Al-Jura

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al-Jura
al-Jura is located in Mandatory Palestine
al-Jura
al-Jura
Arabic الجورة
Name meaning the Hollow[1]
Subdistrict Gaza
Coordinates 31°39′54″N 34°33′15″E / 31.66500°N 34.55417°E / 31.66500; 34.55417Coordinates: 31°39′54″N 34°33′15″E / 31.66500°N 34.55417°E / 31.66500; 34.55417
Palestine grid 107/119
Population 2,420[2][3] (1945)
Area 12,224[3] dunams
Date of depopulation November 4–5, 1948[4]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Current localities Ashkelon[5]

Al-Jura (Arabic: الجورة‎‎) was a Palestinian village that was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, located approximately two kilometers west of Majdal (both within the boundaries of present-day Ashkelon, Israel). In 1945, the village had a population of approximately 2,420 mostly Muslim inhabitants. Though defended by the Egyptian Army, al-Jura was nevertheless captured by Israel's Givati Brigade in a November 4, 1948 offensive as part of Operation Yoav.

A 1998 estimate of the population of refugees today who are descendants of those who fled al-Jura, placed the figure at 17,000. The founder and spiritual leader of the Hamas organization Ahmed Yassin was born in al-Jura.

History[edit]

Byzantine ceramics have been found here, together with coins dating to the seventh century CE.[6]

Ottoman era[edit]

In 1596, Al-Jura was part of the Ottoman Empire, nahiya (subdistrict) of Gaza under the liwa' (district) of Gaza, named Jawra/Jawrit al-Hajja, and it had a population of 253.[7]

The Syrian Sufi teacher and traveller Mustafa al-Bakri al-Siddiqi (1688-1748/9) visited Al-Jura in the first half of the eighteenth century, before leaving for Hamama.[8] In 1863 the French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village, which he called Djoura, and found it to have three hundred inhabitants,[9] while an Ottoman village list from about 1870 found that the village had a population of 340, in a total of 109 houses, though the population count included men, only.[10]

In the late nineteenth century, the village of Al-Jura was situated on flat ground at the outskirts of Ascalon.[11] It was rectangular in shape and the residents were Muslim. They had a mosque and a school which was founded in 1919.[8]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Jura had a population of 1,326 inhabitants, all Muslims,[12] increasing in the 1931 census to 1754, consisting of 1752 Muslims and 2 Christians, in a total of 396 houses.[13]

In 1945 El Jura had a population of 2,420 Muslims,[2] with a total of 12,224 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey.[3] Of this, 481 dunams were used for citrus and bananas, 7,192 for plantations and irrigable land, 2,965 for cereals,[14] while 45 dunams were built-up land.[15]

By the 1940s the school had 206 students.[8]

1948 War[edit]

At the end of November 1948, Coastal Plain District troops carried out sweeps of the villages around and to the south of Majdal. Al-Jura was one of the villages named in the orders to the IDF battalions and engineers platoon, that the villagers were to be expelled to Gaza, and the IDF troops were "to prevent their return by destroying their villages." The path leading to the village was to be mined. The IDF troops were ordered to carry out the operation "with determination, accuracy and energy".[16] The operation took place on 30 November. The troops found "not a living soul" in Al-Jura. However, the destruction of the villages was not completed immediately due to the dampness of the houses and the insufficient amount of explosives.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 360
  2. ^ a b Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 31
  3. ^ a b c Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 46
  4. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xix, village #307, Also gives the cause for depopulation
  5. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 117
  6. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 872
  7. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 150. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 116
  8. ^ a b c Khalidi, 1992, p. 116.
  9. ^ Guérin, 1869, p. 134
  10. ^ Socin, 1879, p. 153
  11. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 236. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 116
  12. ^ Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Gaza, p. 8
  13. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 4
  14. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 87
  15. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 137
  16. ^ Coastal Plain District HQ to battalions 151 and ´1 Volunteers`, etc., 19:55 hours, 25 Nov. 1948, IDFA (=Israeli Defence Forces and Defence Ministry Archive) 6308\49\\141. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 517
  17. ^ Coastal Plain HQ to Southern Front\Operations, 30 Nov. 1948, IDFA 1978\50\\1; and Southern Front\Operations to General Staff Divisions, 2. Dec. 1948, IDFA 922\75\\1025. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 518

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]