- See Tira for other sites with similar names.
|Etymology: The Fortress|
|Geopolitical entity||Mandatory Palestine|
|Date of depopulation||16 July 1948|
|• Total||45,262 dunams (45.262 km2 or 17.476 sq mi)|
|Cause(s) of depopulation||Military assault by Yishuv forces|
|Current Localities||HaHotrim, Tirat Carmel, Megadim, Kfar Galim, Kfar Tzvi Sitrin|
The Crusaders called al-Tira, St. Yohan de Tire, and in the thirteenth century the village contained a Greek Orthodox abbey of St. John the Baptist. In 1283 it was mentioned as part of the domain of the Crusaders, according to the hudna between the Crusaders and the Mamluk sultan Qalawun.
In 1596, al-Tira was a village with a population of 52 Muslim households, an estimated 286 persons, under the administrative jurisdiction of the nahiya ("subdistrict") of Shafa, part of Sanjak Lajjun of the Ottoman Empire. Villagers paid a fixed tax-rate of 25% to the authorities for the crops that they cultivated, which included wheat, goats, beehives, and vineyards; a total of 26,000 Akçe.
Victor Guérin visited in 1870, “I first examined a small mosque, which appears to have been formerly a Christian church. Aligned from west to east it has only a single nave and is terminated towards the east by an apse. One enters through a rectangular door crowned by a fine monolithic lintel. This church, which has been constructed with very regular ashlars, is covered by slightly pointed vaults, above which there is a flat terrace roof.”
After the heavy conscription imposed by the Ottomans in 1872, there was a decline in the village's prosperity, but it subsequently recovered.
British Mandate era
In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Tireh had a population of 2,346; 2,336 Muslims, 1 Jew and 9 Christians, where the Christians were 1 Roman Catholic and 8 Orthodox. The population had increased in the 1931 census to 3,191 people; 3,173 Muslims, 17 Christians, 1 Druze, in a total of 624 houses.
In 1943, al-Tira produced more olives and oil than any other village in the Haifa District. The abundance of almond trees in al-Tira gave rise to the village's nickname, Tirat al-Lawz ("Tira of the almonds"). By 1945, its 5,240 Muslims and 30 Christians shared two elementary schools, one for boys, the other for girls. Its economy was based on the cultivation of grain, vegetables and fruit, watered with the natural springs of the village.
By the 1945 statistics, al Tira had a population of 5,270; 30 Christians and 5,240 Muslims, with a total land area of 45,262 dunams. Of this, Arabs used 16,219 for cereals; 3,543 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, while a total of 901 dunams were built-up (urban) land.
1948 and later
Tira was lightly attacked by the Haganah on the night of 21–22 April 1948 "to prevent assistance being given to the Haifa Arabs", according to a British report. This caused an evacuation of some women and children of the village, according to Haganah military sources. At dawn on April 25, the Haganah mortared Tira, and in the early hours of 26 April it launched a strong attack on the village, with the apparent aim of conquest, using mortars and machine guns. An infantry company reached the eastern outskirts of the village and conquered positions on the Carmel slopes overlooking the village, but was apparently halted by fire from British units. The village's non-combat population was then evacuated by the British, leaving several hundred armed men to defend it. It fell to Israeli forces in July.
The Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi described the village remains in 1992, noting that part of the village site had been incorporated into Tirat Carmel: "Some of the houses, such as one belonging to 'Irsan al-Dhib, remain standing. The cemetery is unkempt and there are several broken gravestones. The remains of two shrines are visible and the school is used by Israeli students, both Arab and Jewish. There are forests and some residential houses in the mountainous part of the surrounding land."
Al-Tira had two mosques, named the Old and the New. The Old mosque was originally a church, and was already out of use by 1932. The New mosque appears to be still standing, but now converted into a synagogue. The age of the New Mosque is not agreed upon; Pringle states that it is the mosque built by Assaf in 1579 C.E. However, Petersen, who inspected it in 1994, reports that this is incorrect, and that an inscription set in an arched recess by the door to what was the entrance to the prayer hall records, in provincial nasskhi script, the construction of the mosque to Ishaq ibn Amir in 687 H. (1288-1289 CE).
By 2011, four books about the Palestinian village history had been published.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 117
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 15
- Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #173. Also provides cause of depopulation.
- Morris, 2004, p. xx, settlement #8.
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 198.
- "Welcome to al-Tira". Palestine Remembered. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- Rami Nashashibi (1996). "Destroyed Palestinian Villages: al-Tira". Center for Research and Documentation of Palestinian Society. Archived from the original on November 24, 2003. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 195
- Pringle, 1998, pp. 370-1
- Also cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 306
- al-Qalqashandi version of the hudna, referred in Barag, 1979, p. 208, no. H2
- Heyd, 1960, 110 n.4. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 306
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 158
- Khalidi, 1992, p.196.
- Karmon, 1960, p. 162
- Guérin, 1875, pp. 282-3
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p.285. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.196
- Schumacher, 1888, p. 178
- Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Haifa, p. 33
- Barron, 1923, Table XVI, p. 49
- Mills, 1932, p. 97
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 49
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 92
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 142
- Morris, 2004, pp. 208-209
- Golan, 2001; Spatial Transformation (In Hebrew). Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 395
- Petersen, 2001, p. 306
- Davis, 2011, p. 30
- Barag, Dan (1979). "A new source concerning the ultimate borders of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem". Israel Exploration Journal. 29: 197–217.
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, C. R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. ISBN 0-860549-05-4.
- Davis, Rochelle (2011). Palestinian Village Histories: Geographies of the Displaced. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7313-3.
- Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945. Government of Palestine.
- Guérin, V. (1875). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 2: Samarie, pt. 2. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center. Archived from the original on 2018-12-08. Retrieved 2015-06-03.
- Heyd, Uriel (1960): Ottoman Documents on Palestine, 1552-1615, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Cited in Petersen (2001)
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Khalidi, W. (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF). Israel Exploration Journal. 10 (3): 155–173, 244–253.
- Massarwa, Abdalla (2012-07-18). "Tirat Carmel Final Report" (124). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Morris, B. (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.
- Mülinen, Eberhard Friedrich von, 1908, Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Karmels "Separateabdruck aus der Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palëstina-Vereins Band XXX (1907) Seite 117-207 und Band XXXI (1908) Seite 1-258." ("Et-Tire": p. 142 ff. )
- Palmer, E.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Petersen, Andrew (2001). A Gazetteer of Buildings in Muslim Palestine (British Academy Monographs in Archaeology). 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-727011-0.
- Pringle, Denys (1998). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: L-Z (excluding Tyre). II. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 39037 0. Also cited in Petersen (2001)
- Rey, E. G. (1883). Les colonies franques de Syrie aux XIIme et XIIIme siècles (in French). Paris: A. Picard. (p. 432)
- Sa‘id, ‘Abed a-Salam (2008-04-03). "Tirat Karmel Final Report" (120). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Schumacher, G. (1888). "Population list of the Liwa of Akka". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 20: 169–191.
- Segal, Orit (2006-06-04). "Tirat Karmel (A) Final Report" (118). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Segal, Orit (2006-11-19). "Tirat Karmel (B) Final Report" (118). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Segal, Orit (2007-09-11). "Tirat Karmel Final Report" (119). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Segal, Orit (2008-12-04). "Tirat Karmel Final Report" (120). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires
- Segal, Orit (2009-02-14). "Tirat Karmel Final Report" (121). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cite journal requires