Mukhtar al-Thaqafi

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Abu Ishaq al-Mukhtar ibn Abu Ubayd al-Thaqafi
Al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi.jpg
Mukhtar in Kufa
Bornc. 622
Died3 April 687
Burial placeGreat Mosque of Kufa
EraRashidun Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
Second Islamic Civil War
Notable work
Anti-Umayyad revolt in Kufa
Opponent(s)Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr
Spouse(s)Umrah bint Nu'man ibn Bashir Ansari
Umm Thabit bint Samura ibn Jundub
Parents
RelativesAbdullah ibn Umar (Brother in law)
Umar ibn Sa'ad (Brother in law)

Mukhtār ibn Abū ‘Ubayd al-Thaqafī (Arabic: المختار بن أبي عبيد الثقفي‎; c. 622 – 3 April 687) was an early Islamic revolutionary based in Kufa, who led an abortive rebellion against the Umayyads in revenge for the death of Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala.

Born in Ta'if, Mukhtar moved to Iraq at a young age and grew up in Kufa. Following the death of Husayn ibn Ali at the hands of the Umayyad army in October 680, he allied with the rival caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in Mecca, but the alliance was short-lived. Mukhtar returned to Kufa where he declared Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, a son of Ali, the Mahdi and the Imam, and called for the establishment of an Alid caliphate and retaliation for Husayn's murder. He took power in 685 by expelling the governor of Kufa and ruled for nearly two years. During his rule, he executed Arab noblemen who participated in the killing of Husyan. Hostile relations with Ibn al-Zubayr ultimately led to his death at the hands of the Zubayrid governor of Basra, Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr, following a four-month siege.

Although Mukhtar was defeated, his movement had far-reaching consequences. After his death, his followers formed a radical Shia[a] sect; later called Kaysanites, they developed several novel doctrines and influenced later Shia sects. Mukhtar raised the social status of mawālī (local converts to Islam) and they became an important political entity. Later, mawālī and Kaysanites went on to play a significant role in the Abbasid Revolution. Mukhtar is a controversial figure among Muslims; revered by Shia because of his support for the Alids, but condemned by many others as a false prophet. Modern historians' views range from regarding him as a sincere revolutionary to an ambitious opportunist.

Early life[edit]

Mukhtar was born in Ta'if in 622 CE (1 AH) to Abu Ubayd al-Thaqafi, an Arab army commander. Abu Ubayd was dispatched to the Iraqi front by Caliph Umar, and was killed at the Battle of the Bridge in November 634. Mukhtar, then thirteen years old, remained in Iraq after the Muslim conquests of this region,[2] and was raised by his uncle Saad ibn Masud al-Thaqafi. The latter became governor of al-Mada'in during the reign of Caliph Ali, a son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Although al-Mukhtar had pro-Alid[b] tendencies from a young age, an anecdote recorded in the traditional Muslim sources suggests otherwise. The incident occurred in 661 during the First Muslim Civil War between Ali and Muawiyah, the governor of Syria. When the latter approached Iraq with his army, Hasan ibn Ali, Ali's son and Muhammad's grandson, was injured near al-Mada'in by a member of the Kharijites, a rebel faction opposed to Ali and Muawiyah, and brought to the home of Mukhtar's uncle. There, Mukhtar reportedly recommended that Hasan be handed over to Muawiyah in return for political favour, but was rebuffed by his uncle.[3][4] Scant information exists about his early life and he only rose to prominence when he was aged around sixty.[5]

Mukhtar uprising[edit]

Muawiyah was not supposed to nominate a successor under the terms of the Hasan–Muawiyah treaty. However, before his death, he nominated his son Yazid, infuriating many Alid partisans. After his death, pro-Alid Kufans invited Husayn ibn Ali to lead a revolt against Yazid. Husayn sent Muslim ibn Aqil to Kufa to investigate the political environment.[6] Mukhtar hosted ibn Aqil at his house before the arrival of Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad. The latter was sent by Yazid to replace Nu'man ibn Bashir as governor, since ibn Bashir, as Mukhtar's father-in-law, was benign towards ibn Aqil and his followers. The arrival of ibn Ziyad forced ibn Aqil to declare the revolt prematurely. Mukhtar tried to gather support from surrounding areas, but was defeated, and ibn Aqil was executed before Mukhtar could return to the city. Mukhtar was arrested and brought to the governor where he denied any involvement in the revolt. He was imprisoned and remained there until after the death of Husayn at Karbala.[7] He was then released on the intervention of Abdullah ibn Umar, an influential son of the second caliph and Mukhtar's brother-in-law, and ordered to leave Kufa.[8]

Exile in Mecca[edit]

Following the murder of Husayn ibn Ali, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr revolted against Yazid and established his caliphate in Mecca.[9] Having left Kufa, Mukhtar headed for Mecca and offered allegiance to ibn al-Zubayr on the condition that he consult him on important matters and award him a high post; ibn al-Zubayr refused him. Mukhtar left for Ta'if and, after one year, ibn al-Zubayr accepted his homage under the same terms.[8][10] In 683 Yazid sent an army to retake Mecca. Mukhtar, now allied with ibn al-Zubayr, participated in the defense of the city.[11] The Umayyad army retreated after learning of Yazid's death. Mukhtar was informed by people coming from Kufa that the city had come under ibn al-Zubayr's control. When Kufans looked for an independent leader of their own, he claimed that he was the man they were looking for.[12] During his stay in Mecca, he met Ali's son Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and asked to avenge the death of Husayn and to secure power for him. Ibn al-Hanafiyyah responded that he neither approved nor disapproved of such an action, but bloodshed should be avoided.[10] Earlier, he had made the same offer to Husayn's son Ali Zayn al-Abidin but was refused.[2] Five months after Yazid's death, he returned to Kufa without informing ibn al-Zubayr, who he thought had not kept his promise.[8]

Return to Kufa[edit]

A view of modern-day Kufa, the headquarters of Mukhtar, and its Great Mosque, where his grave is located.

Once back in Kufa, Mukhtar began recruiting people to take revenge against the perpetrators of the Karbala massacre, promising them victory and fortune. At the same time, Sulayman ibn Surad, a companion of Muhammad and an Alid supporter, rallied a group of people, who called themselves Tawwabin, to fight the Umayyads to atone for their failure to support Husayn during the battle of Karbala. The Tawwabin movement created difficulties for Mukhtar. Most pro-Alid Kufans supported ibn Surad because he was Muhammad's companion and refused to join Mukhtar. In response, Mukhtar was critical of the Tawwabin as he considered their actions premature and hence destined to fail. He argued that Sulaiman was old and weak and had no experience in war. He then claimed that he was a lieutenant of ibn al-Hanafiyyah, whom he called the Mahdi (Messiah). He convinced many Alid partisans, including some five hundred mawālī (sing. mawlā), that he was working under the orders of the Mahdi.[13][14]

Doubting the authenticity of Mukhtar's claims, some Alid partisans from Kufa went to ibn al-Hanafiyyah to inquire. He replied in an ambiguous manner that he was satisfied with anyone whom God uses to take revenge on enemies of the family of the prophet. They took this as confirmation of Mukhtar's claims and returned to join him. To win over the hitherto unpersuaded Ibrahim ibn al-Ashtar, an influential Alid partisan and head of the Nakhai tribe, Mukhtar presented him with a letter, which he claimed was authored by ibn al-Hanafiyyah. In it, ibn al-Hanafiyyah ostensibly called himself the Mahdi and urged ibn al-Ashtar to support Mukhtar. After expressing some doubts, ibn al-Ashtar eventually joined him.[15] The letter was likely fabricated, and ibn al-Hanafiyyah seems to have had no involvement in the revolt. He tolerated the use of his name, however, and did not disapprove of Mukhtar's activities.[16][17] Nonetheless, he wanted to visit his followers in Kufa but was deterred by a rumor, floated by Mukhtar upon hearing this news, that the true Mahdi will not die if struck by a sword.[17][18]

Ibn al-Zubayr appointed Abd Allah ibn Yazid as governor of Kufa in 684. Fearful of Mukhtar, ibn Yazid imprisoned him. Some time later, Abdullah ibn Umar interceded for Mukhtar, who promised to refrain from anti-government activity and was released.[19]

Overthrow of the Zubayrid governor[edit]

After his release Mukhtar resumed his revolutionary activities. The Tawwabin were defeated by the Umayyads at the Battle of Ayn al-Warda in January 685, and most of the pro-Alid Kufans were now looking to Mukhtar. Ibn al-Zubayr replaced ibn Yazid with Abd Allah ibn Muti as governor to contain this threat but to no avail. Mukhtar and his followers planned to overthrow the governor and seize control of Kufa on Thursday, 19 October 685 (14 Rabi al-Awwal 66 AH). On the evening of 17 October some of Mukhtar's men clashed with government forces. Mukhtar signaled an early declaration of revolt to his troops by lighting fires. By the evening of Wednesday, 18 October, the government's forces were defeated. Abd Allah ibn Muti went into hiding and later, with help from Mukhtar, escaped to Basra. The next morning, Mukhtar received allegiance from Kufans in the mosque on the basis of, "Book of God, Sunnah of the Prophet, revenge for the Prophet's family, defense of the weak and war on sinners".[15][20]

Rule over Iraq[edit]

Territory controlled by Mukhtar (685–686)

Mukhtar's support in his revolt came from two diverse groups: Arab tribal nobles and mawālī. At first, he tried to reconcile their differences and appease both.[21] Most of the government positions, including the governorship of Mosul and al-Mada'in, were awarded to Arabs. Mawālī, hitherto treated as lower grade citizens, were given entitlement to war booty and army salaries, and were allowed to ride horses. He announced that any slave mawālī who joined him would be set free, resulting in increased support from this group. Nobles, however, were not satisfied with his policies towards the mawālī.[13][22] His personal guard also consisted of mawālī headed by Abu Amra Kaysan.[23] Efforts of his supporters to take Basra for him did not succeed.[22]

Counter-coup[edit]

One year after the Battle of Ayn al-Warda, the Umayyad army occupied Mosul and headed for Kufa. Mukhtar sent three thousand cavalrymen under the command of Yazid ibn Anas. On 17 July 686, they defeated the Umayyad army, twice their size, near Mosul. That evening, after ordering the execution of all the Syrian captives, Yazid ibn Anas died from an illness. Having lost their commander, the Kufans decided to turn back in the face of another Umayyad army heading their way. In Kufa it was rumoured that the Kufan army was defeated and ibn Anas was killed in the battle. Mukhtar sent back an army of seven thousand men, headed by ibn al-Ashtar. With most of the troops away, Kufan nobles, whose relations with Mukhtar were estranged due to his favouritism toward the mawālī, took advantage of the situation and besieged the palace in an attempt to overthrow him. They accused him of robbing them of their prestige:

He and his party have renounced our pious ancestors; he has enticed our slaves and Mawālī, and mounted them, has given or promised them a share of our state revenue; in this way he has robbed us...[24]

Despite the siege, Mukhtar was able to recall ibn al-Ashtar. Three days after its departure from Kufa, ibn al-Ashtar's army returned and defeated the revolt.[25][26]

Having eliminated the opposition, Mukhtar now sought punitive measures against those involved in the battle of Karbala. He executed almost all of them (except ibn Ziyad, who was not in Kufa) who were responsible for the incident, including Umar ibn Sa'ad and Shemr ibn Ziljawshan.[26] Many others were killed under the pretext of their direct or indirect involvement in the battle. Around ten thousand people escaped to Basra. The houses of many absconders were destroyed.[27] This further shrank Mukhtar's Arab support and he became increasingly reliant on mawālī.[26]

Battle of Khazir[edit]

Two days after retaking control of Kufa, Mukhtar sent ibn al-Ashtar with an army of around thirteen thousand men to fight the approaching Umayyad army led by ibn Ziyad. Some people in the army carried a chair, circling around it, which they claimed belonged to Ali and would give them victory in the battle. The idea is said to have been Mukhtar's. He had invented it to increase his support among more religious people and compared it to the Ark of the Covenant,[28][29] but Julius Wellhausen holds he was not the originator of the concept. He allowed them to carry the chair, as he needed their zeal.[30] The armies met at the banks of Khazir River in early August. The Umayyad army was defeated, and many of the senior Umayyad military leaders including ibn Ziyad and Husayn ibn Numayr al-Sakuni were killed.[26][31] Exact date of the battle is unknown, although some sources put it on 6 August, coinciding with 10 Muharram, the date of Husayn's death.[32] The death of ibn Ziyad was seen as the fulfillment of Mukhtar's promise of revenge against Husayn's killers.[32][33]

Relations with ibn al-Zubayr[edit]

Sometime after expelling ibn Muti, Mukhtar wrote to ibn al-Zubayr to complain that he had not kept his promise although Mukhtar had served him well, but offered support if needed. Considering Mukhtar obedient, ibn al-Zubayr appointed Umar ibn Abd al-Rahman as governor of Kufa, who went to take the charge from Mukhtar. Unwilling to give up the control of the city, Mukhtar bribed ibn Abd al-Rahman to go back and threatened to use force if he did not comply. Instead of going back to Mecca and facing ibn al-Zubayr, ibn Abd al-Rahman went to join ibn Muti and Kufan refugees in Basra.[34]

In 686 (66 AH), Mukhtar again wrote to ibn al-Zubayr offering military support against an impending Umayyad attack on Medina. Ibn al-Zubayr agreed and asked him to send the army to Wadi al-Qura, a valley near Medina. Mukhtar sent three thousand men to Shurahbil ibn Wars and ordered him instead to enter Medina and wait for his orders. Ibn al-Zubayr sent Abbas ibn Sahl with two thousand men, instructing him to take ibn Wars and his men to Wadi al-Qura and wait for the Syrian army, and to kill them if they refused to do so. When ibn Wars refused to follow Ibn Sahl, he killed him along with most of his men. Mukhtar wrote to ibn al-Hanafiyyah that his plan to take the country for him was foiled by ibn al-Zubayr's deception. Mukhtar offered to send another army to take Medina if ibn al-Hanafiyyah would inform the people of the city that he was working for him. Ibn al-Hanafiyyah refused saying he was against bloodshed. Now fully aware of Mukhtar's intentions, ibn al-Zubayr detained ibn al-Hanafiyyah to force him to pay allegiance. He hoped this would force Mukhtar, who he thought was under ibn al-Hanafiyyah's command, to do the same. Ibn al-Hanafiyyah wrote to Mukhtar asking for help and the latter subsequently sent four thousand men and rescued him, causing a further deterioration in the relations between Mecca and Kufa.[35][36][37]

Death[edit]

In 687, Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr, governor of Basra and the younger brother of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, was set to attack Kufa. A sizable portion of his army consisted of Kufan nobles, who had fled Mukhtar's rage earlier.[21] The size of Kufan army is uncertain with some sources estimating it as up to sixty thousand, while others as low as three thousand.[38] The Kufans were defeated in the first two battles at Madhar and Harura, and retreated to Kufa.[39] Mus'ab proceeded to lay siege to the palace, which went on for four months. Ibn al-Ashtar did not come to Mukhtar's aid, either because the latter did not call him,[40] or he refused to answer Mukhatr's calls for support.[41][42] In either case, he would later join Mus'ab.[40] On 3 April 687 (14 Ramadan 67 AH), Mukhtar came out of the palace accompanied by nineteen people, (the rest had refused to fight), and was killed.[43]

Soon afterwards, the remaining people, totaling about six thousand, surrendered and were executed by Mus'ab.[21] One of Mukhtar's wives, Umrah bint Nu'man ibn Bashir Ansari, having refused to denounce her husband's views, was also executed.[44] His other wife saved her life by denouncing him. Mukhtar's hand was cut off and hung on the wall of the mosque.[45] His grave is, reportedly, located inside the shrine of Muslim ibn Aqil, at the back of the Great Mosque of Kufa.[46] Some sources, however, state that Mus'ab had burned his body.[47]

Legacy[edit]

Mukhtar ruled for only a couple of years and his control was limited to Kufa and its surroundings, but his ideology survived after his death. It was during his rule that mawālī rose to significance, much to dissatisfaction of Arab Kufans.[21][48] He had proclaimed Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah as the Mahdi and the Imam. This was most likely the first time in the history of Islam that somebody was referred to as the Mahdi. This idea became influential afterwards, especially in Shia Islam, where it became one of its central tenets.[13][48] He was the first person to introduce the concept of Bada' (change in the divine will), when after defeat at the battle of Madhar, for which he had claimed he was promised victory, he said that God had changed his plan.[49][50]

His followers later developed into a distinct Shia sect and were called Kaysanites.[51] They introduced the doctrines of Occultation (Ghayba) and Return (Raj'a) of the Mahdi. After the death of ibn al-Hanafiyyah, some Kaysanites believed that he had not died but was hidden in Mount Radwa and would return some day to rid the world of injustice.[52][53][43] Most Kaysanites, however, declared his son Abu Hashim to be their Imam. He then transferred the Imamate to Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdallah ibn Abbas before dying. Abbasids used this as a propaganda tool during their revolution to enhance their legitimacy claim and to appeal to pro-Alid masses. Two of Muhammad ibn Ali's sons, As-Saffah and Al-Mansur, would eventually establish the Abbasid Caliphate.[54][55][56] Describing similarities between Mukhtar and Abbasid revolutionary Abu Muslim Khorasani, Wellhausen writes: "If the doctrine of Raj'a is correct, then the Arab of Khutarnia [Mukhtar] came to life again in the Maula [mawlā] of Khutarnia [Abu Muslim]."[57]

Many people hold Mukhtar a liar who claimed prophethood and consider him an enemy of the Alids, who used their name to gain power, and executed Husayn's killers to consolidate his support among pro-Alids.[58] Although he did not explicitly call himself a prophet, the allegations took root because of his boasting and excessive claims, which he made in ancient Arabian rhymed prose style of Saj'.[59] Muhammad is reported to have said: "In Thaqif there will be a great liar and destroyer." To them, the liar is Mukhtar and the destroyer is Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.[60] Shias, on the other hand, regard him a sincere partisan of Ali and his family, who avenged the murder of Husayn and his company. They maintain that the allegations leveled against him regarding prophethood, his role in the Kaysanites sect, and his lust for power are Umayyad and Zubayrid propaganda.[58]

Views of the Alid family[edit]

There are differing accounts of how prominent members of the Alid family viewed Mukhtar. Husayn's son and fourth Shia Imam Ali Zayn al-Abidin prayed for him after seeing the heads of ibn Ziyad and Umar ibn Sa'ad.[61] Another account says that he rejected Mukhtar's gifts and called him a liar.[62]

Husayn's grandson Muhammad al-Baqir praised him: "Do not speak ill of Mukhtar, he killed our killers, sought vengeance for our blood and arranged marriages for our widows."[63] Al-Baqir also praised him when Mukhtar's son asked al-Baqir about his view of Mukhtar.[64]

Husayn's great-grandson Ja'far al-Sadiq is reported to have said: "The women of the Banu Hashim did not comb and colour [their hair] until al-Mukhtar came to us with the heads of those [who] killed Husayn".[65] Ja'far al-Sadiq is also reported to have said that Mukhtar used to lie about Ali Zayn al-Abidin.[64]

Modern scholarly views[edit]

While early historical accounts are unanimous in portraying Mukhtar in a negative light,[66] modern historians hold a variety of views. Julius Wellhausen writes that although Mukhtar did not claim to be a prophet, he made every effort to create the impression that he was one, and spoke in a way as if he "sat in the counsel of God". He concludes that Mukhatr was nevertheless a sincere man who tried to eradicate the social differences of his time. He furhter argues that Mukhtar made extravagant claims and exploited ibn al-Hanafiyyah's name out of necessity, as he could not have achieved his goal in his own name.[59] He calls him "...one of the greatest men of Islamic history; [who] anticipated the future".[57] Hugh Kennedy writes that Mukhtar was a revolutionary who tried to put together a united Kufan coalition but was defeated by internal divisions and let down by the Alid family.[21] Before his death, Mukhtar is reported to have said:

I am one of the Arabs, I saw that Ibn Zubayr seized the ruling power in Hejaz and that Najdah [Kharijite leader] did the same in Yamamah and Marwan in Syria, and I did not see myself as inferior to other Arabs. Therefore, I took over this region and became like one of them, except that I sought to avenge the blood of the Prophet's family, while the other Arabs neglected the matter. I slew everyone who had taken part in shedding their blood and I have continued doing so until this day...

Moshe Sharon describes this as an accurate description of his activities.[67] Abdulaziz Sachedina, on the other hand, calls him an ambitious politician who manipulated the religious sentiments of common people for his own good.[68]

Popular references[edit]

As with Maqtal-namas narrating the story of Karbala, various Mukhtar-namas elaborating on the life and movement of Mukhtar, were written during the Safavid era.[69] An Iranian television series, Mokhtar Nameh, based on the Shia perspective of his life and revolt, was produced in 2009.[70]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A sect of Muslims who, unlike Sunni Muslims, believe that Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and his descendants were the rightful and divinely appointed leaders (Imams) of the Muslim community.[1]
  2. ^ Pro-Alids or Alid partisans were political supporters of Ali and his family.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 420–424.
  2. ^ a b Kennedy 2004, p. 82.
  3. ^ Dixon 1971, pp. 27–28.
  4. ^ Hawting 1989, p. 105.
  5. ^ Wellhausen 1975, p. 125.
  6. ^ Wellhausen 2000, pp. 146–147.
  7. ^ Howard 1990, p. 65.
  8. ^ a b c Suleiman 2010, p. 6.
  9. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 81.
  10. ^ a b Dixon 1971, pp. 32–33.
  11. ^ Hawting 1989, pp. 114–115.
  12. ^ Wellhausen 1975, p. 126.
  13. ^ a b c Daftary 1992, p. 52.
  14. ^ Hawting 1989, p. 93.
  15. ^ a b Wellhausen 1975, pp. 128–130.
  16. ^ Dixon 1971, p. 42−43.
  17. ^ a b Anthony 2011, p. 259.
  18. ^ Suleiman 2010, p. 8.
  19. ^ Suleiman 2010, pp. 6–7.
  20. ^ Dixon 1971, pp. 37−45.
  21. ^ a b c d e Kennedy 2004, p. 83.
  22. ^ a b Wellhausen 1975, pp. 131–132.
  23. ^ Anthony 2011, p. 283.
  24. ^ Wellhausen 1975, p. 132.
  25. ^ Dixon 1971, pp. 59–63.
  26. ^ a b c d Daftary 1992, p. 53.
  27. ^ Donner 2010, p. 185.
  28. ^ Dixon 1971, pp. 68–69.
  29. ^ Anthony 2011, pp. 265–273.
  30. ^ Wellhausen 1975, p. 137.
  31. ^ Wellhausen 2000, p. 186.
  32. ^ a b Hawting 2002, p. 53.
  33. ^ Anthony 2011, p. 260.
  34. ^ Fishbein 1990, pp. 53–54.
  35. ^ Dixon 1971, pp. 56–58.
  36. ^ Wellhausen 1975, pp. 132–133.
  37. ^ Fishbein 1990, pp. 55–59.
  38. ^ Dixon 1971, p. 70.
  39. ^ Donner 2010, p. 186.
  40. ^ a b Wellhausen 1975, p. 138.
  41. ^ Dixon 1971, pp. 73–74.
  42. ^ Anthony 2011, p. 290.
  43. ^ a b Sachedina 1981, p. 10.
  44. ^ Wellhausen 1975, p. 139.
  45. ^ Dixon 1971, p. 75.
  46. ^ Nawbakhtī 2007, p. 69.
  47. ^ Anthony 2011, p. 177.
  48. ^ a b Hawting 2002, pp. 51–52.
  49. ^ Sachedina 1981, p. 153.
  50. ^ Anthony 2011, p. 288.
  51. ^ Daftary 1992, p. 59.
  52. ^ Fitzpatrick & Walker 2014, p. 31.
  53. ^ Egger 2016, p. 70.
  54. ^ Daftary 1992, p. 62.
  55. ^ Hawting 2002, p. 52.
  56. ^ Sharon 1983, p. 107.
  57. ^ a b Wellhausen 2000, p. 506.
  58. ^ a b Inloes 2009.
  59. ^ a b Wellhausen 1975, pp. 147–148.
  60. ^ Al-Tirmidhi 2007, p. 270.
  61. ^ Majlesi 1983, p. 344.
  62. ^ Majlesi 1983, p. 332.
  63. ^ Majlesi 1983, p. 350.
  64. ^ a b Majlesi 1983, p. 351.
  65. ^ Al-Kashshi 2009, p. 98.
  66. ^ Hawting 2002, p. 51.
  67. ^ Sharon 1983, p. 110.
  68. ^ Sachedina 1981, p. 9.
  69. ^ Calmard 1998.
  70. ^ Anthony 2011, p. 261.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]