|Categories||Islamic magazine |
|Founder||Rashid Rida |
Al-Manār (Arabic: المنار; 'The Lighthouse'), was an Islamic magazine, written in Arabic, and was founded, published and edited by Rashid Rida from 1898 until his death in 1935 in Cairo, Egypt. The magazine championed the superiority of Islamic religious system over other ideologies and was noteworthy for its campaigns for the restoration of a pan-Islamic Caliphate.
History and profile
Al-Manār was founded by Rashid Rida in 1898, and his brother, Salih Rida, was also instrumental in the establishment of the magazine. They were both members of the Decentralization Party. Their goal in establishing the magazine was to articulate and disseminate reformist ideas and preserve the unity of the Muslim nations. The magazine was based in Cairo. It was started as a weekly, but later its frequency was switched to monthly.
Rashid Rida was the sole editor-in-chief of the magazine. Its content was heavily about Quranic interpretations. Rida published numerous articles in Al-Manār which praised the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. However, the magazine also featured articles on politics. One of the contributors was Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi, a scholar from Aleppo, Syria. His book, Umm al-Qura, was serialized in Al-Manār from April 1902 to February 1903 which proposed the establishment of an Arab Caliphate.
In addition to championing the beliefs of the Arabian Muwahhidun movement, Al-Manar also popularised the treatises of major Salafi theologians of Yemen. These included Nayl al-Autar & Irshad al-Fuhul by Al-Shawkani and Subul al-Salam by Ibn al-Amir Al-San’ani. Outlining the religious orientation of his magazine, Rashid Rida wrote:
“since its inception, al-Manar has been preaching the pure oneness [of God] and the views of the early pious generation (madhhab al-salaf) in matters [related to] the dogmas and guidance of Islam. As for matters relating to governance and power, it [i.e., al-Manar, has been advocating] the arts of the age and the laws of nature (funun al-asr wa sunan al-khalq)"
Following the death of Rashid Rida in 1935, the magazine was irregularly published until 1940. In October 1939 it was temporarily banned by the Egyptian government. Two issues were published by the heirs of Rida, and from 1939 to 1940 the Association of Muslim Brotherhood was the publisher of Al-Manār.
Al-Manar advocated for a fundamentalist revival of the methodology and doctrine of the Salaf al-Salih based on the writings of classical Hanbali theologian Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (728 A.H/1263 C.E); communicating these ideas in such a way that mobilised the Muslim masses both culturally and politically. The intellectual heritage of Al-Manār is one of the basic tenets adopted by the popular movements in Arab World, including the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and the Association of Algerian ‘Ulama’ in Algeria. Founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, Hasan Al Banna, praised Al-Manar as one of "the greatest influences in the service of Islam for this age in Egypt] and in other areas."
Al-Manār inspired various journals, including Shura, a Turkic language magazine published in Orenburg from 1908 to 1918.
- ^ a b c Joseph A. Kéchichian (14 November 2013). "The Islamic reformer: Mohammad Rashid Reda". Gulf News. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- ^ a b c Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen (1997). Defining Islam for the Egyptian State: Muftis and Fatwas of the Dār Al-Iftā. Leiden: BRILL. p. 69. ISBN 90-04-10947-1.
- ^ Fakhry, Majid (2006). A History of Islamic Philosophy: Third Edition. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 358. ISBN 0-231-13220-4.
- ^ a b Eliezer Tauber (1990). "The Press and the Journalist as a Vehicle in Spreading National Ideas in Syria in the Late Ottoman Period". Die Welt des Islams. 30 (1/4): 166. doi:10.2307/1571051.
- ^ "Muhammad Rashid Rida". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- ^ a b c "Muhammad Rashid Rida". Encyclopedia of the Middle East.
- ^ Ghassan Salamé (Summer 1987). "Islam and politics in Saudi Arabia". Arab Studies Quarterly. 9 (3): 309. JSTOR 41857933.
- ^ a b c d Kosugi Yasushi (2006). "Al-Manar revisited: the "lighthouse" of the Islamic revival". In Stéphane A. Dudoignon; Komatsu Hisao; Kosugi Yasushi (eds.). Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World. Transmission, Transformation and Communication (PDF). London and New York: Routledge. pp. 3–39. ISBN 9780415549790. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2021.
- ^ Joshua Teitelbaum (1998). "Sharif Husayn ibn Ali and the Hashemite vision of the post‐Ottoman order: From chieftaincy to suzerainty". Middle Eastern Studies. 34 (1): 104. doi:10.1080/00263209808701212.
- ^ Samir M. Seikaly (2009). "Appropriating the Past: Twentieth-century Reconstruction of Pre-Modern Islamic Thought". Configuring Identity in the Modern Arab East. Beirut: American University of Beirut Press. p. 11. ISBN 9953-9019-6-1.
- ^ Christine Sixta Rinehart (2009). "Volatile Breeding Grounds: The Radicalization of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 32 (11): 961. doi:10.1080/10576100903262773.
- ^ Fakhry, Majid (2006). A History of Islamic Philosophy: Third Edition. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 358–359. ISBN 0-231-13220-4.
- ^ Richard P. Mitchell (1968). "Conclusion". The Society of the Muslim Brothers. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 322. ISBN 0-19-508437-3.
- ^ Roy Bar Sadeh (Summer 2020). "Between Cairo and the Volga-Urals: Al-Manar and Islamic Modernism, 1905-17". Kritika. 21 (3). doi:10.1353/kri.2020.0036.
- ^ Stéphane A. Dudoignon (2006). "Echoes to Al-Manār among the Muslims of the Russian Empire". In Stéphane A. Dudoignon; Komatsu Hisao; Kosugi Yasushi (eds.). Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World. Transmission, Transformation and Communication (PDF). London and New York: Routledge. pp. 85–116. ISBN 9780415549790. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2021.
- Al-Manār issues, in the Internet Archive
- Media related to Al-Manār (magazine) at Wikimedia Commons
- 1898 establishments in the Ottoman Empire
- 1940 disestablishments in Egypt
- Arabic-language magazines
- Defunct political magazines published in Egypt
- Islamic magazines
- Magazines established in 1898
- Magazines disestablished in 1940
- Magazines published in Cairo
- Monthly magazines published in Egypt
- Weekly magazines published in Egypt