Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Abi Sara Ali Al-Ru'asi (d. 187AH/802CE) was an early convert from Judaism to Islam and a scholar of the Arabic language. He is considered to be the founder of the Kufan school of Arabic grammar, as well as the first person to write about Arabic morphology and phonology. He was a student of Abu 'Amr ibn al-'Ala' and an associate of Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi.
It has been suggested that Sibawayhi, the ethnically Persian father of Arabic grammar, borrowed heavily from the works of al-Ru'asi for the latter's infamous Kitab though there is no textual evidence to support this. We do know of a linguistic exegesis of the Qur'an complete with a glossary which was penned by al-Ru'asi, but it is no longer extant. Although he is regarded as the founder of the Kufan school, very few details are known about al-Ru'asi's life or his views on specific matters of dispute in Arabic grammar and he is rarely quoted by later grammarians.
- Hana Zabarah, Perspectives on Tenth Century Arabic Grammar Al-Zajjaji's "Jumal" "Patterns in Grammatical Discourse, pg. 10. Ann Arbor: ProQuest, 2005. ISBN 9780549478881
- Kees Versteegh, Greek Elements in Arabic Linguistic Thinking, pg. 110. Volume 7 of Studies in Semitic languages and linguistics. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1977. ISBN 9789004048553
- Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. 5, pg. 174, fascicules 81-82. Eds. Clifford Edmund Bosworth, E. van Donzel, Bernard Lewis and Charles Pellat. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1980. ISBN 9789004060562
- Arik Sadan, The Subjunctive Mood in Arabic Grammatical Thought, pg. 339. Volume 66 of Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2012. ISBN 9789004232952
- Monique Bernards, "Pioneers of Arabic Language Studies." Taken from In the Shadow of Arabic: The Centrality of Language to Arabic Culture, pg. 214. Ed. Bilal Orfali. Volume 63 of Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2011. ISBN 9789004215375
- M.G. Carter, Sibawayh, pg. 24. Part of the Makers of Islamic Civilization series. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004. ISBN 9781850436713
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- Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. 8, pg. 573, fascicules 139-140. Eds. Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Bernard Lewis, Charles Pellat and Joseph Schacht. 1994.