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Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam. Zaidiyyah emerged in the eighth century out of Shi'a Islam. Zaidis are named after Zayd ibn ʻAlī, the grandson of Husayn ibn ʻAlī and the son of their fourth Imam Ali ibn 'Husain. Followers of the Zaydi Islamic jurisprudence are called Zaydi and make up about 35–42% of Muslims in Yemen, with the vast majority of Shia Muslims in the country being Zaydi. Zaidis dismiss religious dissimulation (taqiyya).
Zaydis were the oldest branch of the Shia and are currently the second largest group after Twelvers. Zaidis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms, but promote their leadership and divine inspiration. Zaydis believe that Zayd ibn Ali in his last hour was betrayed by the people in Kufa. Zaydis as of 2014 constitute roughly 0.5% of the world's Muslim population.
- 1 Law
- 2 History
- 3 Zaidi Imāms
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
In matters of Islamic jurisprudence, the Zaydis follow Zayd ibn ’Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu’ al-Fiqh (Arabic: مجموع الفِقه). Zaydi fiqh is similar to the Hanafi school of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence. Abu Hanifa, a Sunni madhab shaykh, was favorable and even donated towards the Zaydi cause.
Zaydis’ theological literature retains the Mu’tazilite traditional emphasis on justice and human responsibility, and its political implications i.e. Muslims have an ethical and legal obligation by their religion to rise up and depose unjust leaders including unrighteous sultans and caliphs.
In matters of theology, the Zaydis are close to the Mu'tazili school, though they are not exactly Mu'tazilite. There are a few issues between both schools, most notably the Zaydi doctrine of the Imamate, which is rejected by the Mu'tazilites. Of the Shi'a, Zaydis are most similar to Sunnis since Zaydism shares similar doctrines and jurisprudential opinions with Sunni scholars.
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1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3Alawites & Qizilbash
4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins & Druzes
5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat & Sūfrī
6Nūkkārī; 7Bahshamiyya & Ikhshîdiyya
8Alevism, Bektashi Order & Qalandariyya
Like all Muslims, the Zaydi Shi'a affirm the fundamental tenet of Islam known as the Shahada or testament of faith – "There is no god but Allah and Muhammed is his messenger." Traditionally, the Zaydi believe that Muslims who commit major sins without remorse should not be considered Muslims nor be considered kafirs but rather be categorized in neither group.
In the context of the Shi'a Muslim belief in spiritual leadership or Imamate, Zaydis believe that the leader of the Ummah or Muslim community must be Fatimids: descendants of Muhammad through his only surviving daughter Fatimah, whose sons were Hasan ibn ʻAlī and Husayn ibn ʻAlī. These Shi'a called themselves Zaydi so they could differentiate themselves from other Shi'is who refused to take up arms with Zayd ibn Ali.
Zaydis believe Zayd ibn Ali was the rightful successor to the Imamate because he led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate, who he believed were tyrannical and corrupt. Muhammad al-Baqir did not engage in political action and the followers of Zayd believed that a true Imām must fight against corrupt rulers. The renowned Muslim jurist Abu Hanifa who is credited for the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam, delivered a fatwā or legal statement in favour of Zayd in his rebellion against the Umayyad ruler. He also urged people in secret to join the uprising and delivered funds to Zayd.
Unlike Twelver Shi'ites, Zaydis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms and do not believe that the Imāmate must pass from father to son—but believe it can be held by any descendant, from either Hasan ibn ʻAlī or Husayn ibn ʻAlī.
Status of Caliphs and the Sahaba
There was a difference of opinion among the companions and supporters of Zayd ibn 'Ali, such as Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad, Sulayman ibn Jarir, Kathir al-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih, concerning the status of the first three Caliphs who succeeded to the political and administrative authority of Muhammad. The earliest group, called Jarudiyya (named for Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad), was opposed to the approval of certain companions of Muhammad. They held that there was sufficient description given by the Prophet that all should have recognised 'Ali as the rightful Caliph. They therefore consider the Companions wrong in failing to recognise 'Ali as the legitimate Caliph and deny legitimacy to Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Usman; however, they avoid denouncing them. They further condemn two other companions of Muhammad, Talhah and Zubayr ibn al-Awam, for their initial uprising against Caliph Ali.
The Jarudiyya were active during the late Umayyad Caliphate and early Abbasid Caliphate. Its views, although predominant among the later Zaydis, especially in Yemen under the Hadawi sub-sect, became extinct in Iraq and Iran due to forced conversion of the present religious sects to Twelver Shi'ism by the Safavid Dynasty.
The second group, the Sulaymaniyya, named for Sulayman ibn Jarir, held that the Imamate should be a matter to be decided by consultation. They felt that the companions, including Abu Bakr and 'Umar, had been in error in failing to follow 'Ali but it did not amount to sin.
The third group is known as the Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya for Kathir an-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih. Their beliefs are virtually identical to those of the Sulaymaniyya, except they see Uthman also as in error but not in sin.
Zaidis accounts state the term Rafida was a term used by Zayd ibn Ali on those who rejected him in his last hours for his refusal to condemn the first two Caliphs of the Muslim world, Abu Bakr and Umar. Zayd bitterly scolds the "rejectors" (Rafidha) who deserted him, an appellation used by Sunnis and Zaydis to refer to Twelver Shi'ites to this day.
|“||A group of their leaders assembled in his (Zayd's presence) and said: "May God have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr and Umar?" Zayd said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah"||”|
Twelver Shi'ite references to Zayd
While not one of the 12 Imams embraced by the Twelver denomination and current largest branch of Shi'ite Islam, Zayd ibn Ali features in historical accounts within Twelver literature in a positive light.
|“||he was one of the scholars from the Household of Muhammad and got angry for the sake of the Honorable the Exalted God. He fought with the enemies of God until he got killed in His path. My father Musa ibn Ja’far narrated that he had heard his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad say, "May God bless my uncle Zayd... He consulted with me about his uprising and I told him, "O my uncle! Do this if you are pleased with being killed and your corpse being hung up from the gallows in the al-Konasa neighborhood." After Zayd left, As-Sadiq said, "Woe be to those who hear his call but do not help him!".||”|
|— Uyūn Akhbār al-Riḍā, p. 466|
Jafar al-Sadiq's love for Zayd ibn Ali was so immense, he broke down and cried upon reading the letter informing him of his death and proclaimed:
|“||From God we are and to Him is our return. I ask God for my reward in this calamity. He was a really good uncle. My uncle was a man for our world and for our Hereafter. I swear by God that my uncle is a martyr just like the martyrs who fought along with God’s Prophet or Ali or Al-Hassan or Al-Hussein||”|
|— Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, p. 472|
Alid dynasty of Tabaristan. See zaydids
The Hammudid dynasty was a Zaydi dynasty in the 11th century in southern Spain.
Muttawakili Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen. Its capital was Sana`a until 1948, then Ta'izz.
Community and former States
Since the earliest form of Zaydism was Jaroudiah, many of the first Zaidi states were supporters of its position, such as those of the Iranian Alavids of Mazandaran Province and the Buyid dynasty of Gilan Province and the Arab dynasties of the Banu Ukhaidhir of al-Yamama (modern Saudi Arabia) and the Rassids of Yemen. The Idrisid dynasty in the western Maghreb were another Arab Zaydi dynasty, ruling 788–985.
The Alavids established a Zaydi state in Deylaman and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864; it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Sunni Samanids in 928. Roughly forty years later, the state was revived in Gilan (Northwest Iran) and survived until 1126.
The leader of the Zaidi community took the title of Caliph. As such, the ruler of Yemen was known as the Caliph. Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, a descendant of Imam Hasan ibn Ali, founded this Rassid state at Sa'da, al-Yaman, in c. 893-7. The Rassid Imamate continued until the middle of the 20th century, when a 1962 revolution deposed the Imam. After the fall of the Zaydi Imamate in 1962 many Zaydi Shia in northern Yemen had converted to Sunni Islam.[dubious ]
The Rassid state was founded under Jarudiyya thought; however, increasing interactions with Hanafi and Shafi'i schools of Sunni Islam led to a shift to Sulaimaniyyah thought, especially among the Hadawi sub-sect.
Currently, the most prominent Zaidi movement is the Shabab Al Mu'mineen, commonly known as Houthis, who have been engaged in an uprising against the Yemeni Government in which the Army has lost 743 men and thousands of innocent civilians have been killed or displaced by government forces and Houthi, causing a grave humanitarian crisis in north Yemen.
Since 2004 in Yemen, Zaidi fighters have been waging an uprising against factions belonging to the Sunni majority group in the country. The Houthis, as they are often called, have asserted that their actions are for the defense of their community from the government and discrimination, though the Yemeni government in turn accused them of wishing to bring it down and institute religious law.
On 20 September 2014, an agreement was signed in Sana'a under UN patronage essentially giving the Houthis control of the government after a decade of conflict. Tribal militias then moved swiftly to consolidate their position in the capital, with the group officially declaring direct control over the state on 6 February 2015. This outcome followed the removal of Yemen's President Ali Abdullah Saleh in 2012 in the wake of protracted Arab Spring protests. Saudi Arabia has exercised the predominant external influence in Yemen since the withdrawal of Nasser's Egyptian expeditionary force marking the end of the bitter North Yemen Civil War.
There is a wide array of domestic opponents to Houthi rule in Yemen, ranging from the conservative Sunni Islah Party to the secular socialist Southern Movement to the radical Islamists of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and now ISIS in Yemen.
Some contemporary Zaidi scholars
- Ali bin Mohammed Al-Mua'dy
- Majid Al-Dien Al-Mua'dy
- Badr Al-Dien al-Huthi
- Mohamed bin Mohamed Al-Mansour
- Hamoud Abbas Al-Mua'dy
- Mohammed Abdullazim Al-Huthi
- Abdulrahman bin Hussein Al-Mua'dy
- Dr. Matrudi bin Zaid Al-Muhattury
- Dr. Taha Al-Mutawakkil
- Mohammad Muphtah
Time line indicating Zaidi Imams:
Zaydi Imams after Ali are:
- Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al-Hassan al-mujtaba bin Ali al Murtaza bin Abi Talib
- Zayd bin Ali Zayn al-'Ābidin bin Al-Husayn
- Yahya bin Zayd bin Ali Zayn al-'Ābidin bin Al-Husayn
- Muhammad bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al-Hasan An-Nafs-Az-Zakiyyah
- Ibrahim bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al-Hassan al mujtaba bin Ali al Murtaza bin Abi Talib
- Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al-Hassan al-mujtaba bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Al-Hasan bin Ibrahim bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al-Hassan al-mujtaba bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Al-Husayn bin Ali bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al-Hassan al-mujtaba bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Isa bin Zayd bin Ali bin Al-Husayn
- Yahya bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Idris bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Zayd bin Ali bin Al-Husayn
- Muhammad bin Sulayman bin Dawud bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Al-Qasim bin Ibrahim bin Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
- Yahya bin Al-Husayn bin Al-Qasim Al-Hadi
- Abul Qasim Muhammad bin Yahya bin Al-Husayn
- Ahmad bin Yahya bin Al-Husayn
- Al-Hasan bin An-Nasir Ahmad
- Hasan ibn Zayd ibn Hasan 767-783 - was a notable Hasanid Alid who served as governor of Medina under al-Mansur
- Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq 815-818 - surnamed al-Dibaj ("the handsome"), He believed in a Zaydi Shia type of Imamate
- Hasan ibn Zayd 864–884 - was a Hasanid Alid who became the founder of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan
- al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya bin al-Husayn bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi 897–911 (descendant of the Prophet)
- al-Murtada Muhammad 911–913, d. 922 (son)
- Hasan al-Utrush 914–917, was an Alid Shia missionary of the Zaydi sect who re-established Zaydid rule over the province Tabaristan
- Abu Muhammad Hasan ibn Qasim 917–919, 919–923, 927–928, also adopted the regnal name al-Da'i ila'l-haq
- Abu 'l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Hasan 919, 923, surnamed Nasir (919, 923). Reigned jointly with his brother in 919
- Abu 'l-Qasim Ja'far ibn Hasan, surnamed Nasir (919, 923–925). Reigned jointly with his brother in 919 and from 923 until his death.
- Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Abu 'l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir (925–927).
- Abu Ja'far Husayn ibn Abu 'l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir (927).
- an-Nasir Ahmad 913–934 or 937 (brother)
- al-Muntakhab al-Hasan 934–936 or 939 (son)
- al-Mukhtar al-Qasim 936–956 (brother)
- al-Mansur Yahya 934–976 (brother)
- ad-Da'i Yusuf 977–999 (son)
- al-Mansur al-Qasim al-Iyyani bin Ali 999–1002 (descended from a cousin of al Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya)
- ad-Da'i Yusuf 1002–1012 (second term)
- al-Mahdi al-Husayn 1003–1013 (son of al-Mansur al-Qasim)
- al-Mu'ayyad Ahmad bin al-Husayn 1013–1020 (not resident in Yemen; descended from the Prophet via another branch)
- Abu Talib Yahya 1020–1033 (not resident in Yemen; brother)
- al-Mu’id li-Din Illah 1027–1030 (of obscure origins)
- Abu Hashim al-Hasan 1031–1040 (descended from a brother of al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya)
- Abu'l-Fath an-Nasir ad-Dailami bin al-Husayn 1038–1053 (descended from the Prophet via another branch)
- al-Muhtasib al-Mujahid Hamzah 1060–1067 (son of Abu Hashim al-Hasan)
- al-Mutawakkil Ahmad bin Sulayman 1138–1171 (descended from an-Nasir Ahmad)
- al-Mansur Abdallah bin Hamzah 1187–1217 (son of al-Muhtasib al-Mujahid Hamzah)
- an-Nasir Muhammad 1217–1226 (son)
- al-Hadi Yahya bin Muhsin 1217–1239 (descended from al-Mukhtar al-Qasim)
- al-Mahdi Ahmad bin al-Husayn 1248–1258 (descended from cousin of al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya)
- al-Hasan bin Wahhas 1258–1260, d. 1285 (descended from al-Muhtasib al-Mujahid Hamzah)
- Yahya bin Muhammad as-Siraji 1261–1262, d. 1296 (descended from al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib)
- al-Mansur al-Hasan bin Badr ad-Din 1262–1271 (son of a cousin of al-Hadi Yahya)
- al-Mahdi Ibrahim bin Ahmad Taj ad-Din 1272–1276, d. 1284 (nephew)
- al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya bin al-Murtada 1276–1298 (descended from an-Nasir Ahmad)
- al-Mahdi Muhammad 1301–1328 (son)
- al-Mu'ayyad Yahya bin Hamzah 1328–1346 (descended from Twelver imam Ali ar-Ridha)
- an-Nasir Ali bin Salah 1328–1329 (grandson of al-Mahdi Ibrahim)
- Ahmad bin Ali al-Fathi 1329–1349 (descended from Abu'l-Fath an-Nasir ad-Dailami)
- al-Wathiq al-Mutahhar 1349 (son of al-Mahdi Muhammad)
- al-Mahdi Ali bin Muhammad 1349–1372 (descended from ad-Da'i Yusuf)
- al-Nasir Muhammad Salah al-Din 1372–1391 (son)
- al-Mansur Ali 1391–1436 (son)
- al-Mahdi Ahmad bin Yahya bin al-Murtada 1391–1392, d. 1436 (descended from ad-Da'i Yusuf)
- al-Hadi Ali bin al-Muayyad 1393–1432 (descended from al-Hadi Yahya)
- al-Mahdi Salah ad-Din bin Ali 1436–1445 (descended from al-Mansur Yahya)
- al-Mansur an-Nasir bin Muhammad 1436–1462 (great-great-grandson of al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya)
- al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Muhammad 1436–1474 (descended from brother of Abu Hashim al-Hasan)
- al-Mu’ayyad Muhammad 1462–1503 (son of al-Mansur an-Nasir)
- an-Nasir Muhammad bin Yusuf 1474–1488 (descended from al-Mahdi Ali)
- al-Hadi Izz ad-Din bin al-Hasan 1474–1495 (grandson of al-Hadi Ali)
- al-Mansur Muhammad bin Ali al-Washali 1475–1504 (descended from Yahya bin Muhammad as-Siraji)
- an-Nasir al-Hasan 1495–1523 (son of al-Hadi Izz-ad-Din)
- al-Mutawakkil Yahya Sharaf ad-Din bin Shams-ad-Din 1506–1555 (grandson of al-Mahdi Ahmad)
- al-Mutahhar 1547–1572 (son)
- an-Nasir al-Hasan bin Ali 1579–1585 (descended from al-Hadi Ali)
- al-Mansur al-Qasim bin Muhammad 1597–1620 (descended from ad-Da'i Yusuf)
- al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad I 1620–1644 (son)
- al-Mutawakkil Isma'il 1644–1676 (brother)
- al-Mahdi Ahmad bin al-Hasan 1676–1681 (nephew)
- al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad II 1681–1686 (son of al-Mutawakkil Isma'il)
- al-Mahdi Muhammad 1687–1718 (son of al-Mahdi Ahmad)
- al-Mansur al-Husayn I bin al-Qasim 1716–1720 (grandson of al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad I)
- al-Mutawakkil al-Qasim bin al-Hasan 1716–1727 (grandson of al-Mahdi Ahmad)
- an-Nasir Muhammad bin Ishaq 1723, d. 1754 (grandson of al-Mahdi Ahmad)
- al-Mansur al-Husayn II 1727–1748 (son of al-Mutawakkil al-Qasim)
- al-Mahdi Abbas 1748–1775 (son)
- al-Mansur Ali I 1775–1809 (son)
- al-Mutawakkil Ahmad 1809–1816 (son)
- al-Mahdi Abdallah 1816–1835 (son)
- al-Mansur Ali II 1835–1837, d. 1871 (son)
- an-Nasir Abdallah bin al-Hasan bin Ahmad 1837–1840 (great-grandson of al-Mahdi Abbas)
- al-Hadi Muhammad 1840–1844 (son of al-Mutawakkil Ahmad)
- al-Mansur Ali II 1844–1845 (second term)
- al-Mutawakkil Muhammad bin Yahya 1845–1849 (grandson of al-Mansur Ali I)
- al-Mansur Ali II 1849–1850 (third term)
- al-Mansur Ahmad bin Hashim 1849–1853 (descended from al-Mansur Yahya)
- al-Mu'ayyad Abbas bin Abd ar-Rahman 1850 (descended from al-Mutawakkil Isma’il)
- al-Mansur Ali II 1851 (fourth term)
- al-Hadi Ghalib 1851–1852, d. 1885 (son of al-Mutawakkil Muhammad)
- al-Mansur Muhammad bin Abdallah 1853–1890 (descended from ad-Da'i Yusuf)
- al-Mutawakkil al-Muhsin bin Ahmad 1855–1878 (descended from al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya)
- al-Hadi Ghalib 1858–1872 (second term)
- al-Mansur al-Husayn III bin Muhammad bin al-Hadi 1859–1863, d. 1888
- al-Hadi Sharaf ad-Din bin Muhammad bin Abd ar-Rahman 1878–1890 (descended from al-Mu’ayyad Yahya)
- al-Mansur Muhammad bin Yahya Hamid ad-Din 1890–1904 (descended from al-Mansur al-Qasim)
- al-Mutawakkil Yahya Muhammad Hamid ad-Din 1904–1948 (son)
- an-Nasir Ahmad bin Yahya 1948–1962 (son of al-Mutawakkil Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din)
- al-Mansur Muhammad al-Badr 1962, d. 1996 (son)
- Idris II – (791–828)
- Muhammad ibn Idris – (828–836)
- Ali ibn Muhammad, known as "Ali I" – (836–848)
- Yahya ibn Muhammad, known as "Yahya I" – (848–864)
- Yahya ibn Yahya, known as "Yahya II" – (864–874)
- Ali ibn Umar, known as "Ali II" – (874–883)
- Yahya ibn Al-Qassim, known as "Yahya III" – (883–904)
- Yahya ibn Idris ibn Umar, known as "Yahya IV" – (904–917)
- Al-Hajjam al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Qassim – (925–927)
- Al Qasim Gannum – (937-948)
- Abu l-Aish Ahmad – (948-954)
- Al-Hasan ibn Guennoun, known as "Hassan II" – (954–974)
- Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir (from 866)
- Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Ukhaidhir
- Isma'il ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir (to 928)
- Al-Hasan ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir
- Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Ukhaidhir
- Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'far al-Ukhaidhir
For continuation of leadership after 1962, see Houthis.
- Imams of Yemen
- Dukayniyya Shia
- Khalafiyya Shia
- Khashabiyya Shia
- Islamic history of Yemen
- Zaidi (surname)
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- The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Page 14, Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone, Mahan Mirza - 2012
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- Yemen: The Bradt Travel Guide - Daniel McLaughlin - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization during the Later Medieval Times by Abdul Ali, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1996, p97
- Ahkam al-Quran By Abu Bakr al-Jassas al-Razi, volume 1 page 100, published by Dar Al-Fikr Al-Beirutiyya
- "Zaidiyyah". The Free Dictionary.
- Zaydi Islam John Pike - http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/intro/islam-zaydi.htm
- Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution. Nikki R Keddie, Yann Richard, pp. 13, 20
- Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Steven R Ward, pg.43
- Article by Sayyid 'Ali ibn 'Ali Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites), 2005 Referencing: Momen, p.50, 51. and S.S. Akhtar Rizvi, "Shi'a Sects"
- The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, p37
- The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. "They were called "Rafida by the followers of Zayd...the term became a pejorative nickname among Sunni Muslims, who used it, however to refer to the Imamiyah's repudiation of the first three caliphs preceding Ali..."
- The waning of the Umayyad caliphate by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, p37, p38
The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243.
- Ibn Bābawayh al-Qummī, Muḥammad ibn ʻAlī. Uyūn Akhbār al-Riḍā.
- Hodgson, Marshall (1961), Venture of Islam, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 262
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