Al-Qaryatayn

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Al-Qaryatayn
القريتين
Karyatayn
Town
القريتين.jpeg
Al-Qaryatayn is located in Syria
Al-Qaryatayn
Al-Qaryatayn
Location in Syria
Coordinates: 34°13′42″N 37°14′26″E / 34.22833°N 37.24056°E / 34.22833; 37.24056
Country  Syria
Governorate Homs
District Homs
Subdistrict Al-Qaryatayn
Population (2004)
 • Total 14,208
Time zone EET (UTC+3)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+2)

Al-Qaryatayn (Arabic: القريتين‎‎, also spelled Karyatayn, Qaratin or Cariatein) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate located southeast of Homs. It is situated on an oasis in the Syrian Desert. Nearby localities include Tadmur (Palmyra) to the northeast, Furqlus to the north, al-Riqama and Dardaghan to the northwest, Mahin, Huwwarin and Sadad to the west, Qarah, Deir Atiyah and al-Nabk to the southwest and Jayrud to the south. Al-Qaryatayn translates as "the two villages".

According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, al-Qaryatayn had a population of 14,208 in the 2004 census. It is the administrative center of the al-Qaryatayn nahiyah ("subdistrict") which consists of three localities with a collective population of 16,795 in 2004.[1] Its inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims and Christians.[2]

History[edit]

The city was known to the Amorites as Nazala and served as the governorate of the crown prince of Qatna such as Amut-pî-el (1750 BC).[3] It was also mentioned in the Amarna letters.[4]

Antiquity[edit]

There are numerous Greco-Roman-era buildings located in al-Qaryatayn, including an extensive sanitarium known as Hamaam Balkis ("Bath of Sheba"). During Roman rule, it served as a popular health resort,[5] and a base for the legionary cavalry unit "Equites Promoti Indigenae".[6] There are also a number of Corinthian columns and marble ornaments that date from this era, when nearby Palmyra was a major city in the region;[7] Palmyrene inscriptions were found in the city written by Palmyrene residents and dedicated to the "Great God of Nazala".[8] Prior to Islamic rule in the 7th century CE, the Ghassanids had a military installation in the town.[9]

Early Islamic period[edit]

During the Muslim conquest of Syria, al-Qaryatayn's inhabitants resisted Khalid ibn al-Walid's army in the summer of 634. The former were defeated and Khalid's forces conquered the town, taking a large plunder from it before proceeding to capture other towns in the area.[10] During Abd al-Malik's reign over the Umayyad Caliphate (646–705), his son al-Walid I used al-Qaryatayn along with adjacent towns in the area as a base of operations.[11] Al-Walid II, who was known to be a corrupt caliph, held parties at the Umayyad palace in al-Qaryatayn during his brief reign between 743 and 744.[12]

In late 1104, the Seljuk prince (emir) Suqman ibn Artuq died in the town on his way to Damascus after being summoned by the ruler of that city, Zahir ad-Din Tughtekin.[13] Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi visited al-Qaryatayn in the early 13th century and described it as "a large village belonging to Hims, and on the desert road. It lies between Hims, Sukhnah, and Arak ... It is two marches from Tadmur [Palmyra]." He also noted its inhabitants were all Christians.[14] A 10,000-member brigade of the Mongol army raided the town and the surrounding region in 1260. Later that year, a Mamluk force led by Emir Salar pursued a retreating Mongol force back to al-Qaryatayn.[15]

Ottoman rule[edit]

In the 19th century, al-Qaryatayn's economy, which depended on camel transport services, declined sharply due to the technological advances in transportation of the time, specifically the steamship and the train. This greatly reduced the number of Mecca-bound pilgrims who previously used al-Qaryatayn's inhabitants as guides or transport providers.[16] In the middle part of that century, during the reign of the Egyptian governor of Syria, Ibrahim Pasha, al-Qaryatayn was a small village with mud brick homes.[7] Its inhabitants were recorded as Muslims and Syriac Christians in 1838.[17]

In the 1850s, al-Qaryatayn was described as a "large village" where two-thirds of the inhabitants were Muslims and the remainder Christians.[18] Most of the Christians belonged to the Jacobite (Syriac Orthodox) church, but its followers were converting to Catholicism as part of a growing trend among Syria's Christians at the time.[19] In 1908, Czech explorer Alois Musil noted that al-Qaryatayn was divided into six quarters, four Muslim and two Christian. The four Muslim quarters together consisted of six hundred huts, and two Christian quarters, one Syriac Orthodox with two priests and the other Syriac Catholic with one priest, consisted of some two hundred houses. At the time, al-Qaryatayn's sheikh (chieftain) was Ahmad ibn Fayyad Agha, and the village paid numerous regional Bedouin tribes, including the Ruwalla, Wuld Ali, Sba'a, and Fad'an, the annual khuwwa (brotherhood) tribute as a means to either protect them from their plundering raids or to return goods stolen from the inhabitants by individual members of those tribes. This situation was a result of the weakness of al-Qaryatayn's sheikh, which was in contrast to his father, Fayyad Agha ibn Da'as (died 1903), under whom no tribe disturbed the village.[20] That same year, British writer Gertrude Bell noted that Fayyad Agha (possibly Ahmad ibn Fayyad) was indisputably the "greatest brigand" in Syria at the time.[21] During a visit in 1913, American traveler Lewis Gatson Leary described al-Qaryatayn as "a squalid village".[5]

Syrian Civil War[edit]

Further information: Syrian Civil War

For much of the Syrian Civil War, which began in March 2011, al-Qaryatayn remained relatively neutral in the conflict. Town elders made agreements with both government forces and the rebels to stay out of the fighting. However, its location is strategic as it lies at a crossroads between the northern and southern parts of the country. Al-Qaryatayn has served as conduit for both sides. Rebels smuggle arms from the north to rebel fighters in Damascus, while the government uses the town to reinforce and resupply their forces in the north and west.[22] It has also been used as a corridor for defectors from the Syrian Army from across the country as highways from the northern, southern, eastern and western directions run through al-Qaryatayn.[23]

Capture by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant[edit]

On 5 August 2015, the town was captured by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant militants.[24] al-Qaryatayn is important to ISIL because the town is one of many along the Damascus-Homs Highway.[25] On 6 August 2015, ISIL abducted 230 civilians, including at least 60 Christians from al-Qaryatayn.[26][27] ISIL later advanced even further, taking control of Mahin and Huwwarin by 8 August, thus forcing hundreds of Christians to flee persecution by the terrorist group.[28] On 9 August 2015, the Syrian Arab Air Force (SAAF) bombed Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant positions in al-Qaryatayn, resulting in the death of around 30 militants as well as the destruction of seven vehicles and a rocket depot, according to government sources.[29][30] Meanwhile, ISIL announced a 30-day ultimatum for the remaining Syrian officials in the city to "declare their repentance", or else their houses would be seized.[31]

On 21 August, ISIL released images showing their demolition of the Monastery of St. Elian in al-Qaryatayn. Parts of the monastery were 1,500 years old.[32]

On 3 April 2016, the Syrian Army regained control of the town from ISIL.[33][34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ General Census of Population and Housing 2004. Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Qaryatayn Subdistrict, Central Homs District, Homs Governorate. (Arabic)
  2. ^ Islamic State 'seizes Syria town of al-Qaryatain' in Homs province. BBC News. 2015-08-06.
  3. ^ Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft (2000). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin, Nummer 132 (in German). p. 243. 
  4. ^ Horst Klengel (1992). Syria, 3000 to 300 B.C.: a handbook of political history. p. 91. 
  5. ^ a b Leary, 1913, p. 129
  6. ^ Michael H. Dodgeon, Samuel N. C. Lieu (2002). The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 226-363: A Documentary History. p. 379. 
  7. ^ a b Addison, p. 236.
  8. ^ Andrew M. Smith II (2013). Roman Palmyra: Identity, Community, and State Formation. p. 124. 
  9. ^ Bosworth, 1980, p. 117
  10. ^ Blankinship, 1993, p. 110
  11. ^ Necipoglu, 1996, p. 32
  12. ^ Hitti, 2004, p. 480
  13. ^ Richards, 2006, p. 90
  14. ^ le Strange, 1890, p. 481
  15. ^ Abu al-Fida memoirs, Holt, 1983, pp. 41–42.
  16. ^ Chatty, 2006, p. 63
  17. ^ Smith; in Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Second appendix, B, p. 174
  18. ^ Porter, 1858, pp. 541–542.
  19. ^ Joseph, 1983, p. 51
  20. ^ Musil, Alois (1928). Palmyrena: A Topographical Itinerary. New York: Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts. pp. 100–101. 
  21. ^ Bell, 1908, p. 152
  22. ^ Neutral Syrian town drawn into battle. Al Jazeera English. 2013-04-24.
  23. ^ Syrian defectors converge on central town. Al Jazeera English. 2013-04-26.
  24. ^ "Islamic State 'seizes Syria town of al-Qaryatain' in Homs province". BBC News. Retrieved 6 August 2015. 
  25. ^ Payne, Ed (7 August 2015). "ISIS takes strategically important town in western Syria, rights group says". CNN. Retrieved 7 August 2015. 
  26. ^ "Islamic State Abducts Dozens Of Syrian Christians". 7 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015. 
  27. ^ "Islamic State abducts dozens of Christians from Syrian town: monitor". Reuters. 7 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015. 
  28. ^ "Activists: Hundreds of Syrian Christians flee 'Islamic State' advance". Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Retrieved 9 August 2015. 
  29. ^ "Aviación siria abate a 30 miembros de EIIL en la provincia de Homs" (in Spanish). HispanTV. 9 August 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015. 
  30. ^ "Army advances on central al-Zabadani, 30 ISIS terrorists killed in airstrikes in al-Qaryatain". SANA. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  31. ^ "IS seizes some houses in the city of Palmyra, and gives a time limit for the government employees to "repent"". OSDH. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  32. ^ Islamic State in Syria demolishes ancient Mar Elian monastery, 21 August 2015, BBC
  33. ^ Breaking: Syrian Army liberates Quraytayn
  34. ^ Syria war: 'Islamic State' loses al-Qaryatain to government forces, 4 April 2016, BBC

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]