Al Rayyan

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Al Rayyan

الريان
Map of Qatar with Al Rayyan highlighted (from 2015 without Al-Shahaniya)
Map of Qatar with Al Rayyan highlighted
(from 2015 without Al-Shahaniya)
Coordinates (Al Rayyan): 25°19′N 51°22′E / 25.32°N 51.37°E / 25.32; 51.37Coordinates: 25°19′N 51°22′E / 25.32°N 51.37°E / 25.32; 51.37
Country Qatar
CapitalAl Rayyan City
Government
 • MayorRashid Hamad Al-Hajri
Area
 • Total2,450 km2 (950 sq mi)
Population
(2015)[1]
 • Total605,712
 • Density250/km2 (640/sq mi)
 entire municipality
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
ISO 3166 codeQA-RA
WebsiteAl Rayyan

Al Rayyan (Arabic: الريان‎; also spelled as Ar Rayyan) is the third-largest municipality in the state of Qatar. Its primary settlement is the city of the same name, which occupies the entire eastern section and largely surrounds Metropolitan Doha and functions as a suburb. The vast expanse of mostly undeveloped lands in the south-west also falls under the municipality's administration.

Etymology[edit]

Natural spring of Qulmat Al Maszhabiya in Al Mashabiya Reserve, next to Abu Samra.

Similar to many other names given to Qatari settlements and municipalities, Al Rayyan Municipality was named after a geographic feature present in its namesake, the city of Al Rayyan. The city derives its name from the Arabic term "ray", which translates to "irrigation". This name was bestowed upon it due to its low elevation, allowing it to act as a flood plain and provide a sustained supply of water to the numerous plants that grew within its boundaries.[2]

History[edit]

Al Rayyan Municipality was created as an independent municipal administration by the Ministry of Municipality and Urban Planning in 1972.[3]

Since 2004, Al Jemailiya Municipality was merged with Al Rayyan, and Jariyan Al Batnah Municipality was split between Al Rayyan and Al Wakrah Municipality. Doha Industrial Area, also known as Zone 58, was split off from Al Rayyan and integrated into Doha Municipality, becoming an enclave in Al Rayyan.[4]

In 2014, the western city of Al-Shahaniya was dissociated from Al Rayyan Municipality to form its own municipality. Integrating approximately 35% of Al Rayyan's area into the new municipality, some of Al Rayyan's western localities such as Al Gharbiam, Al Utouriya, Al Jemailiya, Umm Bab, Rawdat Rashed, Al Nasraniya, Dukhan and Al Khurayb were also included in the new municipality.[5]

Geography[edit]

Jebel Nakhsh at Khashem Al Nekhsh in southern Qatar.

Al Rayyan is bordered by five municipalities: Al Khor to the north, Umm Salal to the northeast, Al-Shahaniya to the west, Doha to the east and Al Wakrah to the southeast. It is divided into two main sections; the west consisting of scattered rural settlements, farms and open desert, and the east comprising the city of Al Rayyan, an urban offshoot of Metropolitan Doha's westward growth.[6]

Al Gharrafa, which is a district of Al Rayyan City and also a part of metropolitan Doha, is being developed as a large-scale commercial hub for residents of northwest Doha, northern Al Rayyan and southern Umm Salal. The district is already a well-established retail center, hosting many major malls and supermarkets. A small amount of residential developments are also planned for the district.[7]

Climate[edit]

The following is climate data for the locality of Al Mukaynis in Mebaireek.

Climate data for Al Mukaynis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22
(72)
25
(77)
30
(86)
36
(97)
42
(108)
43.5
(110.3)
45
(113)
44
(111)
41.5
(106.7)
36.5
(97.7)
30.5
(86.9)
22.5
(72.5)
34.9
(94.8)
Average low °C (°F) 15
(59)
16.5
(61.7)
19.5
(67.1)
24.5
(76.1)
30
(86)
32
(90)
33.5
(92.3)
33
(91)
30.5
(86.9)
27.5
(81.5)
22
(72)
17
(63)
25.1
(77.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 11
(0.4)
1.5
(0.06)
2
(0.1)
6
(0.2)
0.5
(0.02)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.25
(0.01)
14
(0.6)
21.5
(0.85)
56.75
(2.24)
Average relative humidity (%) 70 69 64 60 54 55 58 63 66 70 75 82 66
Source: Qatar Statistics Authority[8]

Administration[edit]

Men watch a camel being lifted by crane in the Abu Hamour Wholesale Market.
View from Education City Mosque.
Barwa City in Mesaimeer.
Rocks on a beach in Abu Samra near Salwa Road.
Dilapidated mosque near the water reservoir in Abu Nakhla.

The municipality is divided into 10 zones which are then divided into 1410 blocks.[9] As of 2017, Rashid Hamad Al-Hajri is the mayor of Al Rayyan Municipality.[10]

Administrative zones[edit]

The following administrative zones are found in Al Rayyan Municipality as of 2015:[1]

Zone no. Settlements Area (km²) Population (2015)
51 Al Gharrafa
Gharrafat Al Rayyan
Izghawa
Bani Hajer
Al Seej
Rawdat Egdaim
Al Themaid
80.9 56,027
52 Al Luqta
Lebday
Old Al Rayyan
Al Shagub
Fereej Al Zaeem
13.4 18,433
53 New Al Rayyan
Al Wajbah
Muaither
110.9 77,875
54 Fereej Al Amir
Luaib
Muraikh
Baaya
Mehairja
Fereej Al Soudan
18.1 24,593
55 Fereej Al Soudan
Al Waab
Al Aziziya
New Fereej Al Ghanim
Fereej Al Murra
Fereej Al Manaseer
Bu Sidra
Muaither
Al Sailiya
Al Mearad
82.4 283,675
56 Fereej Al Asiri
New Fereej Al Khulaifat
Bu Samra
Al Mamoura
Abu Hamour
Mesaimeer
Ain Khaled
61.1 128,928
81 Mebaireek 160.5 12,483
83 Al Karaana 554.3 2,614
96 Abu Samra 801.7 984
97 Sawda Natheel 566.7 100
Municipality 2450 605,712

Districts[edit]

Other settlements in Al Rayyan include:[11]

Economy[edit]

Center-pivot irrigation at Irkhaya Farms.

Due to Al Rayyan's lack of a coastline in its population centers in the eastern section, fishing and pearling did not play a part in building its economy; this is in sharp contrast to Qatar's other urban centers which were largely dependent on maritime activities. Instead, nomadic herding of livestock and small-scale crop cultivation comprised the livelihoods of its past inhabitants.[12]

According to government statistics recorded when Al-Shahaniya was still integrated into Al Rayyan, the municipality accounted for the majority of Qatar's farming activities. In 2015, 36% of Qatar's total farmland was based in Al Rayyan, putting it just ahead of Al Khor with 35% of the country's farmland. There were 499 farms occupying 17,136 hectares, most of which (256) were involved in cultivating crops, 234 of which were mixed operations, 8 of which raised livestock, and 1 categorized as "other".[13] The municipality had a livestock inventory of 108,508, including 52,582 sheep and 27,380 goats. Livestock numbers were surpassed only by Al Khor.[14]

Until 2017, Muaither Yard was the only farmers' market in the municipality.[15] Qatar Foundation established Torba Farmers' Market in Education City in November 2017. Only organically grown produce is sold at this market.[16]

Education[edit]

According to the 2015 census conducted by the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, there were a total of 199 schools located in Al Rayyan at that time.[17] State schools were recorded as amounting to 108 in the 2016 education census – 50 were exclusively for girls and 58 were for boys. A slightly higher number of students were male, at 23,558 compared to 23,455 female students.[18]

Entrance to Carnegie Mellon University in Education City.

Several schools have transferred to Al Rayyan from Doha as a result of lower operating costs and closer proximity to students.[19]

Various universities main campuses in Education City, a city-scale project by Qatar Foundation which is spread across the Al Gharrafa, Gharrafat Al Rayyan and Al Shagub districts of Al Rayyan City.[2] Among the universities are:[20]

Healthcare[edit]

Construction of Sidra Medical and Research Center in 2014.

Healthcare standards in the municipality have been boosted by Sidra Medical and Research Center,[19] which is in the Al Gharrafa district of Al Rayyan.[2] Its initial inpatient hospital was formally opened in January 2018 with 400 beds.[21] At peak operational capacity, it will serve more than 275,000 patients per year.[22] Biomedical research is also conducted at Sidra, with its research facilities becoming operational in 2015.[23]

Aspetar, a specialised orthopaedic and sports medicine hospital, is found in the Aspire Zone in the Al Waab district.[19] Commencing operations in 2007,[24] it was the first-ever sports medicine hospital in the Middle East region. It earned accreditation as a FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence in 2009.[25]

Overall, there twenty-six health care facilities recorded by the 2015 government census.[17] Sixty-four pharmacies were recorded in the municipality in 2013 by Qatar's Supreme Council of Health.[26]

Transport[edit]

Doha Metro Green Line, also known as Education Line.

Public transport in the municipality is generally poor and not used by most of its residents due to a lack of facilities at the central station and inconsistent headway.[27] Westward travel towards Dukhan and Al-Shahaniya is facilitated by Dukhan Highway.[7]

Doha Metro's Green Line, also called the Education Line, will pass through Al Rayyan. Four metro stations will be placed in Al Shagub, Education City and Qatar National Library, and Old Al Rayyan.[28] Qatar Rail estimates that the first phase will be fully functional by 2020.[29]

Infrastructure[edit]

Government infrastructure[edit]

On 9 December, 2015, the Ministry of Municipality and Environment inaugurated a government services complex in Al Rayyan City.[30] Four days later, the Ministry of Economy and Commerce established a branch at the services complex.[31] Later in May 2016 another government services complex was created in Mesaimeer. Almost all government ministries are represented at the complex.[32]

In the south-west, Abu Samra accommodates Qatar's sole border crossing with Saudi Arabia.[33] The Ministry of Interior maintains an Immigration Department office and Customs Department office near the border crossing.[2] On 5 June, 2017, when a quartet composed of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt severed ties with Qatar, the border crossing was shut down.[34]

Worker accommodation[edit]

Municipal estimates put the number of residential units for workers at 173,550 for 2017.[35] A massive labor camp in the Umm Al Afai area with a capacity for 21,000 workers was announced in 2013. The project was reported to cost QAR 122 million.[36]

Landmarks and historic sites[edit]

Trees at Aspire Park.

There are a number of historic forts in the municipality, most of which are located within Al Rayyan City. One such fort is Al Wajbah Fort, which was the setting of a battle between the Ottomans and Qataris in the Battle of Al Wajbah in 1892.[3]

Education City, which houses most of Qatar's universities, is spread throughout the Al Gharrafa, Gharrafat Al Rayyan and Al Shagub districts of Al Rayyan City, as is several of Qatar Foundation's institutes such as the Qatar Science & Technology Park and Qatar National Convention Centre.[2][37]

Several multi-sports clubs are based in the municipality: Al Rayyan SC, Al-Gharafa SC, Muaither SC, Mesaimeer SC and Al Sailiya SC. All of these fall within the boundaries of Al Rayyan City.[3]

Al Rayyan hosts a racing and equestrian club. Aspire Tower and Aspire Park are also nestled in the municipality, specifically in Al Waab, a district of Al Rayyan City. Also located in the Al Waab district are Villaggio Mall and Doha Zoo.[37] According to the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, the municipality accommodates 20 parks as of 2018.[38]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1986[39][40]91,996—    
1997C[39][40]169,774+84.5%
2004C[39][40]272,860+60.7%
2010C[41]392,661+43.9%
2015C[1]605,712+54.3%
c-census; e-estimate

Note: 2010 adjusted figures here, 2015 preliminary figures

Al Rayyan's workforce is relatively diversified compared to the other municipalities. It was reported that in 2010, construction accounted for the largest sector of the workforce at 74,00, with manufacturing coming second at 15,500, followed by transportation and storage (7,900) and education (7,800). Many employed residents work outside the municipality, in Doha.[42]

The following table is a breakdown of registered live births by nationality and sex for Al Rayyan. Places of birth are based on the home municipality of the mother at birth.[43]

 
Registered live births by nationality and sex
Year Qatari Non-Qatari Total
M F Total M F Total M F Total
1984[44] 726 690 1416 566 538 1104 1292 1223 2520
1985[45] 762 746 1508 555 560 1115 1317 1305 2623
1986[46] 818 786 1604 658 649 1307 1476 1435 2911
1987[47] 892 768 1660 761 681 1442 1653 1449 3102
1988[48] 1043 915 1958 801 827 1628 1844 1742 3586
1989[49] 923 927 1859 801 850 1651 1724 1777 3501
1990[50] 1012 961 1973 815 752 1567 1827 1713 3540
1991[51] 1038 913 1956 657 630 1287 1695 1548 3243
1992[52] 1147 1026 2173 734 711 1445 1881 1737 3618
1993[53] 1133 1086 2219 666 660 1326 1799 1746 3545
1994 N/A
1995[54] 1194 1188 2382 712 639 1351 1906 1827 3733
1996[55] 1105 1053 2158 622 622 1244 1727 1675 3402
 
Registered live births by nationality and sex
Year Qatari Non-Qatari Total
M F Total M F Total M F Total
1997[56] 1208 1198 2406 768 746 1514 1976 1944 3920
1998[57] 1251 1203 2454 754 745 1499 2005 1948 3953
1999[58] 1303 1274 2577 830 806 1636 2133 2080 4213
2000[59] 1301 1323 2624 859 803 1662 2160 2126 4286
2001[60] 1409 1377 2786 926 931 1857 2335 2308 4643
2002[61] 1472 1357 2829 942 932 1874 2414 2289 4703
2003[62] 1468 1421 2889 945 876 1821 2413 2297 4710
2004[63] 1681 1567 3248 1063 1006 2069 2744 2573 5317
2005[64] 1662 1616 3278 1233 1135 2368 2895 2751 5646
2006[65] 1738 1654 3392 1290 1216 2506 3028 2870 5898
2007[66] 1865 1838 3703 1457 1357 2814 3322 3195 6517
2008[67] 1975 1990 3965 1735 1635 3370 3710 3625 7335
2009[68] 1774 1629 3403 1948 1777 3725 3722 3406 7128

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