Al-Tira, Baysan

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Al-Tira
Al-Tira is located in Mandatory Palestine
Al-Tira
Al-Tira
Arabic الطيرة
Name meaning "The Fort of Abu Amran"[1]
Subdistrict Baysan
Coordinates 32°38′52″N 35°27′26″E / 32.64778°N 35.45722°E / 32.64778; 35.45722Coordinates: 32°38′52″N 35°27′26″E / 32.64778°N 35.45722°E / 32.64778; 35.45722
Palestine grid 193/228
Population 150[2][3] (1945)
Area 10,207[3] dunams
Date of depopulation April 15, 1948[4]
Cause(s) of depopulation Whispering campaign
Current localities Gazit[5][6]

Al-Tira (Arabic: الطيرة‎‎), was a Palestinian Arab village in the District of Baysan. It was depopulated by the Israel Defense Forces during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine on April 15, 1948 as part of Operation Gideon under the command of Yosef Weitz. It was located 17.5 km north of Baysan overlooking Wadi al-Bira. However, 'Ayn al-Bayda' was the main source of drinking water for al-Tira inhabitants.

History[edit]

It has been suggested that this was Atara of the list of Thothmes III.[7][8]

In 1875, in the late Ottoman era, Victor Guérin climbed a small hill to reach the Al-Tira village. It consisted of about a dozen houses, built of adobe or assorted materials.[9] In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as: "A small village, principally of adobe, on a hill-top, above a deep gorge. The water appears to be brought from the springs in the valley."[8]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the Mandatory Palestine authorities, Tireh had a population of 130 Muslims,[10] decreasing in the 1931 census to 108, still all Muslims, in 24 houses.[11]

In 1945 the population of Et Tira and Irgun Borokhov was 200; 150 Arabs and 50 Jews, while the total land area was 10,207 dunams, according to an official land and population survey.[2][3] Of this, Arabs used 54 dunums for plantations and irrigable land, 4,326 for cereals,[12] while 29 dunums were classified as built-up (urban) land.[13]

1948, aftermath[edit]

In his diary, Weitz wrote of the inhabitants of Qumya and Al-Tira in the Baysan valley on the 26 March, 1948:

"Not taking upon themselves the responsibility of preventing the infiltration of irregulars ... They must be forced to leave their villages until peace comes.[14][15]

In order to block the return of the villagers,[16] the kibbutz Gazit was established on the land of village land in September 1948, 1.5 km southwest of the village site.[5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 170
  2. ^ a b Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 7
  3. ^ a b c Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 44
  4. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xvii, village #109. Also gives cause of depopulation
  5. ^ a b Morris, 2004, p. xxi, settlement #25.
  6. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p. 63.
  7. ^ Conder, 1876, p. 146
  8. ^ a b Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 87
  9. ^ Guérin, 1880, p. 139
  10. ^ Barron, 1923, Table IX, p. 31
  11. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 81
  12. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 85
  13. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 135
  14. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 132, note #538
  15. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 160, note #538
  16. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 380

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]