Al-Taawoun have been King Cup finalists once, in 1990, finishing runners-up to Al-Nassr. Their best ever top flight season came in 2015–16 when the club successfully challenged for the Asian Champions League spots, eventually finishing in fourth place in the top division, their highest league position to date. Thus the club became the first team from the Qasim region to play in the Asian Champions League. Al-Taawoun have been second tier champions once and runners-up twice. The club holds the distinct achievement as being the only second tier team to play in the final of the King Cup.
Al-Taawoun were founded in the year of 1956 under the name of "Al-Shabab" and were founded by Saleh Al Wabili. Four years after the founding of the club, they were officially registered as a professional club in 1960. Under the guidance of Zayed Al-Omrani, as president, the club tasted top flight football for the first time in its history, before being relegated back to the first division in the next season. 2 years after that Al-Taawoun once again won promotion to the Pro League, but this time as champions of the first division. The club were then relegated to first division after 1 year. In the 2009–10 season Al-Taawoun won promotion to the Pro League for the first in over a decade as runners-up of the league. They have been playing in the Saudi Professional League since the 2010–2011 season.