|Author||Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin|
|Original title||رسالة الحقوق|
|Published||7th century / 1 A.H. (islamic calendar)|
|Literal meaning||Treatise of Rights|
|Shia Islam portal|
The Risalat al-Huquq (Arabic: رسالة الحقوق, Arabic pronunciation: ['rɪsælætul huːquːq]; "Treatise of Rights") is a work attributed to Ali ibn al-Husayn the fourth Imam of the Shia except for his relatively short sayings and letters. Risalah al-Huquq is narrated in Al-Khisal, Al-Amali, and Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih all by Shaykh al-Suduq and in Tuhaf al-Oqul by Hussayn ibn Shu'bah Harrani. This charter is narrated by Abu Hamza al-Thumali, a reliable and admired companion of Ali ibn al-Husayn for the first time. Risalah al-Huquq is prefaced in of the two versions by: "This is the treatise of Ali ibn al-Husayn to one of his companions", which shows to be written at the request of a pupil of him. Based on On 'Treatise of rights' that the word 'rights' is much better translated as duties, obligations or responsibilities.
Sources of validity
Risalah al-Huquq attributed to Imam Sajjad is mentioned in the following sources:
- Tuhaf al-Oqul by Hussayn ibn Shu'bah Harrani
- Al-Khisal by Shaykh Al-Suduq
- Al-Amali by Shaykh Al-Suduq
- Man La Yahdhuruhu Al-Faqih by Shaykh Al-Suduq
The author of Tuhaf al-Oqul mentioned it without a reference, while al-Suduq writes in his al-Khisal as such:
Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Mousa, from Muhammad ibn abi Abdullah Kufi, from Jafar ibn Malek Fazie from Kheran ibn Dahir, from Ahmad ibn Ali Ibn Sulayman Jibili from his father,from muhammad ibn Ali from Muhammad ibn Fazil, from Abu Hamza al-Thumali.
This hadith is Mursal in Man La Yahdhuruhu Al-Faqih:
The Risalatul Huquq begins with "The greatest right of God..." in Man La Yahdhuruhu Al-Faqih and it does not include the introduction section in which the rights are explained in brief. The mentioned introduction exists in Tuhaf al-Oqul. Number of the rights which are discussed in both introduction section, and the detailed section (rest of the hadith which describes the rights in detail) of the hadith are 50 in Tuhaf al-Oqul while the author al-Khisal and Man La Yahdhuruhu Al-Faqih mentions 51 rights in the detailed section and an additional right called "right of Hajj" is noticeable. But there's no mention of "right of Hajj" in the introduction of the hadith in al-Khisal.
Meaning of rights in Risalah al-Huquq
Huquq (Arabic: حقوق) is plural of Haq (Arabic: حق) and is best translated as "rights". However, other words such as justice, truth, obligations, duties, responsibilities have meanings closely related to Haq. Based on On 'Treatise of rights' the word 'rights' is much better translated as duties, obligations or responsibilities.
Risalah al-Huquq consists of two Introduction and detailed sections although these titles are not mentioned in the hadith.
The introduction section describes the rights briefly and begins with the following paragraph:
Know -God have mercy upon you - that God has rights incumbent upon you and that these encompass you in every motion through which you move, every rest which you take, every way station in which you reside, every limb which you employ, and every instrument which you use. Some of these rights are greater than others. And the greatest of God's rights incumbent upon you is what He has made incumbent upon you for Himself - the Blessed and the Exalted - from His rights: that which is the root of all rights from which others branch out. Then there are those that He has made incumbent upon you in yourself, from your crown to your foot, according to the diversity of your organs.
More in this section Imam Sajjad names the rights and briefly explains them.
Rights in detail
- The Rights of God
The Greatest Right of God
- The Rights of Yourself and Body Organs
- The Right of the Tongue
- The Right of Hearing
- The Right of Sight
- The Right of the Legs
- The Right of the Hand
- The Right of the Stomach
- The Right of the Private Part
- The Right of Deeds
- The Right of the Prayer
- The Right of Fasting
- The Right of the Pilgrimage
- The Right of the Charity
- The Right of the Offering
- The Right of the Leaders
- The Right of the Possessor of Authority
- The Right of the Trainer through Knowledge
- The Right of the Trainer through Ownership
- The Right of the Subjects
- The Right of Subjects through Authority
- The Right of Subjects through Knowledge
- The Right of the Wife
- The Right of your Slave
- The Rights of Relationship
- The Right of the Mother
- The Right of the Father
- The Right of the Child
- The Right of the Brother
- The Right of Others
- The Right of the Master
- The Right of the Freed Slave
- The Right of the One Who Treats You Kindly
- The Right of the Caller to Prayer
- The Right of the Ritual Prayer Leader
- The Right of the Sitting Companion
- The Right of the Neighbor
- The Right of the Companion
- The Right of the Partner
- The Right of Property
- The Right of the Creditor
- The Right of the Associate
- The Right of the Adversary
- The Right of Him Who Seeks Your Advice
- The Right of Him Whose Advice You Seek
- The Right of Him Who Seeks Your Counsel
- The Right of Counselor
- The Right of the Older One
- The Right of the Younger One
- The Right of Him Who Asks You
- The Right of Whom You Ask
- The Right of Him Through Whom God Makes You Happy
- The Right of Him Who Wrongs You
- The Right of People of Your Creed
- The Right of Those Under Protection of Islam
- Conclusion By Imam Sajjad
- The concluding comments of Imam Sajjad at the end of the treatise is as follows:
These are the fifty rights that surround you and you cannot evade under any circumstances. It is incumbent upon you to observe them and exert all efforts to fulfill them. You should seek God the Majestic’s help in this respect. And there is no power or strength but in God. And all praise is due to God the Lord of the Worlds.
Treatise of Life
Treatise of Life is a documentary investigating the life style from the perspective of Risalatul Huquq. It was made by Amir Farrokh Saber, an Iranian director, and was broadcast from IRIB, news channel.
- Al-Sahifat al-Ridha
- Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
- Nahj al-Balagha
- Risalah al-dhahabiah
- The Fifteen Whispered Prayers
- Imam Zain ul Abideen. Treatise On Rights (Risalat al-Huquq). Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed Akhtar. The Charter of Rights. www.shia-maktab.info. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania. ISBN 9987620051. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Allameh Haji. "A halt on the Risalatul Huquq". Aviny.com (quoted in hokoomatislamic.blogfa.com) (in Persian). Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Mashyekhi, Ghodratullah. A Divine Perspective on Rights; A commentary on Imam Sajjad's "The Treatise of Rights" by Imam 'Ali Ibn al-Husayn as-Sajjad (as). Translated by Dr. Ali Peiravi; Lisa Zaynab Morgan. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Staff writers. "Imam sajjad's treatise of rights is the treatise of life". yjc.ir. Retrieved 13 June 2014.