As a borderland territory, it was home to the so-called muwalladun or indigenous converts and their descendants, some of these eventually established dynastic lordship such as the case of Ibn Marwan al-Jilliqi who ruled Merida and the region around Badajoz during the early part of the ninth century. Several rebellion occurred in the territory, with rebels most notably ibn Hafsun and two of his sons refusing to recognize the Cordoba's sovereignty. Even after his death small pockets of independent resistance persisted. It was only a decade after Hafsun's demise that the emir of Cordoba was able to completely quell the rebellion in the Lower March.
- António Henrique R. de Oliveira Marques, Mário Soares (1998). "Histoire du Portugal et de son empire colonial". Histoire du Portugal et de son empire colonial (in French). KARTHALA Editions. Retrieved 2011-12-09.
- Safran, Janina (2013). Defining Boundaries in al-Andalus: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Islamic Iberia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 172. ISBN 9780801451836.
- Flood, Timothy M. (2018). Rulers and Realms in Medieval Iberia, 711–1492. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 45. ISBN 9781476674711.
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