|Type||Satellite television network|
|Owner||Al Jazeera Media Network|
|Sheikh Hamad bin Thamer Al Thani, Chairman
Yasser Abu Hilala, Director General
|Aljazeera Satellite Channel (Al Jazeera Arabic)|
|Launched||1 November 1996|
|Owned by||Al Jazeera Media Network|
|Slogan||"The Opinion and The Other Opinion"|
|Sister channel(s)||Al Jazeera English
Al Jazeera Mubasher
Al Jazeera Balkans
Al Jazeera Türk
Al Jazeera Documentary Channel
|Website||Al Jazeera Arabic|
|Freeview HD (UK)||Channel 134|
|Arabsat||12034 H – 27500 – 3/4|
|yes (Israel)||Channel 176|
|beIN (Middle East & North Africa)||Channel 200|
|Virgin Media (UK)||Channel 831|
|Mozaic TV||Channel 100|
|Ziggo (Netherlands)||Channel 784|
|Hot (Israel) (Israel)||Channel 137|
|TalkTalk Plus TV (UK)||Channel 581|
|Livestation||Al Jazeera Arabic (Free, 502 Kbit/s)|
|Virgin TV Anywhere||Watch live (UK only)|
Al Jazeera (Arabic: الجزيرة al-ǧazīrah IPA: [æl dʒæˈziːrɐ], literally "The Peninsula", referring to the Arabian Peninsula), also known as Aljazeera and JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a Doha-based state-funded broadcaster owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network, which is partly funded by the House of Thani, the ruling family of Qatar. Initially launched as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel, Al Jazeera has since expanded into a network with several outlets, including the Internet and specialty TV channels in multiple languages.
Al Jazeera is among the largest news organizations with 80 bureaus around the world. Al Jazeera is owned by the government of Qatar. While Al Jazeera officials have stated that they are editorially independent from the government of Qatar, this assertion has been disputed.
The original Al Jazeera channel's willingness to broadcast dissenting views, for example on call-in shows, created controversies in the Arab States of the Persian Gulf. The station gained worldwide attention following the outbreak of war in Afghanistan, when it was the only channel to cover the war live, from its office there.
Al Jazeera has been called a propaganda outlet for the Qatari government and its foreign policy, by analysts and by news reporters, including former Al Jazeera reporters. The network is sometimes perceived to have mainly Islamist perspectives, promoting the Muslim Brotherhood, and having a pro-Sunni and an anti-Shia bias in its reporting of regional issues. However, Al Jazeera insists it covers all sides of a debate, it says it presents Israel's view, Iran's view and even aired videos released by Osama bin Laden.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Organization
- 4 Reach
- 5 Expansion outside the Middle East
- 6 Controversies associated with Al Jazeera
- 7 Editorial independence
- 8 Documentaries
- 9 Awards and accolades
- 10 Competitors
- 11 Network
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
In Arabic, al-ǧazīrah literally means "the island". However, it refers here to the Arabian Peninsula, which is شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-ğazīrah al-ʿarabiyyah, abbreviated to الجزيرة العربية al-ğazīrah al-ʿarabiyyah.
Al Jazeera Satellite Channel now known as (AJA) was launched on 1 November 1996 following the closure of the BBC's Arabic language television station, a joint venture with Orbit Communications Company. The BBC channel had closed after a year and a half when the Saudi government attempted to suppress information, including a graphic report on executions and prominent dissident views.
The Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa, provided a loan of QAR 500 million ($137 million) to sustain Al Jazeera through its first five years, as Hugh Miles detailed in his book Al Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel That Is Challenging the West. Shares were held by private investors as well as the Qatar government.
Al Jazeera's first day on the air was 1 November 1996. It offered 6 hours of programming per day; increased to 12 hours by the end of 1997. It was broadcast to the immediate neighborhood as a terrestrial signal, and on cable, as well as through satellites (which was also free to users in the Arab world), although Qatar, like many other Arab countries (Qatar is not an arab country), barred private individuals from having satellite dishes until 2001.
At the time of Al Jazeera's launch, Arabsat was the only satellite broadcasting to the Middle East, and for the first year could only offer Al Jazeera a weak C-band transponder that needed a large satellite dish for reception. A more powerful Ku-band transponder became available as a peace-offering after its user, Canal France International, accidentally beamed 30 minutes of pornography into ultraconservative Saudi Arabia.
Al Jazeera was not the first such broadcaster in the Middle East; a number had appeared since the Arabsat satellite, a Saudi Arabia-based venture of 21 Arab governments, took orbit in 1985. The unfolding of Operation Desert Storm on CNN International underscored the power of live television in current events. While other local broadcasters in the region would assiduously avoid material embarrassing to their home governments (Qatar had its own official TV station as well), Al Jazeera was pitched as an impartial news source and platform for discussing issues relating to the Arab world.
In presenting "The opinion and the other opinion" (the station's motto), it did not take long for Al Jazeera to shock local viewers by presenting Israelis speaking Hebrew on Arab TV for the first time. Lively and far-ranging talk shows, particularly a popular, confrontational one called The Opposite Direction, were a constant source of controversy regarding issues of morality and religion. This prompted a torrent of criticism from the conservative voices among the region's press. It also led to official complaints and censures from neighboring governments. Some jammed Al Jazeera's terrestrial broadcast or expelled its correspondents. In 1999, the Algerian government reportedly cut power to several major cities in order to censor one broadcast. There were also commercial repercussions: Saudi Arabia reportedly pressured advertisers to avoid the channel, to great effect. Al Jazeera was also becoming a favorite sounding board for militant groups such as Hamas and Chechen separatists.
Al Jazeera was the only international news network to have correspondents in Iraq during the Operation Desert Fox bombing campaign in 1998. In a precursor of a pattern to follow, its exclusive video clips were highly prized by Western media.
Around the clock
1 January 1999 was Al Jazeera's first day of 24-hour broadcasting. Employment had more than tripled in one year to 500 employees, and the agency had bureaus at a dozen sites as far as EU and Russia. Its annual budget was estimated at about $25 million at the time.
However controversial, Al Jazeera was rapidly becoming one of the most influential news agencies in the whole region. Eager for news beyond the official versions of events, Arabs became dedicated viewers. A 2000 estimate pegged nightly viewership at 35 million, ranking Al Jazeera first in the Arab world, over the Saudi Arabia-sponsored Middle East Broadcasting Centre (MBC) and London's Arab News Network (ANN). There were about 70 satellite or terrestrial channels being broadcast to the Middle East, most of them in Arabic. Al Jazeera launched a free Arabic language web site in January 2001. In addition, the TV feed was soon available in United Kingdom for the first time via British Sky Broadcasting.
War in Afghanistan
Al Jazeera came to the attention of many in the West during the hunt for Osama bin Laden and the Taliban in Afghanistan after the 11 September attacks on the United States. It aired videos it received from Osama bin Laden and the Taliban, deeming new footage of the world's most wanted fugitives to be newsworthy. Some criticized the network for giving a voice to terrorists. Al Jazeera's Washington, D.C. bureau chief, Hafez al-Mirazi compared the situation to that of the Unabomber's messages in The New York Times. The network said it had been given the tapes because it had a large Arab audience.
Many other TV networks were eager to acquire the same footage. CNN International had exclusive rights to it for six hours before other networks could broadcast, a provision that was broken by the others on at least one controversial occasion. Prime Minister Tony Blair soon appeared on an Al Jazeera talk show on 14 November 2001 to state Britain's case for pursuing the Taliban into Afghanistan.
Al Jazeera's prominence rose during the war in Afghanistan because it had opened a bureau in Kabul before the war began. This gave it better access for videotaping events than other networks, which bought Al Jazeera's footage, sometimes for as much as $250,000.
The network remained dependent on government support in 2002, with a budget of $40 million and ad revenues of about $8 million. It also took in fees for sharing its news feed with other networks. It had an estimated 45 million viewers around the world. Al Jazeera soon had to contend with a new rival, Al Arabiya, an offshoot of the Middle East Broadcasting Center, which was set up in nearby Dubai with Saudi financial backing.
2003 Iraq War
Before and during the United States-led invasion of Iraq, where Al Jazeera had a presence since 1997, the network's facilities and footage were again highly sought by international networks. The channel and its web site also were seeing unprecedented attention from viewers looking for alternatives to embedded reporting and military press conferences.
Al Jazeera moved its sports coverage to a new, separate channel in 1 November 2003, allowing for more news and public affairs programming on the original channel. An English language web site had launched earlier in March 2003. The channel had about 1,300 to 1,400 employees, its newsroom editor told The New York Times. There were 23 bureaus around the world and 70 foreign correspondents, with 450 journalists in all.
On 1 April 2003, a United States plane fired on Al Jazeera's Baghdad bureau, killing reporter Tareq Ayyoub. The attack was called a mistake; however, Qatar had supplied the US with a precise map of the location of the bureau in order to spare it from attack.
The original Al Jazeera channel was launched 1 November 1996 by an emiri decree with a loan of 500 million Qatari riyals (US$137 million) from the Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa. By its funding through loans or grants rather than direct government subsidies, the channel claims to maintain independent editorial policy. The channel began broadcasting in late 1996, with many staff joining from the BBC World Service's Saudi-co-owned Arabic language TV station, which had shut down in 1 April 1996 after two years of operation because of censorship demands by the Saudi Arabian government. The Al Jazeera logo is a decorative representation of the network's name written using Arabic calligraphy. It was selected by the station's founder, Emir of Qatar Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa, as the winning entry in a design competition.
Al Jazeera restructured its operations to form a network that contains all their different channels. Wadah Khanfar, the then managing director of the Arabic Channel, was appointed as the director general of Al Jazeera Media Network. He also acted as the managing director of the Arabic Channel. Khanfar resigned on 20 September 2011 proclaiming that he had achieved his original goals, and that 8 years was enough time for any leader of an organization, in an interview aired on Al Jazeera English. Ahmed bin Jassim Al Thani replaced Khanfar and served as the director general of the channel from September 2011 to June 2013 when he was appointed minister of economy and trade. The chairman of the channel is Hamad bin Thamer Al Thani. The current Director General is Dr. Mostefa Souag.
The editor-in-chief of the Arabic website is Dr. Mustafa Souag who replaced Ahmed Sheikh. It has more than 100 editorial staff. The managing director of Al Jazeera English is Al Anstey. The Editor-in-Chief of the English-language site is Mohamed Nanabhay who has run the site since 2009. Previous editors have included Beat Witschi and Russell Merryman.
Prominent on-air personalities include Faisal al-Qassem, host of the talk show The Opposite Direction, Ahmed Mansour, host of the show Without Borders (bi-la Hudud) and Sami Haddad.
Its former Iran and Beirut Bureau Chief was Ghassan bin Jiddo. He became an influential figure on Al Jazeera with his program Hiwar Maftuh, one of the most frequently watched programs. He also interviewed Nasrallah in 2007 and produced a documentary about Hezbollah. Some suggested that he would even replace Wadah Khanfar. However, bin Jiddo resigned from his job after political disagreements with the station.
Many governments in the Middle East deploy state-run media or government censorship to impact local media coverage and public opinion, leading to international objections regarding press freedom and biased media coverage. Some scholars and commentators use the notion of contextual objectivity, which highlights the tension between objectivity and audience appeal, to describe the station's controversial yet popular news approach.
Increasingly, Al Jazeera's exclusive interviews and other footage are being rebroadcast in American, British, and other western media outlets such as CNN and the BBC. In January 2003, the BBC announced that it had signed an agreement with Al Jazeera for sharing facilities and information, including news footage.
Al Jazeera's availability (via satellite) throughout the Middle East changed the television landscape of the region. Prior to the arrival of Al Jazeera, many Middle Eastern citizens were unable to watch TV channels other than state-controlled national TV stations. Al Jazeera introduced a level of freedom of speech on TV that was previously unheard of in many of these countries. Al Jazeera presented controversial views regarding the governments of many Arab states in the Persian Gulf area, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar; it also presented controversial views about Syria's relationship with Lebanon, and the Egyptian judiciary. Critics accused Al Jazeera of sensationalism in order to increase its audience share. Al Jazeera's broadcasts have sometimes resulted in drastic action: for example, when, on 27 January 1999, critics of the Algerian government appeared on the channel's live program El-Itidjah el-Mouakass ("The Opposite Direction"), the Algerian government cut the electricity supply to large parts of the capital Algiers (and allegedly also to large parts of the country), to prevent the program from being seen.
At that time, Al Jazeera was not yet generally known in the Western world, but where it was known, opinion was often favourable and Al Jazeera claimed to be the only politically independent television station in the Middle East. However, it was not until late 2001 that Al Jazeera achieved worldwide recognition, when it broadcast video statements by al-Qaeda leaders.
Some observers have argued that Al Jazeera has formidable authority as an opinion-maker. Noah Bonsey and Jeb Koogler, for example, writing in the Columbia Journalism Review, argue that the way in which the station covers any future Israeli-Palestinian peace deal could well determine whether or not that deal is actually accepted by the Palestinian public.
The channel's tremendous popularity has also, for better or worse, made it a shaper of public opinion. Its coverage often determines what becomes a story and what does not, as well as how Arab viewers think about issues. Whether in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, or Syria, the stories highlighted and the criticisms aired by guests on Al Jazeera's news programs have often significantly affected the course of events in the region.
In Palestine, the station's influence is particularly strong. Recent polling indicates that in the West Bank and Gaza, Al Jazeera is the primary news source for an astounding 53.4 percent of Palestinian viewers. The second and third most watched channels, Palestine TV and Al Arabiya, poll a distant 12.8 percent and 10 percent, respectively. The result of Al Jazeera's market dominance is that it has itself become a mover and shaker in Palestinian politics, helping to craft public perceptions and influence the debate. This has obvious implications for the peace process: how Al Jazeera covers the deliberations and the outcome of any negotiated agreement with Israel will fundamentally shape how it is viewed—and, more importantly, whether it is accepted—by the Palestinian public.
Al Jazeera's broad availability in the Arab world "operat[ing] with less constraint than almost any other Arab outlet, and remain[ing] the most popular channel in the region", has been perceived as playing a part in the Arab Spring, including the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. The New York Times stated in January 2011: "The protests rocking the Arab world this week have one thread uniting them: Al Jazeera, ... whose aggressive coverage has helped propel insurgent emotions from one capital to the next." The newspaper quoted Marc Lynch, a professor of Middle East Studies at George Washington University: "They did not cause these events, but it's almost impossible to imagine all this happening without Al Jazeera."
Expansion outside the Middle East
Al Jazeera English
On 4 July 2005 Al Jazeera officially announced plans to launch a new English-language satellite service to be called Al Jazeera International. The new channel started at 12h GMT on 15 November 2006 under the name Al Jazeera English and has broadcast centers in Doha (next to the original Al Jazeera headquarters and broadcast center), London, Kuala Lumpur and Washington D.C. The channel is a 24-hour, 7-days-a-week news channel, with 12 hours broadcast from Doha, and four hours each from London, Kuala Lumpur, and Washington D.C.
Al Jazeera launched an English language channel, originally called Al Jazeera International, in 2006. Among its staff were journalists hired from ABC's Nightline and other top news outfits. Josh Rushing, a former media handler for CENTCOM during the Iraq war, agreed to provide commentary; David Frost was also on board. In an interesting technical feat, the broadcast of the new operation was handed off between bases in Doha, London, Washington, D.C., and Kuala Lumpur on a daily cycle.
The new English language venture faced considerable regulatory and commercial hurdles in the North America market for its perceived sympathy with extremist causes. At the same time, others felt Al Jazeera's competitive advantage lay in programming in the Arabic language. There were hundreds of millions of potential viewers among the non-Arabic language speaking Muslims in Europe and Asia, however, and many others who might be interested in seeing news from the Middle East read by local voices. If the venture panned out, it would extend the influence of Al Jazeera, and tiny Qatar, beyond even what had been achieved in the station's first decade. In an interesting twist of fate, the BBC World Service was preparing to launch its own Arabic language station in 2007.
Al Jazeera Balkans
In 2011, Al Jazeera Media Network launched Al Jazeera Balkans based in Sarajevo and serving Bosnia and Herzegovina in both the Bosnian language, Serbian language and the Croatian language. The look and feel of the network is similar to Al Jazeera English.
Al Jazeera America
In January 2013, Al Jazeera Media Network purchased Current TV, which was partially owned by former U.S. Vice President Al Gore. Using part of Current TV's infrastructure, Al Jazeera launched an American news channel on 20 August 2013.
Though Current TV had large distribution throughout the United States on cable and satellite television, it averaged only 28,000 viewers at any time. The acquisition of Current TV by Al Jazeera allowed Time Warner Cable to drop the network due to its low ratings, but they released a statement saying that they would consider carrying the channel after they evaluated whether it made sense for their customers. Time Warner Cable later began carrying Al Jazeera America in December 2013.
In August 2014 Gore and fellow shareholder Joel Hyatt launched a lawsuit against Al Jazeera claiming a residual payment of $65 million of the sale proceeds, due in 2014, remained unpaid. Al Jazeera later announced a countersuit.
Al Jazeera Türk
Al Jazeera has been preparing to launch a Turkish language news channel called Al Jazeera Türk. On 10 February 2011, Al Jazeera acquired Turkey's Cine 5 television channel. Al Jazeera Turk launched its website with news in 2014 complete with video clips.
beIN SPORTS, formerly Al Jazeera Sport channels, it was legally separated from Al Jazeera Media Network on January 1, 2014 and is controlled by beIN Media Group
beIN SPORTS currently operates three channels in France – beIN Sport 1, beIN Sport 2 and beIN Sport MAX – and launched two channels in the United States (English and Spanish) in August 2012. The network also has a Canadian Channel and holds Canadian broadcast rights to several sports properties, The network also has an Australian channel.
In France, beIN Sport holds the rights to broadcast major football tournaments on French television, including Ligue 1, Bundesliga, the UEFA Champions League and the European Football Championships. In the United States and Canada, beIN Sport holds the rights to broadcast La Liga, Serie A, Ligue 1, Copa del Rey, South American World Cup Qualifier and English Championship matches, in addition to Barca TV.
In October 2009, Al Jazeera acquired six sports channels of the ART. On 26 November 2009, Al Jazeera English received approval from the CRTC, which enables Al Jazeera English to broadcast via satellite in Canada.
The original Al Jazeera channel is available worldwide through various satellite and cable systems.
Following the launch of Al Jazeera America, Al Jazeera English is no longer available in the United States. It had been available through live streaming over the Al Jazeera website, free to air DVB-S on the Galaxy 19 (and Galaxy 23 C-band) satellites, and it had been broadcast over the air in the Washington, DC DMA by WNVC on digital channel 30-5, and on digital channel 48.2 in the New York metro area, but those broadcasts were discontinued on 20 August 2013. Al Jazeera English had been available to cable TV viewers in Toledo, Ohio; Burlington, Vermont; New York City (WRNN rebroadcast), Washington State and Washington, D.C (a rebroadcast of WNVC's feed), but those sources were switched to Al Jazeera America on 20 August 2013. Many analysts had considered the limited availability of Al Jazeera English in the United States to be effectively a "black out".
In contrast, in the United Kingdom, Al Jazeera English is available on the Sky and Freesat satellite platforms, as well as the standard terrestrial service (branded Freeview), thus making it available to the vast majority of UK households. On 26 November 2013 it launched a HD simulcast on certain terrestrial transmitters.
Al Jazeera can also be freely viewed with a DVB-S receiver in Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East as it is broadcast on the Astra 1M, Eutelsat Hot Bird 13A, Eutelsat 10A, Badr 4, Turksat 2A, Thor 6, Nilesat 102, Hispasat 1C and Eutelsat 28A satellites. The Optus C1 satellite in Australia carries the channel for free and from July 2012 is available at no extra charge to all subscribers to Australia's Foxtel pay-TV service.
For availability info of the Al Jazeera network's other TV channels, see their respective articles. Segments of Al Jazeera English are uploaded to YouTube.
Outside the United States, it is possible to watch Al Jazeera English over the internet from their official website. The low-resolution version is available free of charge, while the high-resolution version is available under subscription fees through partner sites. In some countries that do not regularly offer Al Jazeera English through satellite or cable, the availability of internet video streaming receiver boxes, like those sold by Roku in the United States, offer the low-resolution stream without the use of a computer.
Al Jazeera's English division has also partnered with Livestation for Internet-based broadcasting. This enables viewers to watch Al Jazeera English, Al Jazeera America and Al Jazeera live worldwide with the exception of English and America in the United States.
Al Jazeera is available in Canada on Bell Channel 516, as part of the package "International News I." Al Jazeera is available on Rogers Cable individually. Al Jazeera is also available on Shaw Cable TV Channel 513, as part of the package "Multicultural" Free preview until 8 March 2011
On 7 December 2010, Al Jazeera said its English language service has got a downlink license to broadcast in India. Satellite and cable companies would therefore be allowed to broadcast Al Jazeera in the country. The broadcaster will be launched soon on Dish TV, and is considering a Hindi-language channel.
On the Web
Al Jazeera's web-based service is accessible subscription-free throughout the world, at a variety of websites. The station launched an English-language edition of its online content in March 2003. This English language website was relaunched on 15 November 2006, along with the launch of Al Jazeera English. The English and Arabic sections are editorially distinct, with their own selection of news and comment. Al Jazeera and Al Jazeera English are streamed live on the official site, as well as on YouTube. On 13 April 2009, Al Jazeera launched condensed versions of its English and Arabic sites for mobile device users.
The Arabic version of the site was brought offline for about 10 hours by an FBI raid on its ISP, InfoCom Corporation, on 5 September 2001. InfoCom was later convicted of exporting to Syria and Gaddafi-ruled Libya, of knowingly being invested in by a Hamas member (both of which are illegal in the United States), and of underpaying customs duties.
in 2014 Al Jazeera Media Network launched an online only channel called AJ+. The channel is based out of the former Current TV studios in San Francisco and has outposts in Doha, Kuala Lumpur and other locations. It is independent of all of Al Jazeera's other channels and is mostly in an on demand format. The channel launched on 13 June 2014 on with a preview on YouTube.
On 13 January 2009, Al Jazeera released some of its broadcast quality footage from Gaza under a Creative Commons license. Contrary to business "All Rights Reserved" standards, the license invites third parties, including rival broadcasters, to reuse and remix the footage, so long as Al Jazeera is credited. The videos are hosted on blip.tv, which allows easy downloading and integration with Miro.
Al Jazeera also offers over 2,000 Creative Commons-licensed still photos at their Flickr account.
Al Jazeera accepts user-submitted photos and videos about news events through a Your Media page, and this content may be featured on the website or in broadcasts.
Future projects in other languages include Al Jazeera Urdu, an Urdu language channel to cater mainly to Pakistanis and possibly some Indians. A Kiswahili service called Al Jazeera Kiswahili was to be based in Nairobi and broadcast in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. However, those plans were cancelled due to budget constraints.
The channel also has plans to launch a Spanish-language news network to cater mainly to Spain and Hispanic America, like the Iranian cable TV network HispanTV. Al Jazeera has also been reported to be planning to launch an international newspaper. Al Jazeera Arabic began using a chroma key studio on 13 September 2009. Similar to Sky News, Al Jazeera broadcast from that studio while the channel's main newsroom was given a new look. The channel relaunched, with new graphics and music along with a new studio, on 1 November 2009, the 13th birthday of the channel.
Controversies associated with Al Jazeera
While Al Jazeera has a large audience in the Middle East, the organization and the original Arabic channel in particular have taken criticism and been involved in several controversies.
On 27 January 1999, several Algerian cities lost power simultaneously, reportedly to keep residents from watching a program in which Algerian dissidents implicated the Algerian military in a series of massacres.
On 4 July 2004, the Algerian government froze the activities of Al Jazeera's Algerian correspondent. The official reason given was that a reorganization of the work of foreign correspondents was in progress. The international pressure group Reporters Without Borders says, however, that the measure was really taken in reprisal for a broadcast the previous week of another Al-Itijah al-Mouakiss debate on the political situation in Algeria.
In May 2000, Bahrain banned Al Jazeera broadcast due to channel's comments about Bahrain's municipal elections, labelling it as "serving Zionism".
During his visit to Egypt in November 2011, Nabeel Rajab, the president of Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, criticized Al Jazeera's coverage of the Bahraini uprising, saying that it represents an Arabic double standard. Rajab commented, "Al Jazeera's intentional ignoring for coverage of Bahrain protests makes me strongly believe that we need channels that are sponsored by people rather than by regimes".
In May 2012 Chinese authorities refused to renew Al Jazeera correspondent's press credentials and visa, or allow a replacement journalist. Al Jazeera consequently closed its bureau in Beijing. Al Jazeera re-opened a bureau in China in 2014.
During the 2011 Egyptian protests, on 30 January, the Egyptian government ordered the TV channel to close its offices. A day after, on 31 January, Egyptian security forces arrested six Al Jazeera journalists for several hours and seized their camera equipment. There were also reports of disruption in Al Jazeera Mubasher's Broadcast to Egypt. The channel was also criticized for being sympathetic to Mohamed Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood and it was closed for the same reasons in September 2013.
Twenty-two members of staff of Al Jazeera's Egyptian bureau announced their resignation on 8 July 2013, citing biased coverage of the ongoing Egyptian power redistribution in favour of the Muslim Brotherhood. Al Jazeera claims that the resignations were made due to pressure from the Egyptian Military.
In August 2013, Memri translated an 17 August 2013 clip from Al Jazeera, in which Gamal Nasser, a former Muslim Brotherhood official and Al Jazeera commentator, said that General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is "of Jewish origin" and "implementing a Zionist plan to divide Egypt".
In late June 2014, three Al Jazeera English employees were sentenced to seven to ten-year jail terms on "terrorism" charges for news reports deemed supportive of the banned Muslim Brotherhood. The sentences were applied after several court hearings took place featuring no evidence to back the government's claims The three, Mohamed Fahmy, Peter Greste and Baher Mohamed appealed. There was international condemnation of the court proceedings from both governments and media, with the terms "chilling and draconian" used by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry to describe the jail sentences. Newly elected Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi however was unmoved, a day after the verdicts declaring his government would not intervene in judicial rulings. On 1 February, Greste was released from jail and deported. On 12 February both Mohamed Fahmy and Baher Mohamed were released on bail.
One day prior to his sentencing, on 28 August 2015, Fahmy's Canadian lawyer Joanna Gislason wrote in a Globe and Mail op-ed that: "Journalism was grossly perverted by the Qatari network to tug Egyptian hearts toward its Muslim Brotherhood sympathies. In prison, Mohamed learned, for example, of Brotherhood activists being paid as journalists by Al Jazeera – a clear crime in Egypt by that time, to say nothing of the offence to journalism. Qatar knew what politics it favoured for Egypt and used Al Jazeera as its mouthpiece." Al Jazeera has refuted these claims.
On 29 August 2015, Fahmy, Greste and Mohamed were sentenced to 3 years in prison in a decision heavily criticized internationally. The Government of Canada is currently working to have Fahmy pardoned and deported. On 23 September 2015, Fahmy and Mohamed were Pardoned by Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi along with 100 other people and released from Prison.
The Indian government banned the Al-Jazeera TV channel in April 2015 for five telecast days as it repeatedly displayed wrong maps of India. The SGI had observed that in some of the maps displayed by Al Jazeera, "a portion of Indian territory of Jammu and Kashmir (i.e. PoK and Aksai Chin) has not been shown as a part of Indian territory."
The SGI asserted that it was outrageous that the channel also did not show Lakshadweep and Andaman Islands as Indian territories in some of the maps. The SGI also said that the maps were not in accordance with the Survey of India copyright map and is also against the National Map policy, 2005 and map restriction policy issued by Ministry of Defence from time to time. The Ministry of External Affairs also pointed out similar airing of a wrong map by the channel.
In their reply to a Show Cause Notice, Al Jazeera said that all maps that are displayed by them are generated by an internationally known software used by Global News Providers. The channel also added that it takes Indian government's concerns about maps very seriously and accordingly reviews all its India and Pakistan maps to ensure compatibility with recent official UN map. As per the order of the Information and Broadcasting Ministry, the Inter Ministerial Committee which was also attended by representatives of the Ministry of External Affairs, after deliberations, held that the channel had clearly violated the provisions of the programme code and prohibited transmission or re-transmission of the channel throughout India for five days.
The Iraqi interim government closed the offices of Al Jazeera in Baghdad in August 2004. Then Iraqi prime minister Iyad Allawi accused the channel of "inciting hatred" in the country. At the end of April 2013, the Iraqi government led by Nouri Al Maliki once again ordered to stop Al Jazeera broadcasting due to the alleged role of the channel in "encouraging the sectarian unrest".
On the 2008 release in an Israel-Hezbollah deal of Samir Kuntar, who had murdered two Israelis in 1979 including a 4-year-old girl, Al Jazeera Arabic threw him a party: "Brother Samir, we wish to celebrate your birthday with you," crowed the station's Beirut bureau chief, hailing Kuntar as a "pan-Arab hero."
On 13 March 2008, Israel announced a "boycott" of the Arabic broadcaster al-Jazeera, accusing it of bias particularly during coverage of the conflict in the Gaza Strip and of slanted coverage favoring Hamas. Ministers will refuse to do interviews and according to some reports, will deny visa applications from its staff. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Majali Wahbe accused the Qatari-owned station of prioritizing/focusing exclusively on Palestinian suffering, and ignoring Israeli suffering. "We have seen that Al-Jazeera has become part of Hamas . . . taking sides and cooperating with people who are enemies of the state of Israel," said Wahbe, a Druse Arab. "The moment a station like Al-Jazeera gives unreliable reports, represents only one side, and doesn't present the positions of the other side, why should we cooperate?", adding: "These reports are untrustworthy and they hurt us, and they arouse people to terrorist activities." Israeli officials backed their claim by saying al-Jazeera had covered the Gaza incursion but not the Palestinian rocket attacks against the Israeli city of Ashkelon. Wahabi said that the Israeli Foreign Ministry would send letters of complaint to the government of Qatar and Al Jazeera. Officials of Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas' Fatah party also accuse al-Jazeera of being biased in favour of Hamas, with which it is at political loggerheads, and prominent Fatah official and former Gaza strongman Mohammed Dahlan has organized a lawsuit against the broadcaster. Al-Jazeera eventually agreed to discuss coverage of Mideast conflict, and the issue was apparently settled.
In February 2009, Israel again imposed sanctions on Al Jazeera after Qatar closed the Israeli trade office in Doha in protest to the Gaza War. Initially, Israel contemplated declaring Al Jazeera a hostile entity and shutting down its Israel offices, but after a legal review, the Israeli government decided instead to impose limited measures to restrict Al Jazeera's activities in the country. All Al Jazeera employees would not have their visas renewed, and the Israeli government would issue no new visas. Al Jazeera staff would also not be allowed to attend government briefings and reduced access to government and military offices or interview Knesset members. The station would only be allowed access to three official spokespersons: The Prime Minister's Office, the Foreign Ministry, and the IDF Spokesperson's Unit.
In August 2011, Samer Allawi, Al Jazeera's Afghanistan bureau chief, was arrested by Israeli authorities on charges of being a member of Hamas. Walied Al-Omary, Al Jazeera's bureau chief in Israel and the Palestinian territories, said the military court accused Allawi of making contact with members of Hamas's armed wing. A co-leader of The Committee to Protect Journalists said "Israel must clarify why it continues to hold Samer Allawi." Allawi was held in prison over a month, he was charged $1400 fine after pleading guilty to having met with Hamas, a militant group seen as a terrorist group by Israel and most of the West.
Palestinian National Authority
On 15 July 2009, the Palestinian National Authority closed down Al Jazeera's offices in the West Bank, apparently in response to claims made on the channel by Farouk Kaddoumi that PA President Mahmoud Abbas had been involved in the death of Yasser Arafat. In a statement announcing the decision, the Palestinian Information Ministry said the station's coverage was "unbalanced" and accused it of incitement against the PLO and the PA.
On 19 July 2009, President Abbas rescinded the ban and allowed Al Jazeera to resume operations.
In January 2013 a former News Editor at Al Jazeera, who was from Syria, and had been at Al Jazeera for "nearly a decade" was fired without cause given, but in an interview stated their belief that it was linked to his/her resistance of ongoing strong pressure to conform to biased coverage of the Syrian civil war. The former Editor stated that the Muslim Brotherhood was "controlling the Syrian file at Al-Jazeera" with both organizations biasing news coverage in favour of the Brotherhood ousting the Syrian government of Assad by force and warning the then-editor "the majority [in Syria] is with the Muslim Brotherhood and [taking power] is within our grasp" so "thank your god if you get a pardon when we become the government." The source named the names of several other former employees who resigned in protest, including director of the Berlin bureau Aktham Sleiman, a Syrian, "who was, at the beginning, with the [Syrian] opposition" but resisted what the interviewee terms the "lies and despicable [political and ethnic] sectarianism" and concluded that "Al-Jazeera has lied and is still lying" about Syria and in favour of armed overthrow and of the Muslim Brotherhood.
When Al Jazeera reported events featuring very graphic footage from inside Iraq, Al Jazeera was described as anti-American and as inciting violence because it reported on issues concerning national security.
In 2003 Washington bureau chief Hafez al-Mirazi resigned to protest the station's "Islamist drift.".
On 24 March 2003, two Al Jazeera reporters covering the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) had their credentials revoked. The NYSE banned Al Jazeera (as well as several other news organizations whose identities were not revealed) from its trading floor indefinitely. NYSE spokesman Ray Pellechia said that it was due to "security reasons", and that the exchange had decided to give access only to networks that focus "on responsible business coverage". He denied the revocation had anything to do with the network's Iraq war coverage. However, Robert Zito, the exchange's executive vice president for communications, indicated that Al Jazeera's graphic footage broadcast on 22 March 2003 led him to oust Al Jazeera. The move was quickly mirrored by NASDAQ stock market officials. The NYSE ban was rescinded a few months later.
In addition, Akamai Technologies, a U.S. company whose founder was killed in the 11 September World Trade Center attack, canceled a contract to provide web services for Al Jazeera's English language website.
Death of Tareq Ayyoub
On 8 April 2003, Al Jazeera's office in Baghdad was hit by a missile fired from by an American ground-attack aircraft, killing reporter Tareq Ayyoub and wounding another. Al Jazeera reported that it had mailed coordinates for their office to the U.S. State Department six weeks earlier, and that these should have clearly identified their location. Dima Tareq Tahboub, the widow of Tareq Ayyoub, continues as of 2003[update] to denounce her husband's death and has written for The Guardian and participated in a documentary broadcast on Al Jazeera English.
Al Jazeera bombing memo
- Also see O'Connor - Keogh official secrets trial.
On 22 November 2005, the UK tabloid The Daily Mirror published a story claiming that it had obtained a leaked memo from 10 Downing Street saying that former U.S. President George W. Bush had considered bombing Al Jazeera's Doha headquarters in April 2004, when United States Marines were conducting a contentious assault on Fallujah.
Immediately after its launch in 2003, the English site was attacked by one or several hackers, who launched denial-of-service attacks, and another hacker who redirected visitors to a site featuring an American flag. Both events were widely reported as Al Jazeera's website having been attacked by "hackers". In November 2003, John William Racine II, also known as 'John Buffo', was sentenced to 1,000 hours of community service and a $1,500 U.S. fine for the online disruption. Racine posed as an Al Jazeera employee to get a password to the network's site, then redirected visitors to a page he created that showed an American flag shaped like a U.S. map and a patriotic motto, court documents said. In June 2003, Racine pleaded guilty to wire fraud and unlawful interception of an electronic communication. As of 2012, the perpetrators of the denial-of-service attacks remain unknown.
Shariah and life
Shariah and Life (al-Sharīʿa wa al-Ḥayāh) is an Al Jazeera Arabic show with an estimated audience of 60 million worldwide and stars Muslim preacher Yusuf al-Qaradawi, who is described as "Islam's Spiritual 'Dear Abby'". The show has been the repeated subject of controversy. In January 2009, Qaradawi stated: "Throughout history, Allah has imposed upon the [Jews] people who would punish them for their corruption. The last punishment was carried out by [Adolf] Hitler." In October 2010, Qaradawi was asked if Muslims should acquire nuclear weapons "to terrorize their enemies." Qaradawi said he was pleased Pakistan had such a weapon, that the goal of nuclear weapons would be permissible, and provided religious justification quoting Koranic verses urging Muslims "to terrorize thereby the enemy of God and your enemy."
Al Jazeera is owned by the government of Qatar. While Al Jazeera officials have stated that they are editorially independent from the government of Qatar, this assertion has been disputed. In 2010, United States Department of State internal communications, released by WikiLeaks as part of the 2010 diplomatic cables leak, claim that the Qatar government manipulates Al Jazeera coverage to suit political interests.
In September 2012, The Guardian reported that Al Jazeera's editorial independence came into question when the channel's director of news, Salah Negm, stepped in at the last minute to order that a two-minute video covering a UN debate over the Syrian civil war include a speech by the leader of Qatar, Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani. Staff members protested that the speech was not the most important aspect of the debate, and that it was a repetition of previous calls for Arab intervention.
- Al Jazeera's coverage of the invasion of Iraq was the focus of an award-winning 2004 documentary film, Control Room by Egyptian-American director Jehane Noujaim.
- In July 2003, PBS broadcast a documentary, called Exclusive to al-Jazeera on its program Wide Angle.
- In 2008, Al Jazeera filmed Egypt: A nation in waiting, which documented trends in Egypt's political history and foreshadowed the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.
- Another documentary, Al Jazeera, An Arab Voice for Freedom or Demagoguery? The UNC Tour was filmed two months after 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attack.
- ISIL and the Taliban,filmed in 2015 by an Arab Al Jazeera reporter named Najibullah Quraishi,covers Islamic State's presence in Afghanistan and how they groom children for jihad,filming Taliban commanders angry about Islamic State's presence,Afghan National Army starting offensives in Achin and 2 suicide bombers targeting Jandal,a former warlord.
Awards and accolades
- 1999 Prince Claus Award for "Creating Spaces of Freedom", in Amsterdam
- In December 1999, Ibn Rushd Fund for Freedom of Thought in Berlin awarded the Ibn Rushd Prize for Freedom of Thought for media and journalism for the year to Al Jazeera.
- In March 2003, Al Jazeera was awarded by Index on Censorship for its "courage in circumventing censorship and contributing to the free exchange of information in the Arab world."
- In April 2004, the Webby Awards nominated Al Jazeera as one of the five best news Web sites, along with BBC News, National Geographic, RocketNews and The Smoking Gun. According to Tiffany Shlain, the founder of the Webby Awards, this caused a controversy as [other media organisations] "felt it was a risk-taking site".
- In 2004, Al Jazeera was voted by brandchannel.com readers as the fifth most influential global brand behind Apple Computer, Google, Ikea and Starbucks.
- During the 2011 Egyptian protests, the online magazine Salon.com wrote that "Al Jazeera's Egypt coverage embarrasses U.S. cable news channels.", and WikiLeaks commented on their Twitter feed that "Yes, we may have helped Tunisia, Egypt. But let us not forget the elephant in the room: Al Jazeera + sat dishes".
- On 4 March 2011, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that Al Jazeera provided more news coverage than the opinion-driven coverage of American mass media. Most American media outlets declined comment. Michael Clemente of Fox News called the comments "curious", while not directly refuting them. Secretary Clinton's remarks contrast dramatically to Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's complaints of bias early in the previous decade. However, Rumsfeld apparently changed his opinion and expressed in 2011 that he was "delighted" by Al Jazeera English.
- Al Mayadeen is a pan-Arabist satellite television channel launched on 11 June 2012 in Lebanon. The channel, claims Gulf-supported media, aims at reducing the influence of the Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya networks, both funded by oil-rich Sunni Arab countries in the Persian Gulf. However, it is said to plan to present an alternative to mainstream Arab satellite media, largely dominated by these two channels.
- In response to Al Jazeera, a group of Saudi investors created Al Arabiya in the first quarter of 2003. Despite (especially initial) skepticism over the station's Saudi funding (cf. History) and a perception of censorship of anti-Saudi content, Al Arabiya has successfully emulated Al Jazeera, garnered a significant audience share, and has also become involved in controversy – Al Arabiya has been severely criticised by the Iraqi and US authorities and has had journalists killed on the job.
- In order to counter a perceived bias of Al Jazeera, the U.S. government in 2004 founded Al Hurra ("the free one"). Al Hurra is forbidden to broadcast to the US under the provisions of the Smith–Mundt Act. A Zogby poll found that 1% of Arab viewers watch Al Hurra as their first choice. while an Ipsos-MENA poll from March–May 2008 showed that Al Hurra was drawing more viewers in Iraq than Al Jazeera. Citing these figures, Alvin Snyder, author and former USIA executive, referred to Al Hurra as a "go to" network in Iraq.
- Another competitor is Al Alam, Established in 2003 by Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, it broadcasts continuously. It seeks to address the most challenging issues of the Muslim and Arab world and the Middle East.
- A further competitor is the Rusiya Al-Yaum channel – the first Russian TV news channel broadcasting in Arabic and headquartered in Moscow, Russia. Rusiya Al-Yaum started broadcasting on 4 May 2007. The Channel is established and operated by RIA Novosti, the same news agency that launched Russia Today TV in December 2005 to deliver a Russian perspective on news to English-speaking audiences, and "Rusiya Al-Yaum" is indeed a translation of "Russia Today" into Arabic.
- The BBC launched BBC Arabic Television on 11 March 2008, an Arabic-language news channel in North Africa and the Middle East. This is the second time that the BBC has launched an Arabic language TV channel; as mentioned above, the demise of the original BBC World Service Arabic TV channel had at least contributed to the founding of the original Al Jazeera Arabic TV channel.
- Deutsche Welle began broadcasting in Arabic in 2002. On 12 September 2011, the German international broadcaster launched DW (Arabia), its Arabic language television channel for North Africa and the Middle East. The network has expanded from an initial two-hour block to 16 hours of daily programming in Arabic starting March 2014. The schedule is completed with 8 hours of English language programming. In February 2014, DW (Arabia) announced the acquisition of reprise transmission rights of Egyptian satirist Bassem Youssef's popular show AlBernameg.
- When Euronews started broadcasting its programs in Arabic on 12 July 2008, it entered into competition with Al Jazeera. Arabic is the eighth language in which Euronews is broadcast, after English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese.
- Since the launch of Al Jazeera English, Al Jazeera directly competes with BBC World and CNN International, as do a growing number of other international broadcasters such as Deutsche Welle, France 24, NHK World, and RT.
- Al Jazeera America is in direct competition with American networks CNN, MSNBC, FOX News Channel and in certain markets The Blaze and RT.
Al Jazeera media network operates a number of specialty channels besides its original flagship news channel.
Al Jazeera network's TV channels include:
|Al Jazeera||The original international Arabic-language 24h news channel||1 November 1996||aljazeera.net/channel|
|Al Jazeera Mubasher Al-'Amma (a.k.a. Al Jazeera Live General)||A live politics and public interest channel (similar to C-SPAN or BBC Parliament), which broadcasts conferences in real time without editing or commentary||2005||mubasher.aljazeera.net|
|JeemTV||A children's interest channel||2013||jeemtv.net|
|Al Jazeera English||A global English-language 24h news channel||2006||aljazeera.com|
|Al Jazeera Documentary Channel||An Arabic language documentary channel||2007||doc.aljazeera.net|
|Al Jazeera Balkans||A version of Al Jazeera in the Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian language(s) stationed in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina catering to and broadcasting around the Balkans||2011||balkans.aljazeera.com|
|Al Jazeera America||A version of Al Jazeera that is based in and completely operated out of the United States, airing domestic and international news.||2013||america.aljazeera.com|
|Pending Channels||Description and Region||Year||Website|
|Al Jazeera Türk||A version of Al Jazeera that will be in the Turkish language(s) stationed in Istanbul catering to and broadcasting around Turkey. Currently online only.||2014 (Under construction)||aljazeera.com.tr|
|Al Jazeera Kiswahili||Kiswahili version of Al Jazeera to be based in East Africa.||(Under construction)||aljazeerakiswahili.com|
|AJ+||English language digital online only news channel based primarily on its mobile app and YouTube||2014||ajplus.net|
|Al Jazeera Training Center||an Arabic language, Graphics and Media Training Center||2004||training.aljazeera.net|
|Al Jazeera Center for Studies||A Think Tank that conducts research and in depth analysis of current affairs at both regional and global levels||2006||studies.aljazeera.net|
- "July 24, 2014 تغييرات في قناة “الجزيرة” العربية تطيح بالجزائري مصطفى سواق وتعيين الاردن ياسر ابو هلالة مكانه مديرا عاما".
- "FAQ - What does "Al Jazeera" mean?". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
The name "Al Jazeera" means "peninsula."
- Habib Toumi (13 July 2011). "Al Jazeera turning into private media organisation". Gulf News. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Shawn Powers. "The Geopolitics of the News: The Case of the Al Jazeera Network". Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Al-Jazeera's political independence questioned amid Qatar intervention, The Guardian
- Deconstructing Al Jazeera and its paymasters Let us build pakistan
- Al-Jazeera Gets Rap as Qatar Mouthpiece Bloomberg
- Qatari-owned Al Jazeera America makes its debut Reuters
- Dan Sabbagh (30 September 2012). "Al-Jazeera's political independence questioned amid Qatar intervention". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- Whitaker, Brian (7 February 2003). "Battle station". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Oren Kessler. "The Two Faces of Al Jazeera". Middle East Forum. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Why Egypt Hates Al Jazeera". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (7 September 2014). "Qatar's Support of Islamists Alienates Allies Near and Far". The New York Times.
- Najat Fawzy AlSaied. "Al Jazeera: Non-Arabs Should Not Be Fooled". Gatestone Institute. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Al Jazeera reporter resigns over "biased" Syria coverage". Al Akhbar English. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Sarah El Sirgany, for CNN (12 May 2015). "Freed Al Jazeera journalist Mohamed Fahmy sues network - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Dan Sabbagh. "Al-Jazeera's political independence questioned amid Qatar intervention". the Guardian. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Goldberg, Jeffrey (2013-07-10). "Why Does Al Jazeera Love a Hateful Islamic Extremist?". bloombergview.com (Bloomberg L.P.). Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- "AL JAZEERA: US Government Funded Anti-Muslim Brotherhood Activists". Business Insider. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Al Jazeera: The Most-Feared News Network
- "Arabic in Graphic Design: Al Jazeera's Cartouche: "The elaborate calligraphic design spells "al-Jazeera" in Arabic, a word meaning "the island" or "the peninsula – terms used to refer to both the Arabian peninsula and the network's peninsular home state, Qatar."". Fight.Boredom. Cloudjammer Creative Network. 18 February 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2008.
- "AL JAZEERA TV: The History of the Controversial Middle East News Station Arabic News Satellite Channel History of the Controversial Station". Allied-media. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "France seeks to soothe Arab anger over porn film". Hurriyet. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "A decade of growth". Al Jazeera English. 1 November 2006. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Joel Campagna (October 2001). "Between Two Worlds". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Jennifer Bryson (30 October 2001). "Analysis: Is Rumsfeld's Criticism of Al-Jazeera Justified?". Newsmax. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Joe Eskenazi (17 October 2003). "Al-Jazeera not 'all bin Laden, all the time,' D.C. bureau chief says". Jweekly. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Fouad Ajami (18 November 2001). "What the Muslim World Is Watching". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Jason Gay (29 October 2001). "CNN Snaps Back to Action". New York Observer. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Risen, James (12 December 2001). "A nation challenged – Interview With bin Laden Makes the Rounds". NY Times (New York City; Great Britain; Washington (DC); Afghanistan). Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Mohammed El-Nawawy, 2003. Al-jazeera: The Story of the Network That Is Rattling Governments and Redefining Modern Journalism. Cambridge, MA: Westview Press, p. 166, [dead link]
- "Al-Jazeera Kabul offices hit in US raid". BBC News. 13 November 2001. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Peter Feuilherade (20 February 2003). "Al-Jazeera competitor launches". BBC News. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Jonathan Steele (8 April 2003). "Obituary: Tareq Ayyoub". the Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Foreign media suffer Baghdad losses". BBC News. 8 April 2003. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Robert Fisk: The Independent, 2 November 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011
- Hugh Miles, 2005. Al-Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel that is Challenging the West. New York: Grove Press, p.346, Books.Google.com
- Naomi Sakr, 2001. Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization & the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, p. 57, Books.google.com
- Naomi Sakr, 2001. Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization & the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 58, Books.Google.com
- Hugh Miles, 2005. Al-Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel that is Challenging the West. New York: Grove Press, p. 347, Books.Google.com
- "Qatar's Al-Jazeera livens up Arab TV scene". BBC. 7 January 1999. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Al Jazeera's Director General resigns 'to serve my country'". Doha News. 26 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.[dead link]
- "The World's Most Influential Arabs". Arabian Business. 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- Books of our Time: Al-Jazeera[dead link] at Google Video; TV programme feat. Lawrence Velvel, Dean of the Mass. School of Law, interviewing author Hugh Miles who reveals a lot about the channel (a, c: 48:30, b: 55:00)
- El-Nawawy and Iskandar. Al-Jazeera: How the free Arab News Network Scooped the World and Changed the Middle East. Westview. cf.Further reading
- "The Minotaur of 'Contextual Objectivity': War coverage and the pursuit of accuracy with appeal". TBS Journal.com. Retrieved 12 April 2012.[dead link]
- BBC in news deal with Arabic TV BBC News, published 17 January 2003
- PDF (502 KiB) by Nicolas Eliades; Peace & Conflict Monitor; University for Peace
Qatar's Al-Jazeera TV: The Power of Free Speech[dead link]
- E.g. in 1999, The New York Times reporter Thomas L. Friedman called Al-Jazeera "the freest, most widely watched TV network in the Arab world". – Friedman, Thomas L. (12 February 1999). "Fathers and Sons". The New York Times: A27.
- Westcott, Kathryn (14 November 2002). "Al Jazeera and Bin Laden". BBC News. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- CJR.org, Does the Path to Middle East Peace Stop in Doha?
- "Seizing a Moment, Al Jazeera Galvanizes Arab Frustration", The New York Times, 27 January 2011
- "Is Al Jazeera Alternative? Mainstreaming Alterity and Assimilating Discourses of Dissent". TBS Journal. 22 July 2003. Retrieved 12 April 2012.[dead link]
- "Afshinrattansi.com". Afshinrattansi. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- aljazeera.com[dead link]
- "Al Jazeera turns its signal West". Web.archive. 10 July 2005. Archived from the original on 10 July 2005. Retrieved 12 April 2012.[dead link]
- Matthew Power (June 2006). "Josh Rushing: From USMC to Al Jazeera". Matthew Power: GQ. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Deborah Soloman (12 February 2006). "Bye-Bye, BBC". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "David Frost joins al-Jazeera TV". BBC News. 7 October 2005. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Jamal Dajani (21 November 2006). "Al Jazeera English Falls Short of Expectations". New America Media. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Tony Burman (17 November 2006). "Al-Jazeera should be available in Canada". CBC. Retrieved 18 November 2012.[dead link]
- "Al-Jazeera English TV date set". BBC News. 1 November 2006. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Stelter, Brian (13 January 2012). "Current TV Finds a Good Number Within Its Tiny Ratings". new York Times. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Ali Velshi Joins Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Al Jazeera buys Al Gore's Current TV". CNN. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Al Jazeera buys Current TV in bid for US airtime". RT News. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Al Jazeera buys US channel Current TV". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Al Jazeera targets US expansion after buying Current TV". BBC. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Calderone, Michael (3 January 2013). "Time Warner Cable Will Consider Carrying Al Jazeera's U.S. Network". Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Al Gore alleges breach of contract in Al Jazeera lawsuit". Boston Star. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Al Jazeera acquires Turkey's Cine 5". Hurriyet Daily News (Turkey). Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Al Jazeera to Kick Off Pair of Soccer Channels in U.S. this August Bleacher Report, 2 June 2012
- "beIN SPORTS - North America's Premier Sports TV Network". beIN SPORTS US. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Arab Media Outlook 2009–2013" (PDF). Dubai Press Club and Value Partners. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Al-Jazeera English gets CRTC approval". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2012.[dead link]
- Al Jazeera TV Footprint – Coverage[dead link]
- Grim, Ryan (30 January 2011) Al Jazeera English Blacked Out Across Most Of U.S., The Huffington Post
- Ronnie Lovler (20 February 2011). "Absence of Al Jazeera English in US is troubling". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Al Jazeera (26 November 2013). "Al Jazeera launches on Freeview HD". Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Al Jazeera YouTube Channel". Youtube. 23 November 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Aljazeera.com[dead link]
- "Roku Channel Store | Netflix, Amazon Video on Demand, Hulu Plus & More on Roku Streaming Player". Roku.com. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Watch Al Jazeera English on your PC". Livestation. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Machado, Kenan (7 December 2010). "Al Jazeera English to Broadcast in India". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Al Jazeera English to be available in India". Ibnlive. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "How to watch Al Jazeera English online". Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Al Jazeera Livestream". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 19 March 2011.[dead link]
- "Al Jazeera English: Live Stream". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Al Jazeera Channel". YouTube. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Al Jazeera English". YouTube. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Elisha Brothers convicted at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 February 2006)[dead link]
- "cc.aljazeera.net". cc.aljazeera.net. Retrieved 12 April 2012.[dead link]
- Benenson, Fred (13 January 2009). "Al Jazeera Launches Creative Commons Repository". creativecommons.org. Archived from the original on 18 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- Steuer, Eric (13 January 2009). "Al Jazeera Announces Launch of Free Footage Under Creative Commons License". creativecommons.org. Archived from the original on 18 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- Cohen, Noam (11 January 2009). "Al Jazeera provides an inside look at Gaza conflict". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2009.[dead link]
- "Al Jazeera Announces Launch of Free Footage under Creative Commons License". Al Jazeera Creative Commons Repository. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2009.[dead link]
- Andrews, Robert (14 November 2009). "Al Jazeera Offers Creative Commons Video, Lessig Lends Backing". paidcontent.co.uk. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- Ito, Joi (14 January 2009). "Al Jazeera Launches Creative Commons Repository". ito. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- "Submit Your Contributions – Your Media". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "War on Gaza". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Ekine, Sokari (9 January 2009). "Ushahidi Platform Used to Document Congo, Gaza Crises". MediaShift. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Aljazeera and ARY Digital Network to launch Aljazeera Urdu". Ameinfo. 16 November 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2012.[dead link]
- "Aljazeera Swahili Formally Announce Recruitment". Thejackalnews.com. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Qatar Scraps Plans for Al-Jazeera Kiswahili". Jackal News. 7 October 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- Al Jazeera plans to launch Arab newspaper Arabian Business; 4 November 2006
- Al Jazeera under fire[dead link]
- RSF strongly condemns ban on al-Jazeera[dead link]
- Derhally, Massoud (29 July 2002). "Al Jazeera row causes Saudi Al Watan to attack Qatari FM". Arabian Business. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Ahmed Al Samany (2 November 2011). "حقوقي بحريني: "استقبال "العسكري" للملك رسال سيئة.. والجزيرة تجاهلت أحداث البحرين"". Tahrir newspaper. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
- "Al Jazeera English to close China bureau". 8 May 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- "Live blog 30/1 – Egypt protests". Al Jazeera. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Al Jazeera camera equipment seized". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Media should be able to report freely in Egypt, says al-Jazeera". Manila News. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Egypt bans four TV networks". Natunbarta. 4 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Mohamed Hassan Shaban (10 July 2013). "22 resign from Al-Jazeera Egypt in protest over bias". Asharq Al-Awsat. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- Jessica Chasmar (9 July 2013). "'We aired lies': Al-Jazeera staff quit over biased Egypt coverage". The Washington Times. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- Robert F. Worth (10 July 2013). "Egypt Is Arena for Influence of Arab Rivals". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Al-Jazeera Commentator, Former MB Official, Gamal Nassar: Al-Sisi is Jewish, Implementing Protocols of Elders of Zion in Egypt".
- "El-Sissis's uncle, the Haganah member".
- "9 Ludicrous Pieces Of Evidence Used In Egypt To Jail Al Jazeera Journalists". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Egypt trial: Outcry over al-Jazeera trio's sentencing". BBC News. 23 June 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Egypt's president says will not interfere in judicial rulings". Reuters. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Al Jazeera trial: Egypt court frees journalists on bail". BBC. 12 February 2015.
- theglobeandmail.com: "Fahmy verdict: It's really Egypt that's on trial", 28 Aug 2015
- "Al-Jazeera trial: Egypt gives journalists three-year sentence". BBC News.
- "Mohamed Fahmy's lawyer Amal Clooney says Canada formally applied for a pardon". cbc.ca. 30 August 2015.
- "Al Jazeera Penalised for Showing Wrong Map of India, Off Air for 5 Days". NDTV.com. 22 April 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Gag order". Al Ahram Weekly 703. 12–18 August 2004. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Parker, Ned (28 April 2013). "Iraq shuts down 10 television channels". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- Ajami, Fouad (18 November 2001). "What the Muslim World Is Watching". The New York Times.
- "Al Jazeera coming to America: Controversial network ready to hit U.S. TV markets". The Washingtion Times. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Israel accuses al-Jazeera of bias". BBC News. 12 March 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- DPA (12 March 2008). "Israel to boycott Al-Jazeera TV, claiming incitement to terror". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Friedman, Matti (13 March 2008). "Israel imposes sanctions on Al-Jazeera". The Boston Globe.
- "Israel boycotts Al-Jazeera". Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Yoav Stern (15 April 2008). "Following Israel boycott, Al-Jazeera agrees to discuss coverage of Mideast conflict". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Gov't. Sanctions on al-Jazeera in Israel – Inside Israel". CBN. 3 February 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Kessler, Oren (16 August 2011). "IDF is holding Al Jazeera Kabul bureau chief in W. Bank". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Al Jazeera journalist held in Israeli prison". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Al-Jazeera journalist detained by Israel (15 August 2011). "Al-Jazeera journalist detained by Israel". CPJ. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Al-Jazeera reporter released from Israeli prison". Yahoo News. 27 September 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Harriet Sherwood. "Al-Jazeera journalist 'admits' Hamas links after detention in Israel". the Guardian. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- The Associated Press (26 September 2011). "Al-Jazeera Israel reporter admits to contacting Hamas agent". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Al Jazeera journalist admits to being Hamas operative". The Jerusalem Post - JPost.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Samer Allawi, Al-Jazeera Reporter Held By Israel, To Be Released". The Huffington Post. 26 September 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Jazeera says Israeli court frees journalist[dead link]
- "Al-Jazeera says Israeli court frees journalist". Maan News Agency. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Al-Jazeera closed in West Bank". BBC News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- AP: Ban on Al-Jazeera operations in West Bank lifted[dead link]
- An exclusive interview with a news editor of Al-Jazeera Channel at AxisOfLogin
- An exclusive interview with a news editor of Al-Jazeera Channel at FilmBoxOffice
- "Al Jazeera Kabul offices hit in U.S. raid". BBC News. 13 November 2001. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Al-Jazeera: News channel in the news BBC News; 29 March 2003
- Purnick, Joyce (27 March 2003). "Metro Matters; Censorship Is Patriotism To Big Board". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- "Al Jazeera banned from NYSE floor". Arab Press Freedom Watch. Archived from the original on 24 November 2005.[dead link]
- Bhatnagar, Parija (25 March 2003). "Al Jazeera ousted from NYSE". CNN.
- 26, 2003.html "Al Jazeera banned from two Wall Street exchanges (26 March 2003)" Check
|url=scheme (help). Pbs.org. Retrieved 12 April 2012.[dead link]
- "Al Jazeera Timeline". Journalism. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "CRS Report for Congress" (PDF). United States Department of State. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- "Al Jazeera Denied Akamai Services". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- "Al Jazeera 'hit by missile'". BBC News. 8 April 2003. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "U.S. Bombing Raid Kills Three Journalists in Baghdad". Fox News. 8 April 2003. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- The war on Al Jazeera Comment by Dima Tareq Tahboub, the widow of Tareq Ayyoub, The Guardian, 4 October 2003
- Under Pressure, Qatar May Sell Jazeera Station, The New York Times, 30 January 2005
- "U.K. charges official over memo leak". MSNBC. 22 November 2005. Retrieved 2012.
- Al Jazeera and the Net – free speech, but don't say that by John Lettice; The Register; 7 April 2003
- Al-Jazeera hacker pleads guilty BBC News; 13 June 2003
- Al-Jazeera websites 'hit by hackers' at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 February 2004) by Dominic Timms; Guardian Unlimited; 26 March 2003
- Al-Jazeera cracker charged by John Leyden; The Register; 12 June 2003
- Southern California Man Who Hijacked Al Jazeera Website Agrees to Plead Guilty to Federal Charges[dead link]
Guilty plea in Al Jazeera site hack
Al Jazeera hacker gets community service
- No.9 Sheikh Dr Yusuf al Qaradawi, Head of the International Union of Muslim Scholars – "The 500 most influential Muslims in the world 2009", Prof John Esposito and Prof Ibrahim Kalin – Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University
- Smoltczyk, Alexander (15 February 2011). "Islam's Spiritual 'Dear Abby': The Voice of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- Goldberg, Jeffrey (23 February 2011). "Sheikh Qaradawi Seeks Total War". The Atlantic. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- Sherry Ricchiardi (March–April 2011). "The Al Jazeera Effect". American Journalism Review. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- The Anti-Defamation League. "Sheik Yusuf al-Qaradawi: Theologian of Terror". ADL. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "60 Minutes: Inside Al Jazeera". CBS News. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Campbell, Deborah (October 2009). "The Most Hated Name in News". The Walrus. Retrieved 26 August 2011.[dead link]
- Robert, Booth (6 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables claim al-Jazeera changed coverage to suit Qatari foreign policy". Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- Booth, Robert (5 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables claim al-Jazeera changed coverage to suit Qatari foreign policy". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- Church, Michael (17 February 2015). "Why is the BBC just so bad at TV news?". The Independent (London).
- Benjamin says: (10 July 2003). "Wide Angle – Exclusive to Al Jazeera". PBS. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Egypt: A Nation in Waiting Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- "Al-Jazeera, An Arab Voice for Freedom or Demagoguery? The UNC Tour". Unc. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Ibn Rushd prize 1999". Ibn-rushd.org. 24 April 2000. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Index: Free speaking voices in the wilderness[dead link]
- "The Webby Awards". Web.archive. 29 May 2006. Archived from the original on 29 May 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Apple bites big". Brand Channel. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Pareene, Alex (28 January 2011) Al Jazeera's Egypt coverage embarrasses U.S. cable news channels, Salon
- "Yes, we may have helped Tunisia, Egypt. But let us not forget the elephant in the room: Al Jazeera + sat dishes". Wikileaks/Twitter. 29 January 2011
- "Hillary Clinton: Al Jazeera 'Real news ... instead of a million commercials'". TVNewser. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Yahoo! News[dead link]
- Shaw, Lucas (30 September 2011). "Rumsfeld says he's "delighted" by Al Jazeera English". Reuters. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- "Winners honoured at British Muslim Awards". Asian Image. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- Attacks on the Press 2004: Saudi Arabia. "Attacks on the Press – 2004: Mideast". Cpj.org. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Feuilherade, Peter (25 November 2003). "Profile: Al Arabiya TV". BBC News. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Shock over Iraqi reporter's death". BBC News. 23 February 2006. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Time for the Last Hurrah for US' Al-Hurra". Arab News. 16 February 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Alhurra Locates the "Arab Street"". USC Center on Public Diplomacy. 7 January 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Snyder, Alvin. "ALHURRA LOCATES THE "ARAB STREET"". University of Southern California Center on Public Diplomacy. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- "BBC launches Arabic TV channel". BBC News. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Deutsche Welle debuts Arabic channel". Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "DW television to broadcast series by Egyptian satirist Bassem Youssef". DW.DE. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "TV Logos: A - LYNGSAT LOGO". Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Abdul-Mageed, M. M. (2008). Online News Sites and Journalism 2.0: Reader Comments on Al Jazeera Arabic. TripleC: Cognition, Communication, Co-operation, 6(2), 59–76. Abstract and full article: Blogspot.com
- Abdul-Mageed, M. M., and Herring, S. C. (2008). Arabic and English news coverage on aljazeera.net. In: F. Sudweeks, H. Hrachovec, and C. Ess (Eds.), Proceedings of Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication 2008 (CATaC'08), Nîmes, France, 24 June-27. Abstract and full article: Blogspot.com[dead link]
- M. Arafa, P.J. Auter, & K. Al-Jaber (2005), Hungry for news and information: Instrumental use of Al-Jazeera TV among viewers in the Arab World and Arab diaspora, Journal of Middle East Media, 1(1), 21–50
- Marc Lynch (2005), Voices of the New Arab Public: Iraq, al-Jazeera, and Middle East Politics Today, Columbia University Press
- N. Miladi (2004), Al-Jazeera, ISBN 1-86020-593-3
- Hugh Miles (2004), Al Jazeera: How Arab TV news challenged the world, Abacus, ISBN 0-349-11807-8,
- Mohammed el-Nawawy and Adel Iskandar (2002), Al-Jazeera: How the Free Arab News Network Scooped the World and Changed the Middle East, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-4017-9,
- Erik C. Nisbet, Matthew C. Nisbet, Dietram Scheufele, and James Shanahan (2004), PDF (187 KiB), Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 9 (2), 11–37
- Donatella Della Ratta (2005), Al Jazeera. Media e società arabe nel nuovo millennio (Italian), Bruno Mondadori, ISBN 88-424-9282-5
- Naomi Sakr (2002), Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization and the Middle East, I.B. Tauris, ISBN 1-86064-689-1
- Tatham, Steve (2006), Losing Arab Hearts & Minds: The Coalition, Al-Jazeera & Muslim Public Opinion, C. Hurst & Co. (London), Published 1 January 2006, ISBN 0-9725572-3-7
- Mohamed Zayani (2005), The Al Jazeera Phenomenon: Critical Perspectives On New Arab Media, Paradigm Publishers, ISBN 1-59451-126-8
- Augusto Valeriani (2005), Il giornalismo arabo, (Italian) Roma, Carocci ISBN 88-430-3280-1
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Al Jazeera.|