clear-Seeing 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27
28 ٱلْحَكَمُ al-Ḥakam The Judge/ Arbitrator/ Arbiter/ All-Decree/ Possessor of Authority of Decisions and Judgment 22:69
29 ٱلْعَدْلُ al-ʿAdl The Just/ Authorized and Straightforward Judge of Dealing Justly Not Quranic, see al-Kafʿamī (1992:40)
30 ٱللَّطِيفُ al-Laṭīf The Gentle/ Benignant/ Subtly Kind/ All-Subtle 22:63, 31:16, 33:34
31 ٱلْخَبِيرُ al-Khabīr The All-Aware/ Well-Acquainted/ Ever-Adept 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18
32 ٱلْحَلِيمُ al-Ḥalīm The Forbearing/ Indulgent/ Oft Forbearing/ All-Enduring 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41
33 ٱلْعَظِيمُ al-ʿAẓīm The Most Great/ Ever-Magnificent/ Most Supreme/ Exalted/ Absolute Dignified 2:255, 42:4, 56:96
34 ٱلْغَفُورُ al-Ghafūr The Ever-Forgiving/ Oft-Forgiving 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32
35 ٱلشَّكُورُ ash-Shakūr The Grateful/ Appreciative/ Multiplier of Rewards 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17
36 ٱلْعَلِيُّ al-ʿAliyy The Sublime/ Ever-Exalted/ Supreme/ Most High/ Most Lofty 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23
37 ٱلْكَبِيرُ al-Kabīr The Great/ Ever-Great/ Grand/ Most Great/ Greatly Abundant of Extent, Capacity and Importance 13:9, 22:62, 31:30, 34:23
38 ٱلْحَفِيظُ al-Ḥafīz The Preserver/ Ever-Preserving/ All-Watching/ Protector/ Guardian/ Oft-Conservator 11:57, 34:21, 42:6
39 ٱلْمُقِيتُ al-Muqīt The Nourisher/ Feeder 4:85
40 ٱلْحَسِيبُ al-Ḥasīb The Bringer of Judgment/ Ever-Reckoner [the One Who Takes Account of All Matters] 4:6, 4:86, 33:39
41 ٱلْجَلِيلُ al-Jalīl The Majestic/ Exalted/ Oft-Important/ Splendid 55:27, 7:143
42 ٱلْكَرِيمُ al-Karīm The Noble/ Bountiful/ Generous/ Precious/ Honored/ Benefactor 27:40, 82:6
43 ٱلرَّقِيبُ ar-Raqīb The Watchful/ Observer/ Ever-Watchful/ Watcher 4:1, 5:117
44 ٱلْمُجِيبُ al-Mujīb The Responsive/ Answerer/ Supreme Answerer/ Accepter of Invocation 11:61
45 ٱلْوَاسِعُ al-Wāsiʿ The Vast/ All-Embracing/ Omnipresent/ Boundless/ All-Encompassing 2:268, 3:73, 5:54
46 ٱلْحَكِيمُ al-Ḥakīm The Wise/ Ever-Wise/ Endowed with Sound Judgment 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2
47 ٱلْوَدُودُ al-Wadūd The Affectionate/ Ever-Affectionate/ Loving One/ Loving/ the Lover/ the One Who Tenders and Warm Hearts 11:90, 85:14
48 ٱلْمَجِيدُ al-Majīd The All-Glorious/ Majestic/ Ever-Illustrious

[Oft-Brilliant in Dignity, Achievements or Actions]

11:73
49 ٱلْبَاعِثُ al-Bāʿiṯ The Resurrector/ Awakener/ Arouser/ Dispatcher 22:7
50 ٱلشَّهِيدُ ash-Shahīd The Witness/ Testifier/ Ever-Witnessing 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28
51 ٱلْحَقُّ al-Ḥaqq The Truth/ Reality/ the Only One Certainly Sound and Genuine in Truth 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25
52 ٱلْوَكِيلُ al-Wakīl The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9
53 ٱلْقَوِيُّ al-Qawiyy The Strong 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25
54 ٱلْمَتِينُ al-Matīn The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58
55 ٱلْوَلِيُّ al-Waliyy The Friend, Helper 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19
56 ٱلْحَمِيدُ al-Ḥamīd The All Praiseworthy 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42
57 ٱلْمُحْصِىُ al-Muḥsīy The Accounter, The Numberer of All 72:28, 78:29
58 ٱلْمُبْدِئُ al-Mubdiʾ The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13
59 ٱلْمُعِيدُ al-Muʿīd The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13
60 ٱلْمُحْيِي al-Muḥyī The Giver of Life 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2
61 ٱلْمُمِيتُ al-Mumīt The Bringer of Death 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2
62 ٱلْحَىُّ al-Ḥayy The Living 2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65
63 ٱلْقَيُّومُ al-Qayyūm The Subsisting, The Independent 2:255, 3:2, 20:111
64 ٱلْوَاجِدُ al-Wājid The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44
65 ٱلْمَاجِدُ al-Mājid The Illustrious, The Magnificent, The Glorious 85:15, 11:73; al-Kafʿamī (1992:48)
66 ٱلْوَاحِدُ al-Wāḥid The Unique, The Single 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4
67 ٱلْأَحَدُ al-ʾAḥad The One, The Indivisible 112:1
68 ٱلصَّمَدُ aṣ-Ṣamad The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient 112:2
69 ٱلْقَادِرُ al-Qādir The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything 6:65, 46:33, 75:40
70 ٱلْمُقْتَدِرُ al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant 18:45, 54:42, 6:65
71 ٱلْمُقَدِّمُ al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 16:61
72 ٱلْمُؤَخِّرُ al-Muʾakhkhir The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4
73 ٱلْأَوَّلُ al-ʾAwwal The First, The Beginning-less 57:3
74 اَلْآخِرُ al-ʾÃkhir The Last, The Endless 57:3
75 ٱلظَّاهِرُ aẓ-Ẓāhir The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer 57:3
76 ٱلْبَاطِنُ al-Bāṭin The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner 57:3
77 ٱلْوَالِي al-Wāliy The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord 13:11
78 ٱلْمُتَعَالِي al-Mutʿāliy The Supremely Exalted, The Most High 13:9
79 ٱلْبَرُّ al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent 52:28
80 ٱلتَّوَّابُ at-Tawwāb The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3
81 ٱلْمُنْتَقِمُ al-Muntaqim The Avenger 32:22, 43:41, 44:16
82 اَلْعَفُوُّ al-ʿAfuww The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver 4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2
83 اَلرَّؤُوفُ ar-Raʾūf The Kind, The Pitying 9:117, 57:9, 59:10
84 مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكِ Mālik-ul-mulk The Owner of all Sovereignty 3:26
85 ذُو ٱلْجَلَالِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ Ḏū l-Jalāli wa l-ʾIkrām The Owner, Lord of Majesty and Honour 55:27, 55:78
86 اَلْمُقْسِطُ al-Muqsiṭ The Equitable, The Requiter 3:18; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58f)
87 اَلْجَامِعُ al-Jāmiʿ The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9
88 ٱلْغَنيُّ al-Ghāniyy The Rich, The Independent 39:7, 47:38, 57:24
89 اَلْمُغْنِيُّ al-Mughniyy The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28
90 اَلْمَانِعُ al-Māniʿ The Preventer, The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender See al-Kafʿamī (1992:61)
91 اَلضَّارُ aḍ-Ḍār The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor 6:17; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58)
92 اَلنَّافِعُ an-Nāfiʿ The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good 30:37
93 اَلنُّورُ an-Nūr The Light 24:35
94 اَلْهَادِي al-Hādī The Guide, The Way 22:54
95 اَلْبَدِيعُ al-Badīʿ The Originator, The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful 2:117, 6:101
96 اَلْبَاقِي al-Bāqī The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting 55:27; al-Kafʿamī (1992:64)
97 اَلْوَارِثُ al-Wāriṯ The Heir, The Inheritor of All 15:23, 57:10
98 اَلرَّشِيدُ ar-Rashīd The Guide to the Right Path 11:87 (Used Not referring to Allah)
99 اَلصَّبُورُ aṣ-Ṣabūr The Timeless, The Patient 2:153, 3:200, 103:3

Names that are not proven in the Qur'an nor hadiths[edit]

According to Muslims, the names of God must be established by evidence and direct reference in the Qur'an and hadiths (the concept of tawqif). Thus, it is impermissible (haram) for Muslims to give Allah names except with what has been mentioned in the Qur'an or in authentic Hadiths. Based on al-Tirmidhi's list above, the names for which there is no evidence, according to Sheikh Abd al-Muhsin al-Abbad, Sheikh Ibn Uthaymeen, and others, are as follows:

الخافضُ، المعزُّ، المذِل، العَدْلُ، الجَلِيلُ، البَاعِثُ، المُحْصِي، المُبْدِئُ، المُعِيدُ، المُمِيتُ، الوَاجِدُ، المَاجِدُ، الوَالِي، المُقْسِط، المُغْنِي، المَانِعُ، الضَّارُّ، النَّافِعُ، البَاقِي، الرَّشِيدُ، الصَّبُور.

Hadith[edit]

By what they said to Sahih Bukhari Hadith:[4]

Abu Hurairah reported that God has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise; and God is witr (one) and loves 'the witr' (i.e., odd numbers).

— Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 419

There is another Sahih Muslim Hadith:[5]

Allah's Messenger () said, "God has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one; and he who memorized them all by heart will enter Paradise." To count something means to know it by heart.

— Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 9, Book 93, Hadith 489

The Quran refers to God's Most Beautiful Names (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusná) in several Surahs.[6] Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 (17:110) as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59.[7] Sunni mystic Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries".[1]

Islamic mysticism[edit]

There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-ʾAʿẓam (الاسْمُ ٱلْأَعْظَم).[8] This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called (prayed to) by it, He will answer."[9]

According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[10] More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir (جَوْشَنُ ٱلْكَبِير—literally "the Great Cuirass") invocations.

The influential Sunni mystic Ibn Arabi (26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240) did not interpret the names of God as mere epithets, but as actual attributes paring the universe both in created and possible forms. By these names, the divine traits disclose for humans, whose divine potential is hidden, can learn to become a reflection of such names. However, such reflections are limited; the divine traits do not equal the divine essence of the names.[11] Influenced by the metaphysical teachings of Ibn Arabi, Haydar Amuli assigned angels to the different names of God. Accordingly, the good angels as a whole are a manifestation of God's Names of Beauty. Shaitan (shayatin) on the other hand are a manifestation of God's Names of majesty, such as "The Haughty".[12]

Theophoric given names[edit]

Talismanic shirt inscribed with the 99 names of God as well as Quranic verses and prayers, Turkey, 18th century, Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage.

The Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names commonly used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, mostly in Arabic speaking societies.

Because the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names are formed by prefixing the term ˁabd (عَبْدُ: "slave/servant of") to the name in the case of male names;

This distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes (of love, kindness, mercy, compassion, justice, power, etc.) that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity. The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God.

Names of Allah in Arabic calligraphy.

Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of Mālik ul-Mulk (مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ: "Lord of Power" or "Owner of all Sovereignty"):

Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, and You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, and You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power.

The two parts of the name starting with ˁabd may be written separately (as in the previous example) or combined as one in the transliterated form; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ˁabdu is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdur-Rahman, Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Jabbar, or even Abdullah (عَبْدُ ٱللّٰه: "Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative case form.)

Examples of Muslim theophoric names include:

  • Raḥmān, such as Abdul-Raḥman Al-Sudais (عَبْدُ ٱلْرَّحْمَان ٱلْسُّدَيْس): Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, KSA
  • Salām, such as Salam Fayyaḍ (سَلَام فَيَّاض): Palestinian politician
  • Jabbār, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (كَرِيم عَبْدُ ٱلْجَبَّار): American basketball player
  • Ḥakīm, such as Sherman "Abdul Ḥakim" Jackson (عَبْدُ ٱلْحَكِيم—ˁabdu ʼl-Ḥakiym): American Islamic Studies scholar
  • Ra'ūf, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad (رَؤُوف مُسَعد): Egyptian-Sudanese novelist
  • Mālik, such as Mālik bin ʼAnas (مَـٰالِك بِن أَنَس): classical Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named
  • Abdul Muqtedar as in Muḥammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan (مُحَمَّد عَبْدُ ٱلمُقْتَدِر خَان): Indian-American academic

Use in Baháʼí sources[edit]

Baháʼí sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Baháʼ" (Arabic: بهاء "glory, splendor"), which appears in the words Bahá'u'lláh and Baháʼí. They also believe that it is the greatest name of God.[13][14] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 morphological derivation of the word "Baháʼ" used in it.[13]

According to Baháʼí scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī adopted the Persian poetic pen name "Bahāʾ" after being inspired by the words of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, and the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who stated that the greatest name of God was included in either the Duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, or the ʾAʿmal ʿam Dawūd.[13] In the first verse of the duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, the name "Bahāʾ" appears four times.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-36025-1.
  2. ^ Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/Quranic form (proper = in the Quran and Ahādith) with the square bracketed "[.]" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts—usually in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.
  3. ^ "al-Quran (القرآن) :: Online Quran Project :: Translation and Tafsir". Archived from the original on 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  4. ^ "Hadith: Book of Invocations - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  5. ^ "Hadith - Book of Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah (Tawheed) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  6. ^ See the Surah "al-A'raf" (7:180 ), "Al-Isra" (17:110 ), "Ta-Ha" (20:8 ) and "al-Hashr" (59:24 ).
  7. ^ http://quran.com/59/22-24 (59:22–24)
  8. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, US: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7.
  9. ^ Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-85398-446-7. The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324–325. Similar statements in Shi'i tradition include: Majlisí, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 26. p. 7.
  10. ^ Taymiyyah, ibn, Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad (2003). The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-Ṭayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0.
  11. ^ Bruce Lawrence The Qur'an: A Biography Atlantic Books Ltd, 02.10.2014 ISBN 9781782392187 chapter 8
  12. ^ Ayman Shihadeh Sufism and Theology Edinburgh University Press, 21.11.2007 ISBN 9780748631346 pp. 54–56
  13. ^ a b c Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Baháʼ: Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Baháʼí Studies Review. 3 (1).
  14. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167–8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  15. ^ Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Baháʼí News (540): 4–5. Archived from the original on 2017-06-20.

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