al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent

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al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent
جماعة قاعدة الجهاد في شبه القارة الهندية
Flag of AQIS
Flag of AQIS
Active 3 September 2014 (2014-09-03) – present
Leaders Asim Umar
Area of operations Indian subcontinent
Size 300 in Pakistan (2010)[1]
Part of al-Qaeda
Merger of Various Afghan, Bangladeshi and Pakistani Jihadist Factions[2]
Allies
Opponents

Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (Arabic: جماعة قاعدة الجهاد في شبه القارة الهندية‎, translit. Jamā‘at Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Shibh al-Qārrah al-Hindīyah, lit. 'Group of the Base of Jihad in the Indian Subcontinent') usually abbreviated as AQIS,[5] is an Islamist militant organization which aims to fight the governments of Pakistan,[3] India, Myanmar and Bangladesh[6] in order to establish an Islamic state. The militant group has also stated its intentions to attack American targets in the Indian Subcontinent. This group is listed as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, United States, Canada and India.

History[edit]

Before Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent[edit]

Before coming together under AQIS, there were various jihadist factions operating in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. One of these factions operated in Karachi, Pakistan, and were responsible for numerous attacks in the city. On 11 December 2014, AQIS issued a report detailing these attacks. The attacks targeted local police, a professor, and a blogger.[7]

As Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent[edit]

On 3 September 2014, Ayman al-Zawahiri, leader of al-Qaeda, announced the establishment of a new branch in the Indian subcontinent in a 55-minute video posted online.[8][9] During the announcement, Zawahiri stated that it had taken two years to gather various jihadist factions into the new group, and introduced Asim Umar, a former commander in the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, as its Emir.[2] The announcement also introduced the group's spokesman, Usama Mahmoud, who praised militant commanders like Amjad Farooqi, Ilyas Kashmiri and Hassan Ghul. Farooqi was killed by Pakistani security forces. Kashmiri and Ghul were killed by US drone strikes in Pakistan.[2]

In 2014, Pakistan Navy lieutenant Zeeshan Rafiq and former lieutenant Owais Jakhrani joined Asim Umar's al-Qaeda's faction with plans to attack US Navy ships in the Arabian Sea.[10] They intended to hijack the PNS Zulfiqar, a frigate carrying C-802 cruise missiles and a tactical nuclear warhead, and use the ship's armaments to fire on nearby US and NATO vessels.[10] On September 6, 2014, the AQIS militants, including Rafiq and Jakhrani, failed in their attempt to seize the PNS Zulfiqar. Pakistani forces stationed at the Karachi docks saw through the militants' disguises as they tried to board the ship, leading to a firefight that left eleven attackers dead.[10]

On 11 December 2014, Pakistani police arrested Shahid Usman, the head of the al-Qaeda wing in Karachi, and four others in Karachi along with weapons and 10 kg of explosives.[11] Ustad Ahmad Farooq, the deputy emir for AQIS, was killed on 15 January 2015 following a US drone strike in South Waziristan. Qari ‘Imran, a member of the group’s ruling Shura Council, was killed on 5 January 2015 in a drone strike in North Waziristan.[12]

Despite Al Zawahiri announcement, Al Qaeda could not succeed in making any direct presence in India. Though some Kashmiris were arrested for assisting al Qaeda in the country but there is no any direct evidence of the group presence in the region. There is no record of any territorial claim, group activity or kidnapping of any civilian or government official by Al Qaeda till now. Some media reports suggested that al Qaeda is mainly being operated from Pakistan and Afghanistan to target India. Some experts also suggest that Al Qaeda have links with some local Kashmiri factionist groups to spread insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi told CNN in an interview with Fareed Zakaria that Indian Muslims will not dance on the tunes of Al Qaeda since Indian Muslims are much patriotic, modern and educated. [13] Muslims in India falls under minority population.

Relations with other Jihadist factions[edit]

In October, a Kashmiri militant group calling itself "Ansar ut-Tawhid wal Jihad in Kashmir" published a video expressing support for Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent.[14] The group offered to provide shelter to foreign fighters within AQIS as well as fight alongside it.

AQIS spokesman Usama Mahmoud, in series of tweets, expressed support for militant groups in Chechnya, Dagestan, and Yemen.[15] He also gave a eulogy for al-Shabaab leader Ahmed Abdi Godane, who was killed in a US drone strike.[16]

Media[edit]

On 19 October 2014, a 117-page English-language magazine called Resurgence was released online. It was produced by the Subcontinent branch of Al Qaeda's As-Sahab media production house, and the articles focused on waging jihad in the Indian Subcontinent.[17]

Statements[edit]

Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent has released multiple statements, mainly via the Twitter account of Usama Mahmoud, the group's spokesperson.

On 13 September 2014, Usama Mahmoud claimed responsibility for the attempted raid on a Pakistani frigate and the assassination of Pakistani Brigader Zahoor Ahmad Fazal in Punjab Province.[18] On 17 September, Mahmoud released a statement which justified the attempted attack on the Pakistani frigate, stating that America was the primary enemy of AQIS.[19] On September 30, AQIS released another statement which said that the intended targets were the American and Indian navies.[20]

On 14 October 2014, Mahmoud confirmed that AQIS senior leader Imran Ali Siddiqi was killed in a US drone strike. He also spoke about the US-led coalition in Iraq and Syria.[21] Siddiqi was a member of the group's Shura council.

On 4 November 2014, Mahmoud released a series of tweets that condemned what he said as the "Infidel System." He also prayed for god to support militants in Chechnya, Dagestan, and Yemen, as well as Iraq and Syria.[15] The following day, Mahmoud released a statement giving condolences to the killing of Somali al-Qaeda leader Ahmed Abdi Godane. He directed a statement to Somali fighters which said that the US must be fought.[16]

AQIS released an audio message from its leader, Asim Umar, on 10 November 2014. Umar eulogized AQIS Shura Council member Imran Ali Siddiqi, who was killed in a US drone strike in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.[22]

On 20 November 2014, AQIS spokesman Usama Mahmoud released a statement confirming the death of two officials of the group in a US raid on the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. One of the officials owned the house that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed lived in when he was captured.[23] Four days later, Mahmoud gave a eulogy for the two officials, and urged Pakistani doctors and military officers to follow their example.[24]

On 5 December 2014, AQIS published a photo showing the two officials who were killed in the US raid on the Afghan-Pakistani border, as well as a photo of the deceased son of one of the officials.[25]

On 20 December 2014, Usama Mahmoud, spokesman for AQIS, condemned an attack on a school in Peshawar, Pakistan, which was carried out by the Pakistani Taliban. He said that the attack was un-Islamic and that "the massacre of innocent children makes our hearts burst."[26]

Claimed, alleged and repudiated attacks[edit]

As of now, AQIS have carried out multiple terrorist attacks in Pakistan and Bangladesh -

  • The group took responsibility for the 2 September 2014 assassination of Brigadier Fazal Zahoor, a senior officer in the Pakistani Army, who was shot dead by men riding motorcycles.[27]
  • Spokesman Usama Mahmoud claimed responsibility for a 6 September 2014 attack on a Naval dockyard in Karachi, reportedly carried out by former Pakistan Navy officers, who unsuccessfully tried to hijack a F-22P frigate. Three attackers were killed and seven were arrested by Pakistani forces.[28][29]
  • Spokesman Usama Mahmoud condemned on 20 December 2014 the Peshawar school attack.[30]
  • In video released on 2 May 2015, AQIS claimed responsibility for the death of four Bangladeshi bloggers; Avijit Roy, Oyasiqur Rahman Babu, Ahmed Rajib Haider and AKM Shafiul Islam. They also claimed responsibility for killing two Pakistani citizens, Dr Shakil Auj and blogger Aneeqa Naz. They mentioned Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi.[31][32]
  • In 7 April 2016, a blogger was stabbed to death by some Islamist militias. AQIS claimed responsibility.[33][34]
  • In 25 April, AQIS claimed responsibility for the death of an LGBT activist in Dhaka, Bangladesh.[35][36]

Criticism[edit]

The group has been condemned by other Muslim religious and political organizations including the Association of Indian Muslims, Indian American Muslim Council, Indian Minorities Advocacy Network, Indian Muslim Educational Foundation of North America, Indian Muslim Relief and Charities, Muslim Youth Awareness Alliance in India,[9] and the Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh and Khelafat Majlish in Bangladesh and Burmese Muslim Association in Myanmar.[9][37] A spokesman for Hefazat-e-Islam Bangladesh added:

There is prevailing a congenial and peaceful environment in Bangladesh. People are living in peace and in such a situation the announcement by Al Qaeda chief Zawahiri has made the people fearful and worried. Bangladesh had experienced earlier militant activities and terrorism by Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh and Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami. But they could not emerge successful and Al Qaeda would not come out successful in Bangladesh despite their announcement.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sanger, David E.; Mazzetti, Mark (June 30, 2010). "New Estimate of Strength of Al Qaeda Is Offered". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ a b c "Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent incorporates regional jihadist groups". Long War Journal. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Al Qaeda's 'India' wing an old plan". India Today. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  4. ^ "Al Qaeda finds base in India, Modi is on its radar". The Sunday Guardian. March 29, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Indian states on alert after al Qaeda announces local wing". Reuters. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "Al-Qaeda opens branch in Indian subcontinent". AFP. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  7. ^ "AQIS Reports on Attacks in Karachi from Nov. 2013 - Oct. 2014, Targets Police, a Blogger, and a Professor". SITE Institute. 11 December 2014. 
  8. ^ BARRY, By ELLEN (4 September 2014). "4 Young Men Head for Iraq, Citing Fight for Islam, and India Wonders if More Will Follow". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c Mirsab, A. "Condemnation continues to pour from all corners against Al-Qaeda establishment in South Asia". TwoCircle.net. Indian Relief and Muslim Charities. Retrieved 22 January 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c Coll, Steve (2018). Directorate S: The C.I.A. and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Penguin Press. pp. 653–660. ISBN 9781594204586. 
  11. ^ "Al Qaeda South Asia commander held in Karachi". The Asian Age. 13 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  12. ^ "US killed AQIS deputy emir, shura member in January drone strikes". Long War Journal. 12 April 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 
  13. ^ "Al Qaeda will fail to recruit India's Muslims, Prime Minister says". CNN. 22 September 2014. 
  14. ^ ""Ansar ut-Tawhid wal-Jihad in Kashmir" Expresses Support for AQIS". SITE Institute. 10 October 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "AQIS Spokesman Condemns "Infidel System," Prays for Fighters in Chechnya, Dagestan, and Yemen". SITE Institute. 4 November 2014. 
  16. ^ a b "AQIS Gives Eulogy for Former Shabaab Leader, Reminds that US Must be Fought". SITE Institute. 5 November 2014. 
  17. ^ "Analysis: Al Qaeda's 'Resurgence' focuses on Indian Subcontinent". The Long War Journal. 23 October 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  18. ^ "Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent claims 2 attacks in Pakistan". The Long War Journal. 13 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "AQIS Explains Motivation for Targeting US Navy in Karachi, Considers America its Primary Target". SITE Institute. 17 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "AQIS Clarifies Targets of Karachi Naval Yard Attack as US, Indian Navies". SITE Institute. 30 September 2014. 
  21. ^ "AQIS Spokesman Confirms Death of Official in Drone Strike, Reiterates Call to Target America". SITE Institute. 14 October 2014. 
  22. ^ "AQIS Leader Eulogizes Shura Council Member Killed in US Drone Strike". SITE Institute. 10 November 2014. 
  23. ^ "AQIS Spokesman Announces Death of Two Officials, One of Whom Owned House Where Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was Captured". SITE Institute. 20 November 2014. 
  24. ^ "AQIS Gives Eulogy for Two Slain Officials, Urges Doctors and Pakistan Military Officers to Follow Their Example". SITE Institute. 24 November 2014. 
  25. ^ "AQIS Provides Picture of Two Officials Killed in US Raid in November 2014". SITE Institute. 5 December 2014. 
  26. ^ "Al Qaeda condemns Pakistani Taliban's attack on Peshawar school". The Long War Journal. 20 December 2014. 
  27. ^ "Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent claims 2 attacks in Pakistan". Long War Journal. 13 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  28. ^ "First claim by al-Qaeda subcontinent wing: Pakistan Navy men ours". Indian Express. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  29. ^ Sanchez, Ray (18 September 2014). "Al Qaeda branch in South Asia launches first assault". CNN. Retrieved 20 September 2014. 
  30. ^ "Al Qaeda condemns Pakistani Taliban's attack on Peshawar school". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  31. ^ "Al Qaeda's India wing mentions PM Modi in video". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  32. ^ "Al Qaeda Branch Claims Responsibility for Bangladeshi Blogger's Killing". NY Times. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  33. ^ https://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/asia/2016/04/07/Secular-activist-hacked-to-death-in-Bangladesh.html
  34. ^ Sugam Pokharel, Ivan Watson, and Yuli Yang, CNN (7 April 2016). "Al Qaeda group says it killed Nazimuddin Samad - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  35. ^ Saad Hammadi. "Founder of Bangladesh's first and only LGBT magazine killed". the Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  36. ^ "Al Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent claims killing of LGBT activist, friend in Bangladesh". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  37. ^ a b Azam, Kawsar (4 September 2014). "Al Qaeda won't gain ground in Bangladesh: Politicians". English24.com. Retrieved 22 January 2017. 

External links[edit]