Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr

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Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq
قاسِم بِن مُحمّد بِن أبو بَكَر ٱلصِدّيق
Qasim.png
Qāsim's name in Arabic calligraphy
Personal
Born36 or 38 AH
Died106 AH,[1] 108 AH[2]
ReligionIslam
EraIslamic golden age
RegionMuslim scholar
Main interest(s)hadith, fiqh and tafsir[2]
Muslim leader
The Seven
Fuqaha of Medina

Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (Arabic: قاسم بن محمد‎) (born 36 or 38 AH and died 106 AH [1] or 108 AH; corresponding to c. 660/662 and 728/730)[2] was an important jurist in early Islam. He is considered the fourth in the Naqshbandi Golden Chain of Sufi masters. Naqshbandis also consider him to have passed the chain to his maternal grandson Ja'far al-Sadiq.

Biography[edit]

Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was born on a Thursday, in the month of Ramadan, on 36 / 38 AH (approximately).

Family[edit]

Al-Qāsim's father was Muhammad, son of the first Rashidun Caliph, Abu Bakr. His paternal aunt was Aisha, one of the wives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[2] Some traditions state that Al-Qāsim's mother was a daughter of Yazdegerd III and a sister of Shahrbanu, the mother of fourth Shi'a Imam, Ali ibn Husayn.[3]

Al-Qāsim married Asma, a daughter of his paternal uncle Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. They were the parents of a daughter, Umm Farwah.[4] The latter later married Ali's son Muhammad al-Baqir and became the mother of the sixth Shi'a Imam, Ja'far as-Sadiq. Al-Qāsim also had a son named Abdu r-Rahman.[2]

Life[edit]

Aisha lived a very long time and taught her nephew Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. Many Hadith are quoted through Qasim.

Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was one of the seven most famous jurists in Medina, and was considered as the most knowledgeable among them. He was highly influential in disseminating early traditions of hadith, fiqh (jurisprudence) and tafsir (exegesis) of the Qur'an.

He was a pious imam and was very knowledgeable in the narration of the Traditions. Abu Zannad said, "I never saw anyone better than him in following the Sunnah of the Prophet (s). In our time no one is considered perfect until he is perfect in following the Sunnah of the Prophet and Qasim is one of the perfected men."

He learned hadith and fiqh from his aunt and from Ibn Abbas. He was a transmitter of hadith and criticised the use of a hadith if its text was put before the Quran and established Sunnah.[2]

He was among The Seven Fuqaha of Medina[2] who were largely responsible for the transmission of knowledge from Medina and were the source of much of the information of Islam and the Sunnah available today.

He left and went to al-Qudayd, a place between Makkah and Madinah on the 9th of Muharram, where he died. The year was 108 (or 109) AH/730 or 731 CE, and he was seventy years old.

Abdu r-Rahman ibn Abi Zannad said that his father mentioned, "I did not see anyone who knew the Sunnah better than al-Qasim."

According to the 11th-century Hilyat al-Awliya: "He was able to extract the deepest juristic rulings and he was supreme in manners and ethics."

Imam Malik narrated that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, considered the sixth rightly-guided caliph (after Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali and Hasan) said, "If it were in my hands, I would have made al-Qasim the caliph in my time."

Sufyan said, "Some people came to al-Qasim with charity which he distributed. After he distributed it, he went to pray. While he was praying, the people began to speak negatively about him. His son said to them, "You are speaking behind the back of a man who distributed your charity and did not take one dirham from it for himself." Quickly his father scolded him saying, Do not speak, but keep quiet." He wanted to teach his son not to defend him, as his only desire was to please God. He had no concern for the opinion of people.

Yahya ibn Sayyid said, "We never found, in our time in Madinah, anyone better than al-Qasim." Ayyub as-Saqityani said, "I have not seen anyone better than Imam Qasim. He left 100,000 dinars behind for the poor when he died, and it was all from his lawful earnings."

Legacy[edit]

His student, Abu'z-Zinad 'Abdullah ibn Dhakwan said about him:[2]

I never saw a faqih with more knowledge than al-Qasim. I never saw anyone who had more knowledge of the Sunna than him.

The Sunni Imam Malik related that Umar Ibn Abdul-Aziz said:[2]

If I had authority in the matter, I would appoint the blind one of Banu Taym," meaning al-Qasim ibn Muhammad.

Early Islam scholars[edit]

Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607–661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618–687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610–660) taughtUmar (579–644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603–681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taughtHusayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657–725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637–715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614–693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624–692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taughtAli ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taughtHisham ibn Urwah (667–772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682–720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taughtMuhammad al-Baqir (676–733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699–767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695–740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Muhammad and Ali's great great grand son, jurisprudence followed by Shia, he taughtMalik ibn Anas (711–795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taughtAl-Waqidi (748–822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729–798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)Al-Shafi‘i (767–820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719–775)Musa al-Kadhim (745–799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810–870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815–875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824–892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824–887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923–991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930–977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207–1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Biography of Imam Al Qasim Ibn Muhammad by www.at-tawhid.net
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The Four Imams by Muhammad Abu Zahrah, chapter on Imam Malik Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din, The Authenticity of Shi'ism, Shi'ite Heritage: Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions (2001), p. 49 [1]
  4. ^ Imam Al-Nawawi, Musa Furber, Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Etiquette with the Quran (2003), p. 174

Further reading[edit]

  • Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, Islamic Supreme Council of America (June 2004), ISBN 1-930409-23-0.
  • The Approach of Armageddon: An Islamic Perspective, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani , (June 2003), ISBN 1-930409-20-6.

External links[edit]