|Participant in the Syrian Civil War and the
Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon
Flag of the al-Nusra Front
|Active||23 January 2012 – present|
|Leaders||Abu Mohammad al-Julani|
|Area of operations|
Mujahideen Shura Council
Army of Conquest
Battle of Victory
Itisam bi Allah
|Battles and wars||
The al-Nusra Front, or Jabhat al-Nusra (Arabic: جبهة النصرة لأهل الشام Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shām, "The Support Front for the People of Al-Sham"), sometimes called al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, is a Sunni Islamic jihadist militia aiming to conquer Syria and establish there an Islamist state, the only Al-Qaeda branch in Syria, and operating also in Lebanon.
The group announced its formation on 23 January 2012, during the Syrian Civil War. In November 2012, The Washington Post described al-Nusra as the most successful arm of the Free Syrian Army (FSA). Ten days later, the United States designated Jabhat al-Nusra as a foreign terrorist organization, which designation was followed by the United Nations, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, the United Kingdom, and Turkey.
Since early 2015, rumours say that Qatar and other Gulf states are trying to push Nusra to a break with al-Qaeda, after which they are ready to support Nusra with money and goods. Western observers and a Syrian observer considered such a split unlikely, and Nusra’s leadership has denied such a break-up and denied talks with Qatari. But other Syrian observers consider such a split conceivable or imminent.
The al-Nusra Front remains a major military asset of the northern Syrian rebels, and has the support of most of the Free Syrian Army northern factions; most of the smaller southern rebel factions, however, vowed to oppose both al-Nusra and al-Qaeda, with a number of northern rebel groups (nominally) stating the same, despite their continued military coordination with al-Nusra.
- 1 Ideology
- 2 Analysis
- 3 History
- 4 External support
- 5 Weaponry and tactics
- 6 Senior leaders
- 7 Designation as a terrorist organisation
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The al-Nusra Front comprises primarily native Syrian mujahideen who adhere to Sunni Islam. Its goals are to overthrow Bashar al-Assad's government in Syria and to create an Islamic emirate under sharia law, with an emphasis from an early stage on focusing on the "near enemy" of the Syrian regime rather than on global jihad. Syrian members of the group claim that they are fighting only the Assad regime and would not attack Western states; while official policy of the group is to hold the United States and Israel as enemies of Islam, and to warn against Western intervention in Syria, al-Nusra Front leader Golani has stated that "We are only here to accomplish one mission, to fight the regime and its agents on the ground, including Hezbollah and others". In early 2014, Sami Al Oraidi, a top sharia official in the group, acknowledged that his group is influenced by the teachings of Abu Musab al-Suri. The strategies derived from Abu Musab's guidelines include: providing services to people, avoiding being seen as extremists, maintaining strong relationships with communities and other fighting groups, and putting the focus on fighting the government. This practice of showing a moderate attitude is called tamkeen in Arabic and has been more evident after an accident which happen on 10 June 2015. Jabhat al-Nusra fighters shot dead at least 20 civilians of the Druze minority after one of them, supporter of the Assad regime, opposed the expropriation of his house. The accident attracted much criticism and since then the group has been trying to show a more benevolent attitude towards the local population.
The tactics of the al-Nusra Front differ markedly from those of rival jihadist groups such as ISIL; whereas ISIL has alienated local populations by demanding allegiance and carrying out beheadings, the al-Nusra Front has cooperated with other militant groups and has declined to impose sharia law where there has been opposition. Analysts have noted this could give the al-Nusra Front a greater long-term advantage.
In early 2015 al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahiri instructed al-Nusra Front leader Jolani to pursue the following five goals:
- better integrate his movement within the Syrian revolution and its people
- coordinate more closely with all Islamic groups on the ground
- contribute towards the establishment of a Syria-wide sharia judicial court system
- use strategic areas of the country to build a sustainable al-Qaeda power base
- cease any activity linked to attacking the West
Its magazine Al Risalah was first issued in July 2015.
The leader of al-Nusra, a self-proclaimed emir, goes by the name of Abu Mohammad al-Julani (also transliterated as: Mohammed and al-Jawlani, or: al-Golani), which implies that he is from the Golan Heights (al-Jawlan, in Arabic). Very little is known about him, with even his nationality unclear. However, in an interview with Al Jazeera, he spoke classical Arabic with a Syrian accent.
The structure of the group varies across Syria. In Damascus the organisation operates in an underground clandestine cell system, while in Aleppo, the group is organised along semi-conventional military lines, with units divided into brigades, regiments, and platoons. All potential recruits must undertake a ten-day religious training course, followed by a 15–20-day military training program.
Al-Nusra contains a hierarchy of religious bodies, with a small Majlis-ash-Shura (Consultative Council) at the top, making national decisions on behalf of the group. Religious personnel also play an important role in the regional JN leadership, with each region having a commander and a sheikh. The sheikh supervises the commander from a religious perspective and is known as dabet al-shar'i (religious commissioner). Members of the group are accused of attacking the religious beliefs of non-Sunnis in Syria, including the Alawis. New York Times journalist C. J. Chivers cites "some analysts and diplomats" as noting that al-Nusra Front and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant "can appear less focused on toppling" the Assad government than on "establishing a zone of influence spanning Iraq's Anbar Province and the desert eastern areas of Syria, and eventually establishing an Islamic territory under their administration".
An increasing number of Americans have been attempting to join the fighting in Syria, like MD Ahmad Zarkali and Thayer al-atheim and fifty friends, specifically with al-Nusra. Most recently, Sinh Vinh Ngo Nguyen, also known as Hasan Abu Omar Ghannoum, was arrested in California on 11 October 2013, on charges of attempting to travel to join al-Qaeda, after reportedly having fought in Syria. As of November 2013, there had also been five additional publicly disclosed cases of Americans fighting in Syria, three of which were linked to al-Nusra.
All statements and videos by the al-Nusra Front have been released by its media outlet, al-Manarah al-Bayda (The White Minaret), via the leading jihadist webforum Shamoukh al-Islam.
Upon the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, Islamic State of Iraq’s leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and al-Qaeda’s central command in August 2011 authorized the Syrian Abu Mohammad al-Golani to set up a Syrian offshoot of al Qaeda, to bring down the Syrian Assad regime and establish an Islamic state there. Golani with some colleagues snuck over the border into Syria, and reached out to cells of men released since May–June 2011 from the Syrian Sednaya military prison already active in armed battle against Assad’s security forces.
A number of meetings were held between October 2011 and January 2012 in Rif Dimashq and Homs where the objectives of the group were determined. Golani’s group formally announced itself under the name "Jabhat al-Nusra l’Ahl as-Sham" (Support Front for the People of the Sham) on 23 January 2012.
Iraq's deputy interior minister said in early February 2012 that weapons and Islamist militants were entering Syria from Iraq. The Quilliam Foundation reported that many of Nusra's members were Syrians who were part of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's Islamist network fighting the 2003 American invasion in Iraq; Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari agreed to that in 2012. The British The Daily Telegraph stated in December 2012 that many foreign al-Nusra fighters were hardened veterans from conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Strength in 2012
By the second half of 2012, Jabhat al-Nusra stood out among the array of armed groups emerging in Syria as a disciplined and effective fighting force. Nusra in October 2012 refused a call for a four-day ceasefire in Syria during Eid al-Adha feast.
In November 2012, they were considered by The Huffington Post to be the best trained and most experienced fighters among the Syrian rebels. According to spokesmen of a moderate wing of the Free Syrian Army (FSA), Nusra had in November 2012 between 6,000 and 10,000 fighters, accounting for 7–9% of the FSA’s total fighters. Commentator David Ignatius for The Washington Post described Nusra then as the most aggressive and successful arm of the FSA. The United States Department of State stated likewise: “From the reports we get from the doctors, most of the injured and dead FSA are Jabhat al-Nusra, due to their courage and [the fact they are] always at the front line”.
On 10 December 2012, the U.S. designated Nusra a foreign terrorist organization and an alias of Al Qaeda in Iraq. That decision made it illegal for Americans to deal financially with Nusra. Days earlier, the American ambassador to Syria, R. Ford, had said: “Extremist groups like Jabhat al-Nusra are a problem, an obstacle to finding the political solution that Syria’s going to need”.
Appreciation al-Nusra by other Syrian rebels
Syrian rebels fighting in the 2012 Battle of Aleppo said in October 2012 that foreign Islamic militants from Jabhat al-Nusra were a welcome boost. One rebel said that members of Nusra "rush to the rescue of rebel lines that come under pressure and hold them [...] They know what they are doing and are very disciplined. They are like the special forces of Aleppo."
After on 10 December 2012 the US designated the al-Nusra Front as an al-Qaeda linked terrorist group, on 10 December 29 opposition groups including fighting brigades and civilian organisations defied the US classification and rallied behind the al-Nusra Front, with the slogan: "No to American intervention, for we are all Jabhat al-Nusra." A statement on many Syrian opposition Facebook pages said: “These are the men (…) who belong to us in religion, in blood and in revolution”. A Free Syrian Army (FSA) spokesman in the Aleppo region said those days: "We might not share the same beliefs as Jabhat al-Nusra, but we are fighting the same enemy", and the head of FSA in Aleppo said: “Al-Nusra has never done anything illegal or worth condemning (…) They are fighting side by side with us”.
On 12 December, also the leader of the Syrian National Coalition – a rebel coalition recognized by 100 countries inclusing the US as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people – called on the US to reconsider its decision to list the al-Nusra Front as a foreign terrorist organisation; no rebel force whose goal is "the fall of the regime" should be considered a terrorist organisation, he stated.
A senior political official of the FSA said in October 2012, on condition of anonymity, and perhaps alluding to potential Nusra suicide bombings like the March 2012 Damascus bombings, May 2012 Damascus bombings and the 3 October Aleppo bombings: "Their presence is reducing the popular support that we desperately need in areas where we operate [...] I appreciate their motives for coming to Syria. We cannot deny Muslims their right to jihad, but we want them to leave."
At the end of 2012, in some parts of Syria, especially the north, the tension between Jihadist (like Nusra) and secular rebel groups was palpable, they watched each other's military bases warily, unclasping the safety catches on their guns as they passed. A secular rebel said: “The next war after Assad falls will be between us and the Islamists”. The leader of an FSA rebel group in the northern Idlib Governorate said in December 2012, reacting on the growing strength of Nusra: "We are not fighting Bashar al-Assad to go from living in an autocratic to a religious prison".
Split with ISIL (2013)
On 8 April 2013, the leader of the then Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, released a recorded audio message on the Internet, in which he announced that Jabhat al-Nusra was part of the al-Qaeda network, and that he wanted to merge Jabhat al-Nusra with ISI again into one group, "Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham" (ISIL or ISIS), under his command.
Al-Baghdadi said that Abu Mohammad al-Julani, the leader of Jabhat al-Nusra, had been dispatched by the group along with a group of men to Syria to meet with pre-existing cells in the country. Al-Baghdadi said that the ISI had provided Jabhat al-Nusra with the plans and strategy needed for the Syrian Civil War and had been providing them funding on a monthly basis. Al-Baghdadi then declared that the two groups were officially merging under the name Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham/the Levant (ISIS/ISIL). The next day Nusra leader al-Julani rejected the merger and affirmed the group's allegiance to al-Qaeda and its leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri. Al-Julani was quoted as saying, "We inform you that neither the al-Nusra command nor its consultative council, nor its general manager were aware of this announcement. It reached them via the media and if the speech is authentic, we were not consulted." Nusra split up, some members, particularly foreign fighters, followed Baghdadi’s edict and joined ISIL, others stayed with Golani.
In May 2013, Reuters reported that Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of the ISI, had travelled from Iraq to Syria's Aleppo Governorate province and begun recruiting members of al-Nusra. There were media reports that many of al-Nusra's foreign fighters had left to join al-Baghdadi's Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), while many Syrian fighters left the group to join other Islamist brigades. Sometime in May 2013, Abu Mohammad al-Julani, the leader of al-Nusra, was injured by an airstrike conducted by the Syrian government. In June 2013, Al Jazeera reported that it had obtained a letter written by al-Qaeda leader Ayman Al-Zawahiri, addressed to both Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and Abu Mohammad al-Julani, in which he ruled against the merger of the two organisations and appointed an emissary to oversee relations between them and put an end to tensions. Later in the same month, an audio message from Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was released in which he rejected al-Zawahiri's ruling and declared that the merger of the two organisations into the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant was going ahead. This sequence of events is said to have caused much confusion and division amongst members of al-Nusra.
Al-Qaeda leader Al-Zawahiri in November 2013 considered Jabhat Al-Nusra to be the (only) Al-Qaeda branch in Syria, and bestowed the title “Tanzim Qa'edat Al-Jihad fi Bilad Al-Sham” (“the Qae'dat Al-Jihad organization in Syria”) on Jabhat Al-Nusra, officially integrating Nusra into Al-Qaeda’s global network.
Open fights Nusra–ISIL (2013–2015)
Some units of al-Nusra late 2013 began taking part in clashes against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
In February 2014, after efforts to heal the dispute between ISIL and Nusra had failed, al-Qaeda formally dissociated itself from its onetime affiliate ISIL, leaving Jabhat al-Nusra the sole representative of al-Qaeda in Syria. In the same month, al-Julani threatened to go to war with ISIL over their suspected role in the killing of senior Ahrar ash-Sham commander Abu Khaled al-Souri. Al-Julani gave ISIL five days to submit evidence that they were innocent of the attack to three imprisoned Jihadist clerics, Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Abu Qatada al-Falastini, and Suleiman al-Alwan. On 16 April 2014, ISIL killed al-Nusra's Idlib chief Abu Mohammad al-Ansari together with his family, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported. In May 2014, open fighting soon broke out between ISIL and al-Nusra in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, leaving hundreds dead on both sides.
By July 2014, al-Nusra had largely been expelled from Deir ez-Zor Governorate. Also in July, an audio recording attributed to al-Julani appeared online, in which he said that al-Nusra planned to establish an Islamic emirate in the areas of Syria where they had a presence. A statement issued on 12 July 2014 by al-Nusra's media channel affirmed the authenticity of the recording, but stated that they had not yet declared the establishment of an emirate.
In June 2015, Nusra leader Abu Mohammed al-Golani stated regarding ISIL that "There is no solution between us and them in the meantime, or in the foreseeable future [...] We hope they repent to God and return to their senses ... if not, then there is nothing but fighting between us."
Speculations on a split with al-Qaeda
On 12 February 2015, SITE Intelligence Group cited rumours that Nusra leader al-Julani had plans to disassociate from al-Qaeda.
On 4 March, ‘sources within and close to al-Nusra’ reportedly had said to Reuters that in the past months Qatar and other Gulf states had talked with Nusra leader al-Julani and encouraged him to abandon al-Qaeda, promising funding to Nusra once that break-up was carried out. An official close to the Qatari government had confirmed to Reuters that Qatar wanted Nusra to become purely Syrian and disconnect from al-Qaeda, after which Qatar would start to support Nusra with money and supplies. Muzamjer al-Sham, reportedly a ‘prominent jihadi close to Nusra’ had said that Nusra would soon merge with Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar and other small jihadi brigades and disengage from al-Qaeda, but that not all Nusra emirs had yet agreed to that.
But on 9 March 2015, in a statement issued on Twitter, al-Nusra denied “completely all reports of a meeting with Qatari” and reports of a break-up with Al-Qaeda. Expert Thomas Pierret at the University of Edinburgh assumed that Qatar was trying to force the hand of Al-Nusra with this ‘leak’ about a split, and said a break with Al-Qaeda was very unlikely. French expert on jihadism Romain Caillet agreed: “The overwhelming majority of Al-Nusra members want to stay in Al-Qaeda, particularly foreign fighters who represent at least one-third of the organisation”.
But on 4 May 2015, Abu Maria al-Qahtani, the commander of al-Nusra in Deir ez-Zor province, still strongly advocated a split with al-Qaeda. Muhamed Nabih Osman, leading a charitable organisation for former Assad prisoners, said then to website The Daily Beast: “I think it will happen soon. You have to understand that al-Nusra consists of two very different parts and that one part, mostly local fighters, are not interested in global jihad”.
On 7 May, a Turkish official said that Turkey and Saudi Arabia were bolstering Ahrar al-Sham at Nusra’s expense, hoping that al-Sham’s rise puts pressure on Nusra to renounce its ties to al-Qaeda and open itself to outside help.
A ‘well-connected Syrian Islamist’ is being cited end of May 2015 in The Huffington Post about Nusra: "There are now two main currents... the conservatives are keen on keeping ties to Al-Qaeda and the others are more inclined towards the new Syria-focused approach". Another ‘Islamist official from Damascus’ is cited: “Nusra’s disengagement from al Qaeda would be good for the revolution, but Jabhat al-Nusra will always be in dire need of al Qaeda’s name to keep its foreign fighters away from IS. Most Jabhat foreign fighters will never accept to fight and die for what looks like an Islamic national project.”
Other attacks (2012–2015)
The 6 January 2012 al-Midan bombing was claimed by al-Nusra, in a video seen by AFP on 29 February 2012. It was allegedly carried out by Abu al-Baraa al-Shami. Footage of the destruction caused by the blast was released on a jihadist forum. The video asserts that the "martyrdom-seeking operation" was executed "in revenge for our mother Umm Abdullah—from the city of Homs—against whom the criminals of the regime violated her dignity and threatened to slaughter her son," SITE reported. The video shows "an excerpt of allegiances, operations, and training of the al-Nusra Front" as well as a fighter "amongst the masses in a public demonstration, advising them to do their prayers and adhere to the rituals of Islam."
The al-Nusra Front announced the formation of the "Free Ones of the Levant Brigades", in a YouTube video statement that was released on 23 January. In the statement, the group claimed that it attacked the headquarters of security in Idlib province. "To all the free people of Syria, we announce the formation of the Free Ones of the Levant Brigades," the statement said, according to a translation obtained by The Long War Journal. "We promise Allah, and then we promise you, that we will be a firm shield and a striking hand to repel the attacks of this criminal Al Assad army with all the might we can muster. We promise to protect the lives of civilians and their possessions from security and the Shabiha [pro-government] militia. We are a people who will either gain victory or die."
The 10 May 2012 Damascus bombings were allegedly claimed by al-Nusra Front in an Internet video; however, on 15 May 2012, someone claiming to be a spokesman for the group denied that the organisation was responsible for the attack, saying that it would only release information through jihadist forums.
On 29 May 2012, a mass execution was discovered near the eastern city of Deir ez-Zor. The unidentified corpses of 13 men had been discovered shot to death execution-style. On 5 June 2012, the al-Nusra Front claimed responsibility for the killings, stating that they had captured and interrogated the soldiers in Deir ez-Zor and "justly" punished them with death, after they confessed to crimes.
On 17 June 2012, Walid Ahmad al-Ayesh, described by Syrian authorities as the "right hand" of the al-Nusra Front, was killed when Syrian authorities discovered his hiding place. He was reportedly responsible for the making of car bombs that were used to attack Damascus in the previous months. The Syrian authorities reported the killing of another prominent member of the group, Wael Mohammad al-Majdalawi, killed on 12 August 2012 in an operation conducted in Damascus.
On 27 June 2012, a group of Syrian rebels attacked a pro-government TV station in the town of Drousha, just south of the capital Damascus. The station's studios were destroyed with explosives. Seven people were killed in the attack on Al-Ikhbariya TV, including four guards and three journalists. Al-Nusra claimed responsibility for the attack and published photos of 11 station employees they kidnapped following the raid.
The murder in July 2012 of journalist Mohammed al-Saeed, a well-known government TV news presenter, was claimed by Nusra in a video released on 3 or 4 August, according to Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
The 3 October 2012 Aleppo bombings were claimed by Al-Nusra. Three suicide car bombs exploded at the eastern corner of the central Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square killing 48 people. More than 122 people were reported to be heavily injured. The bombs targeted the Officers' club and the nearby buildings of the Touristic Hotel and the historic "Jouha Café". The hotel received major damage while the café was entirely destroyed. A small building within the Officers' club was ruined as well.
The al-Nusra Front also claimed responsibility for attacking numerous Syrian military bases, including:
- Aleppo district: an air defence base, on: 12 October 2012
- Aleppo city: the Hanano barracks
- Raqqah: the Suluq barracks
In the air defence base assault they reportedly destroyed buildings and sabotaged radar and rockets after over-running the base in co-operation with the al-Fajr Islamic Movement and a group of Chechen fighters. During the storming of the Hanano barracks 11 soldiers were killed and they held the complex for six hours before retreating. They also claimed killing 32 soldiers during the raid on the Raqqah base.
In October 2012, they joined other rebels in an attack on the Wadi Deif base around Maraat al Numan, in a prolonged fighting that turned into a siege of the base. They also led an attack on the Taftanaz Air Base in November 2012, an important and strategic base for the Syrian army, containing up to 48 helicopters.
The group seized three army checkpoints around Saraqeb at the end of October 2012, forcing the Syrian Army to withdraw from the area the next day. In the battle, 28 Syrian soldiers were killed as well as five Nusra fighters. Some of the captured soldiers were summarily executed after being called "Assad dogs". The video of these executions was widely condemned, with the United Nations referring to them as probable war crimes.
Members of the al-Nusra Front carried out two suicide attacks in early November 2012. One occurred in a rural development center in Sahl al-Ghab in Hama province, where a car bomb killed two people; while the other occurred in the Mezzeh neighbourhood of Damascus, where a suicide bomber killed 11 people. The SOHR claimed a total of 50 soldiers were killed in the Sahl al-Ghab attack.
Al Jazeera reported on 23 December 2012 that the al-Nusra Front had declared a "no-fly-zone" over Aleppo, using 23 mm and 57 mm anti-aircraft guns to down planes. This would include commercial flights which al-Nusra believed transported military equipment and troops. In a video sent to Al Jazeera, they warned civilians against boarding commercial flights.
In February 2013, Al Nusra fighters were involved in fighting in Safira with government reinforcements, preventing these forces from reaching their destination of the city of Aleppo. A monitoring group claims this resulted in more than two hundred casualties over a period of two weeks.
The group has taken part in military operations with the Free Syrian Army. Abu Haidar, a Syrian FSA co-ordinator in Aleppo's Saif al-Dawla district said that al-Nusra Front "have experienced fighters who are like the revolution's elite commando troops."
In December 2013, al-Nusra abducted 13 nuns from a Christian monastery in Maaloula. They were held in the town of Yabroud until 9 March 2014, The nuns reported they had not been harassed and could keep religious symbols.
On 28 August 2014, militants from the group kidnapped 45 UN peacekeepers from Fiji from Golan Heights in the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force Zone. The group demanded that it be removed from the UN's list of terrorist organisations in exchange for the lives of the peacekeepers. In addition to UN personnel, the group routinely captures UN vehicles to use as car bombs. At the same time, two groups of UN peacekeepers from Philippines were trapped under fire in nearby Rwihinah. On 31 August, one group of 32 Filipinos soldiers was rescued and the other group of 40 soldiers escaped. The rescue operation was carried out by Irish peacekeepers. Colonel Ezra Enriquez of the Philippines, who oversaw the operations, resigned over disagreements with Indian Lieutenant General Iqbal Singh Singha. Singha had allegedly ordered the Filipinos peacekeepers to surrender arms to ensure the safe release of the Fijian soldiers. On 8 September, Rodrigo Duterte, the mayor of Davao City, called for Singha's death after he allegedly called the Filipinos soldiers cowards. On 11 September, the kidnapped Fijian soldiers were released.
In late October 2014, al-Nusra began attacking some Free Syrian Army and moderate Islamist groups that it was formerly allied with, reportedly in a bid to eventually establish its own Islamic state in the cities it controlled in Idlib Governorate and other neighbouring Governorates.
In June 2015, fighters of al-Nusra massacred 20 Druze villagers in Idlib province located in north-west Syria. Al-Nusra's leadership apologized and blamed the incident on a few undisciplined fighters.
At least one Arab government[which?] has accused Qatar of helping al-Nusra. The US Government has been sending weapons to rebels in Syria since at least late 2013, and perhaps as early as 2011, during the begininning phases of the conflict. These weapons have been reportedly falling into hands of extremists, such as al-Nusra and ISIL. It has also been argued that the Iranian government has supported the group.
al-Nusra has also been materially supported by multiple foreign fighters. Most of these fighters are from Europe and the Middle East, as pipelines to Syria from those locations are better established and navigable. However, as of November 2013, there were also 6 publicly disclosed cases of American citizens and permanent residents who joined or attempted to join al-Nusrah in 2013 alone.
The Independent reported that Saudi Arabia and Turkey "are focusing their backing for the Syrian rebels on the combined Jaish al-Fatah, or the Army of Conquest, a command structure for jihadist groups in Syria that includes Jabhat al-Nusra."
Khorasan, also known as the Khorasan Group, is a group of senior al-Qaeda members who operate in Syria. The group is reported to consist of a small number of fighters who are all on terrorist watchlists, and co-ordinate with the al-Nusra Front. At an intelligence gathering in Washington, D.C. on 18 September 2014, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper stated that "in terms of threat to the homeland, Khorasan may pose as much of a danger as ISIS." The term first appeared in news media in September 2014, although the United States had reportedly been keeping track of the group for two years previously. Al-Nusra Front leader Abu Mohammad al-Golani denied the existence of this alleged "Khorasan group" in an interview with Al-Jazeera on 28 May 2015.
Weaponry and tactics
The organisation is believed to have used, at various times and in various places, the following tactics: car-bombs, suicide-attacks, targeting of checkpoints, conventional assault of military bases, assassination of political and military figures and members of the shabiha, targeting (destruction/killing) of pro-government media stations and personnel.
By June 2013, there had been apparently 70 suicide-attacks in Syria. Of these, the group denied responsibility for 13 but claimed responsibility for the other 57. In June 2012, the group attacked the pro-government TV station at Drousha, near Damascus. The following month the government-TV presenter Mohammed al-Saeed disappeared; the group later declared him dead.
The al-Nusra Front allegedly have an elite sniper unit known as the "Wolf Group". Training is conducted in Aleppo by veteran jihadists who belong to the Khorasan Group, a collection of veteran al-Qaeda operatives sent from al-Qaeda strongholds along the Afghan-Pakistan border.
A report surfaced in June 2013 of former Iraqi Ba'ath officials supplying the chemical weapon Sarin to the al-Nusra Front through former Iraqi Brig. Gen. Adnan al-Dulaimi. The report detailed how "several former Iraqi military engineers trained the al-Nusra Front on how to use these chemical weapons" adding that all plans in this connection were prepared by al-Dulaimi and staged after Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri's approval. The sourcing of this report is said to be an aide to al-Douri.
On 30 May, Turkish newspapers reported that Turkish security forces had arrested al-Nusra fighters in the southern provinces of Mersin and Adana near the Syrian border and confiscated 2 kg of sarin gas. The governor of Adana claimed that the security forces had not found sarin gas but unknown chemicals, without offering further elaboration. The Turkish Ambassador to Moscow later said that tests showed the chemical seized was anti-freeze, not sarin. In September six of those arrested in May were charged with attempting to acquire chemicals which could be used to produce sarin; the indictment said that it was "possible to produce sarin gas by combining the materials in proper conditions." The indictment said that "The suspects have pleaded not guilty saying that they had not been aware the materials they had tried to obtain could have been used to make sarin gas. Suspects have been consistently providing conflicting and incoherent facts on this matter." The suspects were said to be linked to al-Nusra and to Ahrar ash-Sham.
|Abu Mohammad al-Julani||Emir||
|Sami al-Oraydi||Deputy Emir||
|Abu Humam al-Shami||Military Commander|
|Abu Firas al-Suri||Chief Spokesperson||
|Abu Maria Al-Qahtani||Emir of the Eastern area||
|Abu Muhammed al Ansari||Emir of Idlib province|
Designation as a terrorist organisation
Countries and organisations below have officially listed the al-Nusra Front as a terrorist organisation.
|Iran||3 January 2012|||
|Australia||28 June 2013|||
|Canada||7 November 2013|||
|France||23 September 2013|||
|Russia||29 December 2014|||
|Saudi Arabia||7 March 2014|||
|Turkey||4 June 2014|||
|United Arab Emirates||19 May 2014|||
|United Kingdom||19 July 2013|||
|United States||10 December 2012|||
- "Interview with Official of Jabhat al-Nusra, Syria's Islamist Militia Group". Time. 25 December 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "The Al-Nusra Front" (PDF). 23 September 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra". Australian National Security. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra, A Strategic Briefing" (PDF). Quilliam Foundation. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- "Al-Nusra Front". 2012. Retrieved November 2014.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra in Syria". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Syria: A gathering force". Financial Times. February 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "TIME Exclusive: Meet the Islamist Militants Fighting Alongside Syria’s Rebels". Time. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- "Syria: ISIS tightens grip, Nusra takes losses". Al-Monitor. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Abdallah Suleiman Ali (12 February 2014). "ISIS losing ground in Syria to Jabhat al-Nusra". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Nick Paton Walsh and Laura Smith-Spark (6 November 2014). "Report: Airstrikes target another Islamist group in Syria". CNN. Retrieved November 2014.
- "Syria's Qaeda leader killed in explosion - ARA News". ARA News.
- "Al Nusra Front claims Lebanon suicide attack". Al Jazeera. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "Syria crisis: Spooked by rebel gains, Jordan doubles down on Islamic State". 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- "New Syrian jihadist body formed to fight ISIS". Al Monitor. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Rebels launch full-on assault of Idlib city". Syria Direct. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Jocelyn, Thomas (23 April 2015). "Al Nusrah Front, allies launch new offensives against Syrian regime". Long War Journal.
- "Rebel and Islamist groups form (another) op room "Ansar Al-Shariah" to take Aleppo city and its countryside". Reddit. 2 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "#SRO INFOGRAPHIC - EXCLUSIVE - Rebellion forces in Hermon Mount area (S-W #Syria) creating the Jaysh al-Haramon.". Twitter. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Clashes erupt between al-Nusra Front and moderate groups in Deraa, Syria". The Daily Sabah. 14 April 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "Clashes renewed between Islamist groups near Syria's Hasaka". ARA News. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- O'Bagy, Elizabeth (2012). Middle East Security Report: Jihad in Syria (PDF) 6. Washington, DC. p. 27.
- "Former Guantanamo detainee killed while leading jihadist group in Syria". Long War Journal. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Syria rebels advance in Hama". ARA News. 12 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Al Qaeda seizes territory from moderate Syrian group". Reuters. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (11 May 2014). "Key Updates on Iraq's Sunni Insurgent Groups". Brown Moses Blog. Retrieved February 2015.
- "Syria rebels in south reject cooperation with Nusra". The Daily Star. AFP. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
Rebels fighting in southern Syria will not cooperate militarily with Al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate, Al-Nusra Front, a spokesman said Wednesday [...] "We reject all forms of cooperation with Nusra Front because keeping silent on its excesses, its statements and its violations will only allow them to continue," Rayes told AFP.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra eyes Idlib for Islamic emirate". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Al Qaeda seizes territory from moderate Syrian group". Reuters. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Ahmed Marshal. "اشتباكات بين حركة وحزم وجبهة النصرة في ريف حلب الغربي وريف إدلب". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- sohranas. "The Nusra Front storms the village of Ayn Laroz and arrests dozens of people, including fighters". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights.
- Leith Fadel. "Al-Qaeda linked group captures large supply of weapons from western-backed rebels". Al-Masdar News.
- Mortada, Radwan (19 May 2014). "Hezbollah fighters and the "jihadis:" Mad, drugged, homicidal, and hungry". al-Akhbar English. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra launches war against IS in Qalamoun". CNN. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra, IS clash in Daraa". 16 December 2014. Retrieved 2015.
- "Rebels fight ISIS-linked group near Israeli-occupied Golan". AFP. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "Al-Qaeda defeats Syrian moderate rebels in Idlib". ARA News. 2 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra looks for battlefield breakout". As-Safir. 29 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Al-Qaeda Upgrades Its Presence in Syria". MEMRI. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra A Strategic Briefing" (PDF). Quilliam Foundation. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Zawahiri disbands main Qaeda faction in Syria". GlobalPost. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- Al Qaeda-linked group Al Nusra Front claims deadly car bombing in Lebanese capital Beirut ABC, 21 January 2014
- "Islamist group claims Syria bombs 'to avenge Sunnis'". Al Arabiya. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Ignatius, David (30 November 2012). "Al-Qaeda affiliate playing larger role in Syria rebellion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- "U.S. Places Militant Syrian Rebel Group on List of Terrorist Organizations". New York Times. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- "UN blacklists Syria's al-Nusra Front". Al Jazeera. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- in June 2013 "Australian Government lists anti-Assad Syrian group as terrorist organisation - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "About the listing process". Publicsafety.gc.ca. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Russia calls on all states to put Islamic State, Jabhat al-Nusra on terrorist lists". Russian News Agency "TASS". Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- (in July 2013) "Britain bans Syria's al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front on terrorism grounds". Fox News Channel. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Turkey lists al-Nusra Front as terrorist organization". Hürriyet Daily News. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- Karouny, Mariam (4 March 2015). "Insight - Syria's Nusra Front may leave Qaeda to form new entity". Reuters. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- "Qaeda in Syria denies plan to break away". Yahoo!News, AFP. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Lister , Charles (31 May 2015). "An Internal Struggle: Al Qaeda's Syrian Affiliate Is Grappling With Its Identity". Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Dettmer, Jamie (4 May 2015). "SYRIA’S REBELS ON WINNING STREAK—IN ALLIANCE WITH AL QAEDA". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
“I think it will happen soon,” says Muhamed Nabih Osman, who oversees a charitable association for former Assad prisoners. “You have to understand that al Nusra consists of two very different parts and that one part, mostly local fighters, are not interested in global jihad.” [...] But local fighters—who likely make up 80 percent of al Nusra—have been opposed to deal-making with ISIS and have been critical of the harsh governance methods used by some of their pro-ISIS comrades in territory controlled by al Nusra.
- "Syria rebels capture key Idlib army bases". Al Jazeera English. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- "Why Assad is losing". Foreign Policy. 5 May 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- "New enemies across Syrian border". August 2014. Retrieved 2015.
- "The Syrian rebel groups pulling in foreign fighters". 2013. Retrieved 2015.
- al-Khatieb, Mohammed (July 2014). "Jabhat al-Nusra, IS compete for foreign fighters". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2014.
- "Al-Nusra Front not yet dead as its emir devises "Islamic Emirate of the Levant"". al-akhbar. July 2014. Retrieved 2014.
- "Al-Nusra Front". 2012. Retrieved November 2014.
- Sherlock, Ruth (2 December 2012). "Inside Jabhat al Nusra - the most extreme wing of Syria's struggle". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "Profile: Syria's al-Nusra Front". BBC News. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Nusra leader: No end to conflict with ISIL in Syria". Al Jazeera. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Hassan Hassan (4 March 2014). "A jihadist blueprint for hearts and minds is gaining traction in Syria". The National.
- Fanack Chronicle. "Jabhat al-Nusra Tries to Look Like a Moderate Terrorist Group". Fanack.com. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- Hubbard, Ben (9 June 2015). "Al Qaeda Tries a New Tactic to Keep Power: Sharing It". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
Cooperating with others could also give Al Qaeda a long-term advantage in its competition with the extremists of the Islamic State, analysts said [...] Civilians living in Nusra Front areas, too, say the group has built local support, refraining from imposing Shariah when residents resisted.
- "Al-Qaeda leader in Syria speaks to Al Jazeera". Al Jazeera. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Chivers, C. J. (5 September 2013). "Brutality of Syrian Rebels Posing Dilemma in West". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "California Arrest Underscores Ongoing Concern Over Americans Joining Al Qaeda Abroad". Access ADL. Anti-Defamation League.
- "North Carolina Arrest Marks 6th American in 2013 Associated With Al Qaeda in Syria". Access ADL. Anti-Defamation League.
- Abouzeid, Rania (23 June 2014). "The Jihad Next Door". Politico. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Jihadists, weapons 'moving from Iraq to Syria'". Agence France-Presse. 11 February 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Karam, Zeina (6 July 2012). "Iraq: Al-Qaeda migrates to Syria". Associated Press.
- "With wary eye, Syrian rebels welcome Islamists into their ranks". The Times of Israel. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "Syria Conflict: Rebels, Army Battle Over Taftanaz Airbase". The Huffington Post. 3 November 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Syrian rebels defy US and pledge allegiance to jihadi group". The Telegraph (London). 10 December 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- "Islamist groups gaining prominence in Syria fight". USA Today. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- "For newly recognized Syrian rebel coalition, a first dispute with US". The Christian Science Monitor. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "Syrian protesters slam U.S. blacklisting of jihadist group". Daily Star. Agence France-Presse. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "Free Syrian Army rebels defect to Islamist group Jabhat al-Nusra". The Guardian (London). 8 May 2013.
- "Qaeda in Iraq confirms Syria's Nusra is part of network". Agence France-Presse. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "ISI Confirms That Jabhat Al-Nusra Is Its Extension In Syria, Declares 'Islamic State Of Iraq And Al-Sham' As New Name of Merged Group". MEMRI. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "Al-Nusra Commits to al-Qaeda, Deny Iraq Branch 'Merger'". Agence France-Presse. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "Iraqi al-Qaeda chief rejects Zawahiri orders". Al Jazeera. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "Insight: Syria's Nusra Front eclipsed by Iraq-based al Qaeda". Reuters. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Spencer, Richard (19 May 2013). "Syria: Jabhat al-Nusra split after leader's pledge of support for al-Qaeda". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "PressTV-Al-Nusra leader injured in Syria: report". presstv.com.
- "Qaeda chief annuls Syrian-Iraqi jihad merger". Al Jazeera. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- "Factbox: Syria's rebel groups". Reuters. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Liz Sly (3 February 2014). "Al-Qaeda disavows any ties with radical Islamist ISIS group in Syria, Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Syria: al-Nusra Front declares war on ISIS". Al Akhbar English. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Al-Nusra chief killed by rivals in Syria". 16 April 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Hundreds killed as ISIL insurgents gain ground in east Syria". Reuters. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Al Qaeda leaves east Syria strongholds to Islamic State -monitor". Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Al Qaeda's rise in southern Syrian pushes moderate rebels to sideline". Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Will the 'Emirate of the Levant' be announced on Eid al-Fitr?". Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Jabhat al-Nusra, IS compete for foreign fighters". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Rebels Call on Al Nusra Front to Rethink Establishing its "Emirat". Syrian National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Al Nusra Front Has 'Dissociated' from Al Qaeda, Says Abu Muhammad al Julani". International Business Times. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Butler, Desmond (7 May 2015). "Turkey Officials Confirm Pact With Saudi Arabia To Help Rebels Fighting Syria's Assad". Huffington Post. AP. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
Turkish officials say they distinguish between international jihadist groups and others with more localized aims. They place al-Sham in the latter category. Moreover, they hope to use al-Sham's rise to put pressure on Nusra to renounce its ties to al-Qaida and open itself to outside help.
- ‘Islamist group post video claiming Syria attacks’. NOW., 29 February 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Unknown Islamist group claims suicide attacks in Syria". Al Arabiya. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- Bill Roggio (26 February 2012). "Al Nusrah Front claims suicide attack in Syria". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- "Jihadist group claim responsibility for Damascus blasts". ITV News. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Jihadist group denies claiming Damascus bombings". Dawn. Agence France-Presse. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Gladstone, Rick (30 May 2012). "U.S. Envoy Sees Grim Outcome for Syria". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Militant group claims killing of 13 in Syria". Reuters. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "Terrorist Al-Ayesh, Who Supervised Rigging Car Bombs Detonated in Damascus, Killed". Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Seven killed in attack on Syrian TV station". Mail & Guardian. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Jihadists claim Syria attacks". Associated Press. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Syrian TV presenter executed - Doha Freedom Centre". dc4mf.org. 5 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Syrian TV presenter Mohammad al Saeed has been executed by Islamist armed group Al-Nusra, says rights group". Al Jazeera. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Militant group Al-Nusra claim suicide bombings in Aleppo". Reuters. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- "Militant group Al-Nusra claim suicide bombings in Aleppo". Reuters. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Sada el-Balad". El-balad.com. 3 October 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "ABC News:Dozens killed in Aleppo bomb blasts". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 3 October 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Albert Aji and Zeina Karam (3 October 2012). "Syrian official: 27 killed in Aleppo bombings". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Militant group says was behind Aleppo air defense base assault". Reuters. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Syria, most rebels agree to four-day truce". Afr.com. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Syrian rebels kill 28 soldiers as fighting continues". The Jordan Times. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Matthew Weaver (2 November 2012). "Syria conflict: rebel 'war crime' caught on video". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "At least 50 pro-Assad forces killed in Syria suicide bombing, activists say". Haaretz. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- Karouny, Mariam (5 November 2012). "Suicide bomber kills 50 Syrian security men: opposition". Reuters. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Syria 'secures chemical weapons stockpile'". Al Jazeera. 23 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Syrian rebels push offensive for major airport". Ynet. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Priest Beheaded on Video By Syrian Jihadists Bears 'No Relation' To Death of Father François Murad [CORRECTION]". International Business Times. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Bill Roggio (4 August 2012). "Al Nusrah Front conducts joint operation with Free Syrian Army". Longwarjournal.org. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Syria revolt attracts motley foreign jihadi corps". Agence France-Presse. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Barnard, Anne; Saad, Hwaida (9 March 2014). "Nuns Released by Syrians After Three-Month Ordeal". The New York Times.
- "Suicide bombers kill 14 in Damascus". Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Syria's al-Nusra Front – ruthless, organised and taking control". The Guardian. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "UN official defends Indian general in Syrian peacekeeping controversy". Zee News. IANS. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Kais, Roi. "Qaeda-rebels: UN Peacekeepers to be judged according to God." Ynetnews. 5 September 2014. 5 September 2014.
- "UN soldiers seized by rebels in Golan Heights". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "UN soldiers escape siege by Syria rebels". Al Jazeera. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Irish troops evacuate Filipino peacekeepers in Syria". The Irish Times. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "UN official defends Indian general in Syrian peacekeeping controversy". 4 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Duterte: Shoot Undof chief in the head". Inquirer. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Syria conflict: Rebels release Fijian UN peacekeepers". BBC News. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Islamic State, rival Al Nusra Front each strengthen grip on Syria". Los Angeles Times. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "U.S.-backed Syria rebels routed by fighters linked to al-Qaeda". The Washington Post. 1 November 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "Syrian civil war: Jabhat al-Nusra's massacre of Druze villagers shows they're just as nasty as Isis". Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "For Syria’s Druze, survival hinges on choosing the right ally". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- How Qatar seized control of the Syrian revolution Financial Times, 17 May 2013
- Lisa Lundquist (27 April 2014). "The shadowy flow of US weapons into Syria". Longwarjournal.org. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Ernesto Londoño and Greg Miller (11 September 2013). "CIA begins weapons delivery to Syrian rebels - The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Iran assisting Al-Qaeda operations in Syria: U.S.". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon.
- "American and International Militants Drawn to Syria". Anti-Defamation League.
- "North Carolina Arrest Marks 6th American in 2013 Associated With Al Qaeda in Syria". Access ADL. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Kim Sengupta (12 May 2015). "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria". The Independent.
- Karouny, Mariam (26 September 2014). "Insight - U.S.-led strikes pressure al Qaeda's Syria group to join with Islamic State". Reuters. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- "US admits there is a much scarier terrorist group than ISIS". RT. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "Syria Airstrikes Failed To Cripple Khorasan Threat". Associated Press. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Nusra leader: Our mission is to defeat Syrian regime". Al Jazeera. 28 May 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- Deborah E. Bloom. "Syria rebel groups recruit child soldiers, says rights watchdog". CNN. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Paraszczuk, Joanna (2 October 2014). "Wolf or Khorasan: Who Was Jabhat al-Nusra’s Abu Yusuf al-Turki?". Chechens in Syria. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Putin claims proof Syrian rebels used chemical weapons". WND. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- McDonnell, Patrick J. (13 September 2013). "Syrian rebel groups sought sarin gas material, Turkish prosecutors say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Report: Police foil al-Nusra bomb attack planned for Adana". Today's Zaman. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Kenneth R. Timmerman, The Daily Caller, 3 September 2013, Congress must ask the right questions on Syrian chemical weapons use
- Burch, Jonathon (30 May 2013). "Turkey arrests 12 in raids on 'terrorist' organization". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "No Chemical Arms Seized from Syrian Militants, Turkish Envoy Says". Global Security Newswire. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- Aydınlık, 12 September 2013, Al-Nusra Linked to Chemical Production in Turkey
- Hurriyet Daily News, 12 September 2013, Syrian rebel groups sought to buy materials for chemical weapons, prosecutors say
- Patrick J. McDonnell, Los Angeles Times, 13 September 2013, Syrian rebel groups sought sarin gas material, Turkish prosecutors say
- "Who's who in the Nusra Front?". al-Araby. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- "Senior Nusra Front commander killed in Syria air strike". Al-Jazeera. 6 March 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "ISIS reportedly kills Al Nusrah Front’s commander for Idlib province". The Long War Journal. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Liste terroriste unique". economie.gouv.fr.
- "Russia seeks UN ban on oil trade with terrorists in Syria". En.alalam.ir. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "UN threatens sanctions on anyone trading oil with ISIS terrorists – RT News". Russia: RT. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Saudi Arabia lists terrorist groups - Xinhua | English.news.cn". Xinhua News Agency. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Dorian Jones (4 June 2014). "Turkey Designates Al-Nusra Front as a Terrorist Organization". Voice of America. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "UAE to try nine for recruiting militants to fight in Syria: agency". Reuters. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- List of Proscribed organisations UK government.
- First ever broadcast interview with Abu Mohammed al-Joulani
- Translation of al-Qaeda chief Ayman al-Zawahiri’s letter to the leaders of the two Jihadi groups