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Yaḥyā ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī
|Born||Muharram 631 AH/ October 1233|
|Died||24 Rajab 676 AH / 21 December 1277 (age 45)|
Nawa, Mamluk Sultanate
|Resting place||Nawa, present Syria|
|Main interest(s)||Fiqh, Usul, Hadith, Mantiq|
|Occupation||Historiographer, bibliographer, scholar, jurist.|
|Patronymic (Nasab)||Ibn Sharaf ibn Marri ibn Ḥasan ibn Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad ibn Jumah ibn Ḥazm|
|Teknonymic (Kunya)||Abū Zakariyyā|
Abū Zakariyyā Yaḥyā ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī (Arabic: أبو زكريا يحيى بن شرف النووي; (631A.H-676A.H) (October 1230–21 December 1277), popularly known as al-Nawawī or Imam Nawawī, was a Sunni Shafi'ite jurist and hadith scholar. Al-Nawawi died at the relatively early age of 45. Despite this, he authored numerous and lengthy works ranging from hadith, to theology, biography, and jurisprudence that are still read to this day.
He was born at Nawa near Damascus, Syria. As with Arabic and other Semitic languages, the last part of his name refers to his hometown.
Yasin bin Yusuf Marakashi, says: "I saw Imam Nawawi at Nawa when he was a youth of ten years of age. Other boys of his age used to force him to play with them, but Imam Nawawi would always avoid the play and would remain busy with the recitation of the Noble Qur'an. When they tried to domineer and insisted on his joining their games, he bewailed and expressed his no concern over their foolish action. On observing his sagacity and profundity, a special love and affection developed in my heart for young Nawawi. I approached his teacher and urged him to take exceptional care of this lad as he was to become a great religious scholar. His teacher asked whether I was a soothsayer or an astrologer. I told him I am neither soothsayer nor an astrologer but Allah caused me to utter these words." His teacher conveyed this incident to Imam's father and in keeping in view the learning quest of his son, decided to dedicate the life of his son for the service and promotion of the cause of Islam.
Life as a scholar
He studied in Damascus from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage in 1253, he settled there as a private scholar.
During his stay at Damascus, he studied from more than twenty teachers who were regarded as masters and authority of their subject field and disciplines they taught. An-Nawawi studied Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, its principles, syntax and Etymology. His teachers included Abu Ibrahim Ishaq bin Ahmad AI-Maghribi, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Radiyuddin Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abu Hafs Umar bin Mudar Al-Mudari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi, Abul-Baqa Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Salim Al-Misri, Abu Abdullah Al-Jiyani, Abul-Fath Umar bin Bandar, Abu Muhammad At-Tanukhi, Sharafuddin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad Al-Ansari, Abul-Faraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Maqdisi, and Abul-Fada'il Sallar bin Al-Hasan Al Arbali among others.
He did ta'wil on some of the Qur'an verses and ahadith on the attributes of Allah. He states in his commentary of a hadith that:
This is one of the "hadiths of the attributes," about which scholars have two positions. The first is to have faith in it without discussing its meaning, while believing of Allah Most High that "there is nothing whatsoever like unto Him" (Qur'an 42:11), and that He is exalted above having any of the attributes of His creatures. The second is to figuratively explain it in a fitting way, scholars who hold this position adducing that the point of the hadith was to test the slave girl: Was she a monotheist, who affirmed that the Creator, the Disposer, the Doer, is Allah alone and that He is the one called upon when a person making supplication (du'a) faces the sky--just as those performing the prayer (salat) face the Kaaba, since the sky is the qibla of those who supplicate, as the Kaaba is the qibla of those who perform the prayer--or was she a worshipper of the idols which they placed in front of themselves? So when she said, In the sky, it was plain that she was not an idol worshiper.
Relationship with the Mamluk Sultanate
Nawawi drew the ire of Mamluk Sultan Rukn al-Din Baybars twice. Once when he wrote on behalf of residents of Damascus that if Baybars do not stop taxing people illegally then Allah will tax his deed in al-akhira who sought relief from heavy tax burdens during a drought that lasted many years. This prompted Baybars to threaten to expel him from Damascus. To this, he responded:
"As for myself, threats do not harm me or mean anything to me. They will not keep me from advising the ruler, for I believe that this is obligatory upon me and others."
Second time Nawawi addressed Sultan Baybars when he wanted the ulama to issue fatwa that waqf belongs to the ruler which originally belonged to Muslim society. An-Nawawi sort of scolded him to fear Allah and control his greed for wealth. to which Sultan Baybars agreed. Some people asked Baybars why he did not lock up an-Nawawi to which Baybars replied whenever he even thinks of locking an-Nawawi up, a kind of fear flows through his heart. Both time Baybars abided by an-Nawawi's letters.
Death and legacy
He died at Nawa at the relatively young age of 45.
An-Nawawi's lasting legacy is his contribution to hadith literature through his momentous works Forty Hadiths and Riyadh as-Saaliheen. This made him respected in all madhabs, despite of him being of Shafi'i jurisprudence. According to Al-Dhahabi, Imam Nawawi's concentration and absorption in academic love gained proverbial fame. He had devoted all his time for learning and scholarship. Other than reading and writing, he spent his time contemplating on the interacted and complex issues and in finding their solutions. Ulama's praise him for 3 characteristics:
- His level of scholarship. Writing more than 40 pages daily from age 18-45. Studying continuously for 12 hours and then teaching for another 12 hours at age 18-20 in Damascus. 
- His asceticism. Not marrying in fear of faltering his wife's right, lack of love for dunya, constant worshipping of Allah, constant zikr.
- His keenness in enjoining good and forbidding evil. As done with Sultan al-Baibars.
Destruction of tomb
In 2015, during the ongoing Syrian Civil War, his tomb was demolished by rebels linked to Al Nusra.
During his life of 45 years he wrote "at least fifty books" on Islamic studies and other topics. Some scholar counted pages he written and calculated that he wrote 40+ pages daily from age 18 till his death. Some his writings is still reached vastly as no author has superseded him in those writing. These include:
- Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim (شرح صحيح مسلم), making use of others before him, and is considered one of the best commentaries on Sahih Muslim. It is available online.
- Riyadh as-Saaliheen (رياض الصالحين); collection of hadith on ethics, manners, conduct, popular in the Muslim world.
- al-Majmu' sharh al-Muhadhab (المجموع شرح المهذب), is a comprehensive manual of Islamic law according to the Shafi'i school has been edited with French translation by van den Bergh, 2 vols., Batavia (1882–1884), and published at Cairo (1888).
- Minhaj al-Talibin (منهاج الطالبين وعمدة المفتين في فقه الإمام الشافعي), a classical manual on Islamic Law according to Shafi'i fiqh.
- Tahdhib al-Asma wa'l-Lughat (تهذيب الأسماء), edited as the Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious Men chiefly at the Beginning of Islam (Arabic) by F. Wüstenfeld (Göttingen, 1842–1847).
- Taqrib al-Taisir (التقريب والتيسير لمعرفة سنن البشير النذير), an introduction to the study of hadith, it is an extension of Ibn al-Salah's Muqaddimah, was published at Cairo, 1890, with Suyuti's commentary "Tadrib al-Rawi". It has been in part translated into French by W. Marçais in the Journal asiatique, series ix., vols. 16–18 (1900–1901).
- al-Arbaʿīn al-Nawawiyya (الأربعون النووية) - 'Forty Hadiths,' collection of forty-two fundamental traditions, frequently published along with numerous commentaries.
- Ma Tamas ilayhi hajat al-Qari li Saheeh al-Bukhaari (ما تمس إليه حاجة القاري لصـحيح البـخاري)
- Tahrir al-Tanbih (تحرير التنبيه)
- Kitab al-Adhkar (الأذكار المنتخبة من كلام سيد الأبرار); collection of supplications of prophet Muhammad.
- al-Tibyan fi adab Hamalat al-Quran (التبيان في آداب حملة القرآن)
- Adab al-fatwa wa al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti (آداب الفتوى والمفتي والمستفتي)
- al-Tarkhis fi al-Qiyam (الترخيص بالقيام لذوي الفضل والمزية من أهل الإسلام)
- Manasik (متن الإيضاح في المناسك) on Hajj rituals.
- al-Hatt ala al-Mantiq (الحت على المنطق) - 'The Insistence upon Logic,' written to address epistemological and historical criticisms of logic
- Sharh Sunan Abu Dawood
- Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari
- Mukhtasar at-Tirmidhi
- Tabaqat ash-Shafi'iyah
- Rawdhat al-Talibeen
- Bustan al-`arifin
Recent English language editions
- Bustan al-ʿarifin (The Garden of Gnostics), Translated by Aisha Bewley
- Minhaj et talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law ; According To The School of Shafi, Law Publishing Co (1977) ASIN B0006D2W9I
- Minhaj et talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law ; According To The School of Shafi, Navrang (1992) ISBN 81-7013-097-2
- Minhaj Et Talibin: A Manual of Muhammadan Law, Adam Publishers (2005) ISBN 81-7435-249-X
The Forty Hadith
- Al-Nawawi Forty Hadiths and Commentary; Translated by Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2010) ISBN 978-1-4563-6735-0
- Ibn-Daqiq's Commentary on the Nawawi Forty Hadiths; Translated by Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2011) ISBN 1-4565-8325-5
- The Compendium of Knowledge and Wisdom; Translation of Jami' Uloom wal-Hikam by Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali translated by Abdassamad Clarke, Turath Publishing (2007) ISBN 0-9547380-2-0
- Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith, Translated by Ezzeddin Ibrahim, Islamic Texts Society; New edition (1997) ISBN 0-946621-65-9
- The Forty Hadith of al-Imam al-Nawawi, Abul-Qasim Publishing House (1999) ISBN 9960-792-76-5
- The Complete Forty Hadith, Ta-Ha Publishers (2000) ISBN 1-84200-013-6
- The Arba'een 40 Ahadith of Imam Nawawi with Commentary, Darul Ishaat
- Commentary on the Forty Hadith of Al-Nawawi (3 Vols.), by Jamaal Al-Din M. Zarabozo, Al-Basheer (1999) ISBN 1-891540-04-1
- Gardens of the righteous: Riyadh as-Salihin of Imam Nawawi, Rowman and Littlefield (1975) ISBN 0-87471-650-0
- Riyad-us-Salihin: Garden of the Righteous, Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah
- Riyadh-us-Saliheen (Vol. 1&2 in One Book) (Arabic-English) Dar Ahya Us-Sunnah Al Nabawiya
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Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d. 852/1449; Rahimahullah), the mentor of Hadith scholars and author of the book "Fath al-Bari bi-Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari", which not a single Islamic scholar can dispense with, was Ash'ari. The shaykh of the scholars of Sunni Islam, Imam al-Nawawi (d. 676/1277; Rahimahullah), author of "Sharh Sahih Muslim" and many other famous works, was Ash'ari. The master of Qur'anic exegetes, Imam al-Qurtubi (d. 671/1273; Rahimahullah), author of "al-Jami' li-Ahkam al-Qur'an", was Ash'ari. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974/1567; Rahimahullah), who wrote "al-Zawajir 'an Iqtiraf al-Kaba'ir", was Ash'ari. The Shaykh of Sacred Law and Hadith, the conclusive definitive Zakariyya al-Ansari (d. 926/1520; Rahimahullah), was Ash'ari. Imam Abu Bakr al-Baqillani (d. 403/1013; Rahimahullah), Imam al-'Asqalani; Imam al-Nasafi (d. 710/1310; Rahimahullah); Imam al-Shirbini (d. 977/1570; Rahimahullah); Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi, author of the Qur'anic commentary "al-Bahr al-Muhit"; Imam Ibn Juzayy (d. 741/1340; Rahimahullah); author of "al-Tashil fi 'Ulum al-Tanzil"; and others – all of these were Imams of the Ash'aris.
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- ^ Sahih Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi. 18 vols. Cairo 1349/1930. Reprint (18 vols. in 9). Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1401/1981, 5.24
- ^ Biography of Imam Al-Nawawi by Sheikh Navaid Aziz, retrieved 2022-09-12
- ^ "Amon our perennial faculty". Zaytuna College. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- ^ Dekmejian, R. Hrair (1995). Islam in Revolution: Fundamentalism in the Arab World Contemporary issues in the Middle East (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Syracuse University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0815626355.
- ^ Zarabozo, Jamaal al-Din M. (2008). Commentary on the Forty Hadith of al-Nawawi (2-Volume Set). Denver: Al-Basheer Company. p. 37.
- ^ a b c d Biography of Imam Al-Nawawi by Sheikh Navaid Aziz, retrieved 2022-09-12
- ^ Biography of Imam Al-Nawawi by Sheikh Navaid Aziz, retrieved 2022-09-12
- ^ "40 Hadiths of Imam Nawawi". 40HadithNawawi. Muslim American Society. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- ^ "Who Was Imam Al Nawawi (R)". Youtube. 17 June 2014. Archived from the original on 2021-09-17. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- ^ "Syrian fighters destroy historic Muslim tomb". Al Jazeera English. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- ^ "A Short Biography of Imaam an-Nawawi". Islaam.net. Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
- ^ Jamaal al-Din M. Zarabozo, Commentary on the Forty Hadith of Al-Nawawi, Volume 1, Al-Basheer Publication & Translation (1999), p. 33
- ^ "الرئيسة - الحديث - موقع الإسلام". Hadith.al-islam.com. Archived from the original on 2006-03-03. Retrieved 2014-05-20.
- ^ Ali, Mufti. "METODE AL-SUYUTI MERINGKAS AL-RADD ‘ALA'L-MANTIQIYYIN KARYA IBN TAYMIYYA." Al Qalam 22.3 (2005): 397.
- ^ https://www.amazon.co.uk/Manual-Islam-Nawawis-Al-Maqasid/dp/1590080114?asin=1590080114&revisionId=&format=4&depth=1
- Hadith scholars
- Encyclopedists of the medieval Islamic world
- Sunni Muslim scholars of Islam
- Sunni fiqh scholars
- Sharia judges
- Shaykh al-Islāms
- Theologians from the Mamluk Sultanate
- 13th-century jurists
- Biographical evaluation scholars
- 13th-century Muslim scholars of Islam
- 13th-century biographers
- Historians from the Ayyubid Sultanate
- 13th-century Syrian historians
- 1234 births
- 1277 deaths
- Supporters of Ibn Arabi