‘Aziziya

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‘Aziziya
العزيزية
‘Aziziya is located in Libya
‘Aziziya
‘Aziziya
Location in Libya
Coordinates: 32°31′51″N 13°01′16″E / 32.53083°N 13.02111°E / 32.53083; 13.02111
Country  Libya
Region Tripolitania
District Jafara
Elevation[1] 390 ft (119 m)
Population (2006)[1]
 • Total 23,399
Time zone UTC + 2

‘Aziziya (Anglicized: /əˈzzə/; Arabic: العزيزيةal-ʿAzīziyyah / al-ʻAzīzīyah / al-ʿazīzīya), sometimes spelled El Azizia, is a small town and it was the capital of the Jafara district in northwestern Libya, 41 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of the capital Tripoli. Before 2001 it was in the ‘Aziziya District and its capital. ‘Aziziya is a major trade centre of the Sahel Jeffare plateau, being on a trade route from the coast to the Nafusa Mountains and the Fezzan region to the south[citation needed]. As of 2006, the town's population has been estimated at over 23,399.[1]

Geography and climate[edit]

On 13 September 1922, a high temperature of 57.8 °C (136 °F) was recorded in Al-ʿAzīzīyah. This was long considered the highest temperature ever measured on Earth.[2]

However, that reading was controversial:[3][4][5]

  1. The weather station was first in 'Aziziya town, but, in 1919, it was moved to a hilltop fort, where the weather station was set up on black tarmac, which would have absorbed more sunlight and made the air there artificially hotter, explaining a period of very hot readings there from 1919 to 1928.
  2. Shortly before the record reading on 13 September 1922, the weather station's usual maximum thermometer had been damaged and then replaced by an uncalibrated, ordinary maximum-minimum thermometer such as often used in greenhouses.
  3. On 11 September 1922, the usual record keeper was replaced by an inexperienced observer, who was untrained in the use of the thermometer and the record log. This is known by the change in handwriting on the log sheets and by the high and low temperatures being recorded in the wrong columns. The thermometer used sliding colored cylinders to record maximum and minimum temperatures, and these cylinders were about 7 to 8 degrees Celsius long on the thermometer scale. The WMO now believes that the inexperienced observer was reading from the wrong end of the high-temperature cylinder inside the thermometer, getting a reading which was 7 to 8 degrees too high.
  4. On 13 September 2012, the World Meteorological Organization announced that the WMO Commission of Climatology World Archive of Weather and Climate Extremes had found that the record was invalid. Its world record for hottest temperature is now 56.7 °C (134 °F), recorded on 10 July 1913 at Greenland Ranch in Death Valley, California in the United States.[6]

The coldest temperature recorded in Al-ʿAzīzīyah was −2 °C (28 °F) in February. Al-ʿAzīzīyah has a mean high temperature of 35.5 °C (95.9 °F), a mean temperature of 27.4 °C (81.3 °F), and a mean low temperature of 20.4 °C (68.7 °F), making it one of the warmest places in the world. The coldest month, with a mean temperature of 15.1 °C (59.2 °F), is January with a mean high temperature of 23.9 °C (75.0 °F) and a mean low temperature of 8.8 °C (47.8 °F), and the warmest month is July, with a mean temperature of 39.2 °C (102.6 °F), a mean high temperature of 47.4 °C (117.3 °F), and a mean low temperature of 31 °C (88 °F).

Climate data for Al-ʿAzīzīyah, Libya 119m amsl (1920–1942) (record low 1994-2014 at Tripoli 81m amsl, 26 miles NNE of Al-ʿAzīzīyah)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.1
(91.6)
37.5
(99.5)
44.5
(112.1)
48.3
(118.9)
51.9
(125.4)
51.0
(123.8)
51.0
(123.8)
56.0
(132.8)
50.3
(122.5)
50.2
(122.4)
41.6
(106.9)
32.6
(90.7)
56
(132.8)
Average high °C (°F) 23.9
(75)
27.5
(81.5)
31.2
(88.2)
35.1
(95.2)
39.8
(103.6)
45.2
(113.4)
47.4
(117.3)
47.2
(117)
43.3
(109.9)
37.8
(100)
28.5
(83.3)
24.3
(75.7)
35.5
(95.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
27.3
(81.1)
32.5
(90.5)
37.6
(99.7)
39.2
(102.6)
38.3
(100.9)
35.5
(95.9)
29.4
(84.9)
20.6
(69.1)
16.9
(62.4)
27.4
(81.3)
Average low °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
12.3
(54.1)
17.5
(63.5)
19.5
(67.1)
25.2
(77.4)
30
(86)
31
(88)
29.4
(84.9)
27.7
(81.9)
21
(70)
12.7
(54.9)
9.5
(49.1)
20.38
(68.72)
Record low °C (°F) −1
(30)
−2
(28)
1
(34)
2
(36)
8
(46)
11
(52)
9
(48)
12
(54)
11
(52)
7
(45)
1
(34)
0
(32)
−2
(28)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 46
(1.81)
27
(1.06)
12
(0.47)
16
(0.63)
2
(0.08)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
1
(0.04)
6
(0.24)
27
(1.06)
39
(1.54)
74
(2.91)
251
(9.88)
Average rainy days 8 5 5 3 1 0 0 0 2 5 6 8 43
Average relative humidity (%) 66 62 56 54 51 41 52 54 56 63 65 69 57.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 204.6 209.1 235.6 250 316.2 312 375.1 353.4 270 244.9 213 198.4 3,187
Percent possible sunshine 66 64 65 63 74 71 87 86 72 71 66 65 72.7
Source #1: http://www.wunderground.com/blog/weatherhistorian/comment.html?entrynum=2
Source #2: http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Libya/Al-aziziyah/climate-profile.aspx?month=12

(Source for September record high WMO)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c 15 years and older (Libyan and non-Libyan) see [1]
  2. ^ "Global Measured Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation". National Climatic Data Center. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  3. ^ "Broken thermometer led to a record breaker". Daily Telegraph. 13 November 2010. 
  4. ^ Burt, Christopher C. (8 October 2010). "QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE WORLD’S HOTTEST TEMPERATURE ON RECORD: 136.4°F (58°C) AT Al-ʿAzīzīyah, LIBYA SEPTEMBER 13, 1922". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  5. ^ Burt, Christopher C. (13 September 2012). "World Heat Record Overturned--A Personal Account". Weather Underground. Retrieved 2013-01-12. 
  6. ^ "WMO Press release No. 956". World Meteorological Organization. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 

Coordinates: 32°31′51″N 13°01′16″E / 32.53083°N 13.02111°E / 32.53083; 13.02111