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Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti
Shrine for Galal El-Dean al-Seyoti in Asiut
|Born||3 October 1445 CE / 1 Rajab 849 AH|
|Died||18 October 1505 CE / 19 Jumadi Ula 911 AH|
|Main interest(s)||Tafsir, Sharia, Fiqh, Hadith, Quran, Usul al-Fiqh, History, Aqidah|
|Notable work(s)||Tafsir al-Jalalayn Tarikh Al Khulafa Khasais Kubra Khasais Sughra Mazhar Jami al Kabir Jami Al Saghir|
|Personal (Ism)||‘Abd al-Raḥmān|
|Patronymic (Nasab)||ibn Abī Bakr ibn Muḥammad|
|Teknonymic (Kunya)||Abū al-Faḍl|
|Epithet (Laqab)||Jalāl al-Dīn|
|Toponymic (Nisba)||al-Suyūṭī, al-Khuḍayrī, al-Shāfi‘ī|
Abū al-Faḍl ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ibn Muḥammad Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khuḍayrī al-Suyūṭī (Arabic: جلال الدين عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد الخضيري السيوطي; c. 1445–1505 CE); aka Jalaluddin; an Egyptian scholar, historian and jurist. From a family of Persian origin, he was described as one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages. His biographical dictionary Bughyat al-wuʻāh fī ṭabaqāt al-lughawīyīn wa-al-nuḥāh contains valuable accounts of prominent figures in the early development of Arabic philology. He was appointed to a chair in the mosque of Baybars in Cairo in 1486, and was an adherent of the Shafii madhhab and a late authority of the Hanbali School. He was one of the Ashabun-Nazzar (Assessors) in his degree of ijtihad.
Al-Suyuti was born on 3 October 1445 AD (1 Rajab 849 AH) in Cairo, Egypt. He hailed from a Persian family on his paternal side. His mother was Circassian. According to al-Suyuti his ancestors came from al-Khudayriyya in Baghdad. His family moved to Asyut in Mamluk Egypt, hence the nisba "Al-Suyuti". His father taught Shafi'i law at the Mosque and Khanqah of Shaykhu in Cairo, but died when al-Suyuti was 5 or 6 years old.
Al-Suyuti's studies included: Shafi'i and Hanafi jurisprudence (fiqh), traditions (hadith), exegesis (tafsir), theology, history, rhetoric, philosophy, philology, arithmetic, timekeeping (miqat) and medicine. He started teaching Shafi'i jurisprudence at the age of 18, at the same mosque as his father did. In 1486, Sultan Qaitbay appointed him shaykh at the Khanqah of Baybars II, a Sufi lodge. He was a Sufi of the Shadhili order.
Al-Suyuti was named the mujaddid of the 9th century AH and he claimed to be a mujtahid (an authority on source interpretation who gives legal statements on jurisprudence, hadith studies, and Arabic language). This caused friction with scholars and ruling officials, and after a quarrel over the finances of the Sufi lodge, he retreated to the island of Rawda in 1501. Al-Suyuti died on 18 October 1505.
Although his father died when he was only five, he received an excellent education under the supervision of prominent scholars close to the family and, at the age of seventeen, received permission to issue fatwas from the Shafi'i school by the noted scholar 'Alam al-Din Salih al-Bulqini (d. 868/1464), chief judge of Egypt.
He studied with other leading scholars in Cairo as well, including the Shafi'i jurist Sharaf al-Din Yahya al-Munawi (d. 871/1467) (whose great-grandson 'Abd al-Ra'uf al-Munawi would write a commentary on al-Suyuti's al-Jami' al-Saghir) and the famous Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli (d. 864/1459) (whose Tafsir al-Suyuti would complete, thereby producing the well-known Tafsir al-Jalalayn).
Although al-Suyuti was a Shafi'i in law, he also studied Hanafi law. As part of the regular curriculum, he studied Ash'ari/Maturidi theology and logic with Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Marzubani (d. 867/1463) and others.
At the age of eighteen, al-Suyuti inherited his father's position of teaching law at the Shaykhuniyyah Mosque. Later on, he taught Hadith there as well; was appointed administrator of the Baybarsiyyah and the Barquq Nasiri Sufi lodges; and was initiated, at least symbolically, into the Shadhili, Qadiri, and Suhrawardi Sufi orders. He also spent a great deal of time teaching Hadith in the Mosque of Ibn Tulun.
The Dalil makhtutat al-Suyuti ("Directory of al-Suyuti's manuscripts") states that al-Suyuti wrote works on over 700 subjects, while a 1995 survey, put the figure between 500 and 981. However, these include short pamphlets, and legal opinions.
He wrote his first book, Sharh Al-Isti'aadha wal-Basmalah in 866 AH, at the age of seventeen.
Ibn al-ʿImād writes: "Most of his works become world famous in his lifetime." Renowned as a prolific writer, his student Dawudi said: "I was with the Shaykh Suyuti once, and he wrote three volumes on that day. He could dictate annotations on ĥadīth, and answer my objections at the same time. In his time he was the foremost scholar of the ĥadīth and associated sciences, of the narrators including the uncommon ones, the hadith matn (text), isnad (chain of narrators), the derivation of hadith rulings. He has himself told me, that he had memorized One Hundred Thousand hadith."[unreliable source?]
In Ḥusn al-muḥaḍarah al-Suyuti lists 283 of his works on subjects from religion to medicine. As with Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi in his medicinal works, he writes almost exclusively on prophetic medicine, rather than the Islamic-Greek synthesis of medicinal tradition found in the works of Al-Dhahabi. He focuses on diet and natural remedies for serious ailments such as rabies and smallpox, and for simple conditions such as headaches and nosebleeds, and mentions the cosmology behind the principles of medical ethics.
- Tafsir al-Jalalayn (Arabic: تفسير الجلالين, lit. 'Commentary of the Two Jalals'); a Qur'anic exegesis written by Al-Suyuti and his teacher Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli
- Al-Itqān fi ‘Ulum Al-Qur’an (translated into English as The Perfect Guide to the Sciences of the Qur'an, ISBN 9781859642412)
- Al-Tibb al Nabawi (Arabic: الطب النبوي, lit. 'Prophetic medicine')
- Al-Jaami' al-Kabir (Arabic: الجامع الكبير)
- Al-Jaami' al-Saghir (Arabic: الجامع الصغير, lit. 'Little mosque' )
- Dur al-Manthur (Arabic: درالمنثور) in tafsir
- Alfiyyah al-Hadith 
- Tadrib al-Rawi (Arabic: تدريب الراوي) both in hadith terminology
- History of the Caliphs (Tarikh al-khulafa)
- Tabaqat al-huffaz, an appendix to al-Dhahabi's Tadhkirat al-huffaz
- Nuzhat al-julasāʼ fī ashʻār al-nisāʼ (Arabic: نزهة الجلساء في أشعار النساء), 'an anthology of women's verse'
- Al-Khasais-ul-Kubra, which discusses the miracles of Islamic prophet Muhammad
- Al-Muzhir. (linguistics)
- Nawāḍir al-ayk fī maʻrifat al-nayk (a sex manual attributed to al-Suyuti)
- Shaqāʾiq al-utrunj fī raqāʾiq al-ghunj (another manuscript dealing with sex attributed to al-Suyuti)
- Suyūṭī (1908), Bughyat al-wuʻāh fī ṭabaqāt al-lughawīyīn wa-al-nuḥāh (in Arabic), Cairo: Maṭbaʻat al-Saʻādah (بغية الوعاة، في طبقات اللغويين والنحاة); Biographies of eminent lexicographers and grammarians.
- Suyūṭī (1927), Hitti, Philip K (ed.), Naẓm al-ʻiqyān fī aʻyān al-aʻyān, New York: Syrian American Press
- Suyūṭī (1343), Al-Itqan fi ‘Ulum al-Qur’an, Cairo
- Suyūṭī (1908), Mufḥimāt al-aqrān fī mubhimāt al-Qurʾān (1 ed.), Miṣr: Maṭbaʻat al-Saʻādah
- Suyūṭī (1909), Kitāb hamʻ al-hawāmiʻ sharḥ jamʻ al-jawāmiʻ fī ʻilm al-ʻarabīyah (1 ed.), Miṣr: Maṭbaʻat al-Saʻādah
- Suyūṭī (1905) , Sharḥ shawāhid al-Mughnī (Arabic Grammar, Poetry), Miṣr (Egypt): al-Maṭbaʻah al-Bahīyah
- Suyūṭī (c. 1935), Sharḥ al-ṣudūr bi-sharḥ ḥāl al-mawtī wa-al-qubūr (Islamic eschatology), Cairo: Maṭbaʻat Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Kutub al-ʻArabīyah
- Suyūṭī (1966), Tadrīb al-rāwī fī sharḥ Taqrīb al-Nawāwī, Cairo: Dār al-Kutub al-Ḥadīthah (Nawawī, 1233-1277, Taqrīb wa-al-taysīr li-maʻrifat sunan al-bashīr al-nadhīr, Hadith)
- Suyūṭī (1971), al-Shamārīkh fī ʻilm al-tārīkh, Baghdād: Maṭbaʻat Asʻad
- Suyūṭī (1973) [1307 AH], Kitāb al-iqtirāḥ fī ʻilm uṣūl al-naḥw (2 ed.), Ḥalab: Dār al-Maʻārif
- Suyūṭī (1978), Furat, Ahmed Subhi (ed.), al-Iqtirāḥ fī ʻilm uṣūl al-naḥw (Arabic language, Grammar, Early works to 1800), Istānbūl: Maṭbaʻat Kullīyat al-ādāb
- Suyūṭī (1978), Lubāb al-nuqūl fī asbāb al-nuzūl (Koran, criticism, interpretation, etc.) (1 ed.), Bayrūt: Dār Iḥyā' al-ʻUlūm
- Suyūṭī (1980–1989), Siham al-isabah fi al-daàwat al-mustajabah, al-Madinah: Tawzì al-Maktabah al-ÌlmiyahCS1 maint: date format (link)
- Suyūṭī (1985), Faḍḍ al-wiʻāʼ fī aḥādīth rafʻ al-yadayn fī al-duʻā (Prayer in the Hadith), al-Zarqāʼ, al-Urdun (Zarqa, Jordan): Maktabat al-Manār
- Suyūṭī (1986), Nuzhat al-julasāʾ fī ash ʻār al-nisāʾ
- Suyūṭī (1984), Asbāl al-kisāʾ ʻalʹa al-nisāʾ (Muslim women, Hadith, Authorities) (1 ed.), Bayrūt (Beirut): Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīyah
- Suyūṭī (1983), Kitāb al-Radd ʻalá man akhlada ilá al-arḍ wa-jahila anna al-ijtihād fī kull ʻaṣr farḍ, Bayrūt, Lubnān (Beirut, Lebanon): Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīyah
- Suyūṭī (1980), Wasāʻil ilā maʻrifat al-awāʾil
- Suyūṭī (1976), Ṭabaqāt al-mufassirīn, Cairo
- Suyūṭī (1980–1989), Bahjah al-marḍīyah [i.e., al-murḍiyah] fī sharḥ al-Alfīyah (Ibn Mālik, Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd Allāh, d. 1274, Alfīyah, Arabic language, Grammar), Tehran: al-Maktabah al-IslāmīyahCS1 maint: date format (link)
- Suyūṭī (1983), Tafsīr al-durr al-manthūr fī al-tafsīr al-maʾthūr, 8, Bayrūt: Dār al-fikr
- Suyūṭī (1987), al-Bāhir fī ḥukm al-Nabī bi-al-bāṭin wa-al-ẓāhir, al-Qāhirah: Dār al-Salām
- Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. pp. 99, 179. ISBN 143845371X.
- In Masalik al-Hunafa' fi Walidayy al-Mustafa, he says: "The Prophet's parents died before he was sent as a Prophet and there is no punishment for them, since (We never punish until We send a messenger (whom they reject)( (17:15 ). Our Ash`ari Imams among those in kalam, usul, and fiqh agree on the statement that one who dies while da`wa has not reached him, dies saved. This has been defined by Imam al-Shafi`i.. . . Some of the fuqaha' explained that the reason is, such a person follows fitra or Primordial Disposition, and has not stubbornly refused nor rejected any Messenger"
- Geoffroy, E. (1960–2007). "al-Suyūṭī". In P. Bearman (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). ISBN 9789004161214.
- Meri, Josef W. (January 2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization, Volume 1 An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 784. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7.
The family of al-Suyuti, of Persian origin, settled during the Mamluk period in Asyut, in Upper Egypt (from where they derive their name).
- Meri, Josef W., ed. (2005). "Suyuti, Al-, 'Abd al-Rahman". Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 784–786. ISBN 978-1-135-45603-0.
- Irwin, R. (1998). Julie Scott Meisami; Paul Starkey (eds.). Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature. Taylor & Francis. p. 746. ISBN 978-0-415-18572-1.
- Oliver Leaman, ed. (2006). "Al-Suyuti". The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 618–920. ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1.
- Dhanani, Alnoor (2007). "Suyūṭī: Abū al‐Faḍl ʿAbd al‐Raḥmān Jalāl al‐Dīn al‐Suyūṭī". In Thomas Hockey (ed.). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 1112–3. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0.
- American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences: 34:3. The International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT). 2017. p. 13.
- Al-Kawākib as-Sāyirah 1/228[verification needed]
- Hasan, Abu, Imām Jalāluddin Suyūţi - Biography and Works (PDF), www.sunniport.com, pp. 6–7, archived from the original (pdf) on 2016-03-04, retrieved 2016-01-04
- Emilie Savage-Smith, "Medicine." Taken from Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Volume 3: Technology, Alchemy and Life Sciences, pg. 928. Ed. Roshdi Rasheed. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0415124123
- Ghaffari, Talib (7 January 2011). "Writings of Imam Jalaluddin al-Suyuti". Maktabah Mujaddidiyah. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- "USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts". Web Archive. 2 January 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
- James Mansfield Nichols, 'The Arabic Verses of Qasmūna bint Ismāʿil ibn Bagdālah', International Journal of Middle East Studies, 13 (1981), 155-58.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Al-Suyuti|
|Arabic Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Tafsir al-Jalalayn Commentary on the Quran (in English).
- Radiant Cosmography (al Haya al-saniya fi al-haya al-sunniya) in English at archive.org.
- The Dead become Alive by the Grace of the Holy Five (Ihyya al-mayyit) in English at archive.org.